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nosocomial pneumonia

Hannah Y P Phoon, Hazilawati Hussin, Baizurah Mohd Hussain, Shu Yong Lim, Jia Jie Woon, Yi Xian Er, Kwai Lin Thong
OBJECTIVES: Hospital environments are potential reservoirs of bacteria associated with nosocomial infections. Here, we determined the distribution of cultivable environmental bacteria of clinical importance from a Malaysian tertiary hospital and to investigate their resistotypes and genotypes. METHODS: Swab and fluid samples (n=358) from healthcare workers' hands, frequently touched surfaces, medical equipment, patients' immediate surroundings, ward sinks and toilets and solutions or fluids of 12 selected wards were collected...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
R Cantón, E Loza, J Aznar, R Barrón-Adúriz, J Calvo, F J Castillo, E Cercenado, R Cisterna, F González-Romo, J L López-Hontangas, A I Suárez-Barrenechea, F Tubau, B Molloy, D López-Mendoza
OBJECTIVE: The SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends) surveillance study monitors antimicrobial susceptibility and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in Gram-negative bacilli recovered from intra-abdominal infections (IAI). METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility of 5,343 isolates from IAI recovered in 11 centres during the 2011-2015 SMART-Spain program was analysed by standard microdilution (EUCAST criteria) and compared with that from 2002-2010...
March 12, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
John Pham, Talal Asif, Majdi S Hamarshi
Methicillin-resistant S taphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was previously considered a purely nosocomial pathogen. However, community-acquired MRSA has recently emerged as an important cause of severe necrotizing community-acquired pneumonia (CA-MRSA) in previously healthy individuals. This new pathogen exhibits antibiotic resistance and is linked to extended hospital stay and higher mortality. CA-MRSA has presented new therapeutic challenges due to high vancomycin treatment failure and lack of specificity of clinical findings...
January 3, 2018: Curēus
Sibel Kara, Nazan Sen, Ebru Kursun, Hakan Yabanoğlu, Sedat Yıldırım, Şule Akçay, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in solid-organ transplant recipients despite enhanced facilities for perioperative care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes of renal transplant recipients with pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of all renal transplant recipients from January 2010 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed, and patients diagnosed with pneumonia according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were evaluated...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Giacomo Veronese, Enrico Ammirati, Maria Cristina Moioli, Rossella Baldan, Carlo Andrea Orcese, Gisele De Rezende, Silvio Veronese, Gabriella Masciocco, Enrico Perna, Giovanna Travi, Massimo Puoti, Manlio Cipriani, Simon Tiberi, Daniela Cirillo, Maria Frigerio
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) outbreaks are described in solid organ transplant recipients. Few reports suggest interhuman transmission with important infection control implications. We described a large PJP outbreak in heart transplant (HTx) recipients. METHODS: Six cases of PJP occurred in HTx recipients within 10 months in our hospital. Demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes were described. To identify contacts among individuals a review of all dates of out-patient visits and patient hospitalizations was performed...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Nathaniel J Rhodes, Caroline E Cruce, J Nicholas O'Donnell, Richard G Wunderink, Alan R Hauser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are frequent causes of infection among critically ill patients. VAP is the most common hospital-acquired bacterial infection among mechanically ventilated patients. Unfortunately, many of the nosocomial Gram-negative bacteria that cause VAP are increasingly difficult to treat. Additionally, the evolution and dissemination of multi- and pan-drug resistant strains leave clinicians with few treatment options. VAP patients represent a dynamic population at risk for antibiotic failure and under-dosing due to altered antibiotic pharmacokinetic parameters...
March 6, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Andreas Ambrosch, Alfons Klinger, Doris Luber, Claudia Arp, Marc Lepiorz, Stefan Schroll, Frank Klawonn
There is little evidence on the clinical characteristics and the course of complicated infections with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) compared to influenza A in adults. Therefore, the present monocenter study aims to compare infections with RSV and influenza A with regard to potential predisposing factors, clinical profile, course and outcome in hospitalized patient. MATERIAL AND METHODS:  the study was performed between Jan 1th and March 31 this year and included all hospitalized patients with a Polymerase chain-reaction-(PCR) confirmed infection of influenza A and RSV...
