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Apomorphine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090177/the-effects-of-crocin-on-6-ohda-induced-oxidative-nitrosative-damage-and-motor-behaviour-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#1
Maryam Hosseini, Ziba Rajaei, Hojjatallah Alaei, Mohamadhasan Tajadini
BACKGROUND: Crocin is considered to prevent oxidative stress-related diseases, such as ischemia and Alzheimer's. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of crocin on motor behaviour and 6-OHDA-induced oxidative/nitrosative damage to the striatum in an experimental model of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Left medial forebrain bundle was lesioned by microinjection of 6-OHDA (16μg in 0.2% ascorbate-saline). Crocin (30 and 60 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally three days before surgery until six weeks...
November 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065748/the-effects-of-early-life-stress-on-dopamine-system-function-in-adolescent-female-rats
#2
Iwona Majcher-Maślanka, Anna Solarz, Krzysztof Wędzony, Agnieszka Chocyk
During adolescence, many neural systems, including the dopamine system, undergo essential remodeling and maturation. It is well known that early-life stress (ELS) increases the risk for many psychopathologies during adolescence and adulthood. It is hypothesized that ELS interferes with the maturation of the dopamine system. There is a sex bias in the prevalence of stress-related mental disorders. Information regarding the effects of ELS on brain functioning in females is very limited. In the current study, maternal separation (MS) procedures were carried out to study the effects of ELS on dopamine system functioning in adolescent female rats...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064330/blockade-of-fast-a-type-and-tea-sensitive-potassium-channels-provide-an-antiparkinsonian-effect-in-a-6-ohda-animal-model
#3
Hashem Haghdoost-Yazdi, Hossein Piri, Reza Najafipour, Ayda Faraji, Negin Fraidouni, Tahereh Dargahi, Mahmud Alipour Heidari
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of K+ channels inhibitors in treatment of parkinson`s disease (PD). METHODS: This prospective comparative study was conducted in the Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from April 2015 to January 2016. Male rats (n=37) received intraperitoneal doses of TEA (2 and 5 mg/kg) or 4-AP (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) twice-daily, before a stereotactic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) for the following 7 days. The 6-OHDA was injected into right medial forebrain bundle (MFB) of the rat brains...
January 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042152/a-comparison-between-maropitant-and-metoclopramide-for-the-prevention-of-morphine-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-dogs
#4
Augusto M Lorenzutti, Manuel Martín-Flores, Nicolás J Litterio, Martín A Himelfarb, Sergio H Invaldi, María P Zarazaga
Morphine is widely used as a preanesthetic agent in dogs, but it often produces signs of nausea and vomiting. Maropitant (MRP) and metoclopramide (MCP) prevent emesis attributable to the opioid agent apomorphine in dogs. We evaluated the antiemetic efficacy and the discomfort in response to SQ injection of MRP [1 mg/kg body weight (BW)], MCP (0.5 mg/kg BW), and normal saline (SAL; 0.1 mL/kg BW) administered to 63 dogs, 45 minutes prior to morphine (0.5 mg/kg BW) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg BW). Dogs were observed for signs of nausea (ptyalism, lip licking, and increased swallowing) and vomiting for 30 minutes after morphine/acepromazine...
January 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017228/apomorphine-pump-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease-effects-on-motor-and-nonmotor-symptoms-with-brain-metabolism-correlations
#5
Manon Auffret, Florence Le Jeune, Anne Maurus, Sophie Drapier, Jean-François Houvenaghel, Gabriel Hadrien Robert, Paul Sauleau, Marc Vérin
INTRODUCTION: Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) and contraindications for subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS) could particularly benefit from subcutaneous infusion therapy with apomorphine. This original study was designed to evaluate the general efficacy of add-on apomorphine in motor and nonmotor symptoms in advanced PD, while characterizing the changes induced in brain glucose metabolism. The aim was to look at the underlying anatomical-functional pathways...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012951/apomorphine-and-levodopa-in-parkinson-s-disease-two-revolutionary-drugs-from-the-1950-s
#6
Atbin Djamshidian, Werner Poewe
This article reviews the history of apomorphine and levodopa, which were both discovered in the 1950's and have revolutionized treatment paradigms of Parkinson's disease. Although the discovery of levodopa is a prime example of successful translation of basic neuroscience into clinical routine, the history of apomorphine was based on less solid evidence. Despite this, both drugs are, more than 6 decades after the first clinical experiments, still the two most efficacious medications to treat patients with Parkinson's disease...