March 6, 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Torunn Pedersen, John Osei Sekyere, Usha Govinden, Krishnee Moodley, Audun Sivertsen, Ørjan Samuelsen, Sabiha Yusuf Essack, Arnfinn Sundsfjord
Whole-genome sequence analyses revealed the presence of bla NDM-1 ( n =31), bla GES-5 ( n =8), bla OXA-232 ( n =1), or bla NDM-5 ( n =1) in extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from in-patients in 10 private hospitals (2012-2013) in Durban, South Africa. Two novel NDM-1 encoding plasmids from Klebsiella pneumoniae were closed by PacBio sequencing. In p19-10_01 (IncFIB(K), 223.434 bp) bla NDM-1 was part of a Tn 1548 -like structure (16.276 bp) delineated by IS 26 The multireplicon plasmid p18-43_01 (IncR_1/IncFIB(pB171)/IncFII(Yp); 212...
March 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Myoung-Don Oh, Wan Beom Park, Sang-Won Park, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Ji Hwan Bang, Kyoung-Ho Song, Eu Suk Kim, Hong Bin Kim, Nam Joong Kim
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first isolated from a patient with severe pneumonia in 2012. The 2015 Korea outbreak of MERSCoV involved 186 cases, including 38 fatalities. A total of 83% of transmission events were due to five superspreaders, and 44% of the 186 MERS cases were the patients who had been exposed in nosocomial transmission at 16 hospitals. The epidemic lasted for 2 months and the government quarantined 16,993 individuals for 14 days to control the outbreak. This outbreak provides a unique opportunity to fill the gap in our knowledge of MERS-CoV infection...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Sajad Abdollahi, Iraj Rasooli, Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic gram negative pathogen that can adhere to different surfaces and cause different nosocomial infections. To investigate the role of TonB-dependent copper receptor, an outer membrane protein, in virulence of A. baumannii, we deleted this receptor from A. baumannii chromosome. There was a significant decrease in biofilm formation by copper receptor deficient mutant strain. Similarly, the adherence to human epithelial cell and the hydrophobicity were declined. The survival rate of the mutant strain in human sera was reduced while no change was observed in motility of strains...
March 6, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Marisa F Nicolás, Pablo Ivan Pereira Ramos, Fabíola Marques de Carvalho, Dhian R A Camargo, Carlene de Fátima Morais Alves, Guilherme Loss de Morais, Luiz G P Almeida, Rangel C Souza, Luciane P Ciapina, Ana C P Vicente, Roney S Coimbra, Ana T Ribeiro de Vasconcelos
The aim of this study was to unravel the genetic determinants responsible for multidrug (including carbapenems) resistance and virulence in a clinical isolate of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae by whole-genome sequencing and comparative analyses. Eighty-three clinical isolates initially identified as carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae were collected from nosocomial infections in southeast Brazil. After RAPD screening, the KPC-142 isolate, showing the most divergent DNA pattern, was selected for complete genome sequencing in an Illumina HiSeq 2500 instrument...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ziyaattin Karakuzu, Remzi Iscimen, Halis Akalin, Nermin Kelebek Girgin, Ferda Kahveci, Melda Sinirtas
BACKGROUND Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection commonly seen in patients in intensive care units (ICU). This study aimed to analyze factors affecting prognosis of patients diagnosed with VAP. MATERIAL AND METHODS Critically ill patients with VAP were retrospectively evaluated between June 2002 and June 2011 in the ICU. VAP diagnosis was made according to 2005 ATS/IDSA (Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society) criteria. First pneumonia attacks of patients were analyzed...
March 5, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Katharina Maria Busl
Infectious complications in the neurointensive care unit (neuro-ICU) are common, including pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bloodstream infection, and intracranial infection. The neuro-ICU population poses a specific challenge in the diagnosis of infections, because of the high incidence of fever in acutely brain-injured patients. Furthermore, susceptibility to infections is likely enhanced by brain-injury (induced immune modulation). This article reviews the concept of brain injury-induced immune modulation, and summarizes available data and knowledge on nosocomial meningitis and ventriculitis, and systemic infectious complications in patients with traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and status epilepticus...