December 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999544/mitragyna-speciosa-leaf-extract-exhibits-antipsychotic-like-effect-with-the-potential-to-alleviate-positive-and-negative-symptoms-of-psychosis-in-mice
#7
Kamini Vijeepallam, Vijayapandi Pandy, Thubasni Kunasegaran, Dharmani D Murugan, Murali Naidu
In this study, we investigated the antipsychotic-like effect of methanolic extract of Mitragyna speciosa leaf (MMS) using in vivo and ex vivo studies. In vivo studies comprised of apomorphine-induced climbing behavior, haloperidol-induced catalepsy, and ketamine-induced social withdrawal tests in mice whereas the ex vivo study was conducted utilizing isolated rat vas deferens preparation. Acute oral administration of MMS (50-500 mg/kg) showed an inverted bell-shaped dose-response in apomorphine-induced cage climbing behavior in mice...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998652/the-need-for-non-oral-therapy-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-potential-role-for-apomorphine
#8
Teus van Laar, Robbert Borgemeester
In the course of Parkinson's disease (PD), oral medication may lose its effectiveness due to several reasons, like dysphagia, impaired absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract and delayed emptying of the stomach. If these problems occur, a non-oral therapy should be considered. Examples of non-oral therapies are transdermal patches, (e.g. rotigotine) which may overcome motor and nonmotor nighttime problems, and may serve as well to treat daytime response-fluctuations, if oral therapies fail to do so. Other options are injections with apomorphine to treat early morning dystonia and random off-periods during daytime, as well as continuously infused subcutaneous apomorphine for random fluctuations in PD patients...
December 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993107/anti-psychotic-activity-of-aqueous-root-extract-of-hemidesmus-indicus-a-time-bound-study-in-rats
#9
Madhu Sudan, Gaurav Gupta, Bharati Arali, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Kamal Dua
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Psychosis is a neurological disorder which is usually defined as "loss of contact with reality." As medicine 'Hemidesmusindicus' hold a reputed place in all systems of medicine in India. It is given in the form of infusion, fine particles, or syrup. It is also a component of several medicinal preparations. The present research work is pertaining to find out an anti-psychotic activity of an aqueous root extract of Hemidesmusindicus- a time bound study in rats. METHODS: In the present study, the dried roots of Hemidesmusindicus were crushed to a coarse powder and extracted with water under reflux for 36 hours to obtain the aqueous extract of roots of Hemidesmusindicus (AERHI)...
December 16, 2016: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979722/apomorphine-pharmacological-properties-and-clinical-trials-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Peter Jenner, Regina Katzenschlager
Apomorphine is often considered an archetypal dopamine agonist used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it can be clearly differentiated from most other commonly used dopamine agonists on the basis of its pharmacology and on its unique clinical profile. Like levodopa and dopamine, apomorphine acts as a potent, direct and broad spectrum dopamine agonist activating all dopamine receptor subtypes. It also has affinity for serotonin receptors, and α-adrenergic receptors. Apomorphine is usually titrated to a dose that provides an equivalent antiparkinsonian response to that provided by levodopa, and its subcutaneous delivery allows a rapid onset of action, usually within 7-10 min...
December 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973761/effects-of-oral-3-hydrogen-peroxide-used-as-an-emetic-on-the-gastroduodenal-mucosa-of-healthy-dogs
#11
Alicia H Niedzwecki, Bradley P Book, Kristin M Lewis, J Scot Estep, Joseph Hagan
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the extent of mucosal injury on the upper gastrointestinal tract following oral administration of 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) to induce emesis in normal dogs. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Specialty referral hospital. ANIMALS: Seven staff-owned, healthy, adult dogs. INTERVENTIONS: Six dogs were assigned to the H2 O2 group and 1 dog was assigned as the apomorphine control...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939990/apomorphine-prevents-lps-induced-il-23-p19-mrna-expression-via-inhibition-of-jnk-and-atf4-in-hapi-cells
#12
Hirokazu Hara, Dai Kimoto, Miho Kajita, Chisato Takada, Tetsuro Kamiya, Tetsuo Adachi
Inflammation has been reported to be closely related to exaggeration of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia, resident immune cells in the central nervous system, can be activated in response to neuronal injury and produce proinflammatory cytokines, resulting in further aggravation of neuronal injury. Interleukin (IL)-23, which consists of p19 and IL-12 p40 subunits, has been shown to be involved in brain injury associated with neuroinflammation. Apomorphine (Apo), a nonselective dopamine receptor agonist, has been used for clinical therapy of Parkinson's disease...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939326/quantitative-demonstration-of-the-efficacy-of-night-time-apomorphine-infusion-to-treat-nocturnal-hypokinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-wearable-sensors
#13
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Jirada Sringean, Chanawat Anan, Kamolwan Boonpang, Chusak Thanawattano, K Ray Chaudhuri
BACKGROUND: Nocturnal hypokinesia/akinesia is one of the common night-time symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), negatively affecting quality of life of patients and caregivers. The recognition of this problem and treatment options are limited in clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of nocturnal apomorphine infusion, using a wearable sensor, in patients who are already on daytime continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion and still suffer from nocturnal hypokinesia...
December 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939325/the-efficacy-of-apomorphine-a-non-motor-perspective
#14
Miguel Rosa-Grilo, Mubasher A Qamar, Andrew Evans, K Ray Chaudhuri
Non-motor features have a great impact on progression and quality of life in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Current treatments for PD are limited and apomorphine is one of the advanced therapies available with advantageous effects on motor complications. Several studies have suggested that apomorphine has potential benefits in PD patients beyond its established role in the treatment of motor fluctuations and levodopa-induced dyskinesia. This review examines the efficacy of apomorphine in the treatment of non-motor symptoms (NMS), describing recent studies that highlight its possible effect on cognition...
December 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939324/understanding-the-role-of-the-parkinson-s-disease-nurse-specialist-in-the-delivery-of-apomorphine-therpy
#15
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Kamolwan Boonpang, Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Susan M Calne, Tove Henriksen, Sally Trump, Suchapit Chaiwong, Phenprapa Susang, Nonglak Boonrod, Jirada Sringean, Teus van Laar, Martje Drent, K Ray Chaudhuri
Optimal care of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients should involve a multidisciplinary team (MDT) of which a PD nurse specialist (PDNS) is a key member. The role of a PDNS is particularly prominent in the care of advanced PD patients suitable for apomorphine because, in addition to nursing skills, apomorphine treatment requires liaison, training, interaction and coordination with patients, caregivers and other members of the MDT as well as the interface with primary care physicians. The therapeutic success of apomorphine therapy depends not only upon the pharmacologic drug response, but also on how well the patient understands his/her disease and how to handle the therapy...
December 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924962/attenuation-of-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-induced-deficits-in-rats-by-apomorphine
#16
Muhammad Farhan, Darakshan Jabeen Haleem
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of repeated doses of apomorphine in rats exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress. METHODS: The experimental case-control study was conducted in March 2011 at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, and comprised albino-wistar rats. The experimental animals were exposed to a schedule of unpredictable chronic mild stress, while control animals were left in the cages. Animals of stressed and unstressed group were administrated with apomorphine at dose of 1...
December 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922542/generalization-of-serotonin-and-dopamine-ligands-to-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-different-doses-of-%C3%A2-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine
#17
Jeremy I Webster, David N Harper, Susan Schenk
Studies that have attributed the discriminative stimulus effects of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) to serotonergic mechanisms typically use a relatively low training dose of 1.5 mg/kg. The role of serotonin in the discriminative stimulus effects of higher doses of MDMA is, however, unknown. Separate groups of rats were trained to discriminate MDMA (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg) from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced drug-discrimination procedure. Generalization tests were carried out with a range of serotonin and dopamine ligands...
December 2, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919586/practical-management-of-adverse-events-related-to-apomorphine-therapy
#18
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Pedro J Garcia Ruiz, Tove Henriksen
The potential for adverse events is often cited as a barrier to the use of subcutaneous apomorphine therapy (intermittent injections and continuous infusion) in the management of Parkinson's disease. However, with proactive management most adverse effects are manageable if reported and tackled early enough. As such, proper clinician and patient awareness of the potential adverse effects is important to minimize their impact on the overall clinical utility of this efficacious antiparkinsonian agent. In this paper, we review the key local and systemic adverse effects reported during apomorphine titration, initiation and long-term treatment, and discuss practical management strategies...
December 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913125/apomorphine-therapy-in-parkinson-s-and-future-directions
#19
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Apomorphine infusion or injection is an important dopamine agonist non-oral therapy usually used in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with refractory motor fluctuations. The drug also has appreciable efficacy for nonmotor fluctuations and is the quickest to reverse predictable "off" periods. Current subcutaneous administration, however, is complicated by problems associated with needle-based therapies, such as skin nodule formation, skin irritation, and avoidance of this treatment option by needle-phobic subjects...
December 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897303/-pharmacoeconomic-study-of-the-treatment-of-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#20
F Vivancos-Matellano, A J Garcia-Ruiz, N Garcia-Agua Soler
INTRODUCTION: When oral or transdermal drug therapy in Parkinson's disease becomes less effective, there are three therapies using assisted devices that can reduce motor and non-motor complications: subcutaneous apomorphine infusion pump (SAIP), continuous levodopa/carbidopa duodenal infusion (LDI) and deep brain stimulation (DBS). AIM: Conduct a comparative pharmacoeconomic analysis of the use of SAIP, with LDI and DBS. As a secondary objective arises discuss the profile of the ideal candidate for each of the technicals...
December 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
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