April 2018: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Kathryn A Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: AACN Advanced Critical Care
Elena Véliz, Alberto Fica
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an adverse event that increases morbidity, mortality and costs due to a prolonged stay and requirement of microbiological studies and antimicrobial therapy. There is not recent data of VAP costs in Chile. AIM: To evaluate additional costs in adult patients with VAP compared to controls in a general hospital in the Metropolitan Area. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Use of the PAHO paired casecontrol protocol for cost evaluation associated to nosocomial infections and estimation of cost in excess per VAP event...
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Tiago Casella, Andressa Batista Zequini de Morais, Diego Diniz de Paula Barcelos, Fernanda Modesto Tolentino, Louise Teixeira Cerdeira, Maria Fernanda Campagnari Bueno, Gabriela Rodrigues Francisco, Leonardo Neves de Andrade, Ana Lucia da Costa Darini, Doroti de Oliveira Garcia, Nilton Lincopan, Mara Corrêa Lelles Nogueira
OBJECTIVES: Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered an opportunistic pathogen and important agent of nosocomial and community infections. It presents the ability to capture and harbor several antimicrobial resistance genes, and in this context, the extensive use of carbapenems to treat serious infections was responsible for selection of several resistance genes. In this study, we report the draft genome sequence of a KPC-2-procuding K. pneumoniae strain (Kp10) simultaneously harboring the blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-59 genes, isolated from urine culture of a patient with Parkinson's disease...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Ming-Yeh Yang, Kai-Chih Chang, Liang-Yu Chen, Po-Ching Wang, Chih-Chiang Chou, Zhong-Bin Wu, Anren Hu
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a non-invasive and safe therapeutic method for microbial infections. Bacterial antibiotic resistance is caused by antibiotics abuse. Drug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. is a serious problem in hospitals around the world. These pathogens from nosocomial infections have high mortality rates in frailer people, and Acinetobacter spp. is commonly found in immunocompromised patients. Visible light is safer than ultraviolet light (UV) for PDI of nosocomial pathogens with mammalian cells...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Shin-Hwar Wu, Lih-Jen Shyu, Chin-Hsing Li, Chao-Hung Yu, Huang-Chi Chen, Chew-Teng Kor, Chu-Hsien Wang, Kai-Huang Lin
INTRODUCTION: The optimal dose of inhaled metered-dose bronchodilators for intubated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. In this study, we proposed a bronchodilator dosing schedule based on an individual's airway resistance (Raw ) and tested its efficacy in reducing Raw . METHODS: A total of 51 newly admitted patients with invasively ventilated COPD were randomly assigned to receive personalized or fixed bronchodilator dosing. Personal target Raw was defined by measuring each individual's Raw after maximal pharmacologic bronchodilatation...
February 20, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
F Rabello, V E Araújo, Sms Magalhães
OBJECTIVE: To summarize evidence regarding the effectiveness of using chlorhexidine for oral healthcare on patients in the intensive care unit for the prevention of nosocomial pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. METHODS: This overview of systematic reviews was developed using articles found in PUBMED, Cochrane Library, LILACS, CRD, CINHAL, manual search and grey literature. RESULTS: Of the total 16 systematic reviews, 14 included meta-analysis...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
Ting-Ting Geng, Xin Xu, Man Huang
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) bloodstream infection (BSI) has become increasingly frequent threat recently, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU). High-dose tigecycline (TGC) regimen is proposed due to the limitation of treatment options. We investigated the efficacy and safety of high-dose TGC combination regimens for treating CRKP BSI. Furthermore, the risk factors for mortality were also determined.This was a single center retrospective cohort study conducted from 2014 to 2016. A total of 40 patients with nosocomial CRKP BSI admitted to the ICU were included; they were classified into two groups according to the treatment regimens with high-dose TGC (HD group) or not (non-HD group)...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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