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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212478/-risk-factors-related-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-therapy
#1
Juan Pablo Romo-Gamboa, Bertha Alicia Sandoval-Pérez, Ana Bertha Rodríguez-López, Marco Antonio Torres-González, Juan Carlos Barrera-de León
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) represents the second cause of nosocomial infections and it is associated with greater morbility, duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), and hospital stay. The objective was to determine factors related with VAP in neonates. METHODS: Analytical transversal study including newborns admitted already intubated with at least 48 hours of MV or who were intubated in Neonatal Therapy. VAP was defined according to the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: "those patients submitted to MV during at least 48 hours"...
2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208889/management-of-pneumonia-and-blood-stream-infections-with-new-antibiotic-adjuvant-entity-ceftriaxone-sulbactam-disodium-edetate-a-novel-way-to-spare-carbapenems
#2
Mohammad Shameem, Mohammad Amin Mir
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial infections have been considered as a major health problem causing incremental morbidity, mortality and costs of therapy. AIM: This retrospective study was initiated with aim to analyse the comparative efficacy of a novel Antibiotic Adjuvant Entity (AAE), a combination of ceftriaxone + sulbactam + disodium edetate and meropenem in combination with colistin, for the management of Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) nosocomial Gram-negative bacterial infections...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203427/potency-of-parenteral-antimicrobials-including-ceftolozane-tazobactam-against-nosocomial-respiratory-tract-pathogens-considerations-for-empiric-and-directed-therapy
#3
Christina A Sutherland, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Empiric therapy decisions are predicated on knowledge of both the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of the probable infecting pathogen(s). The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial distribution and phenotypic profiles of nosocomial respiratory isolates collected from multiple US hospitals and assess the clinical utility of various monotherapy and combination regimens. METHODS: Hospitals provided consecutive non-duplicate adult inpatients Gram-negative nosocomial respiratory isolates from cultures received ≥48 h after hospital admission...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198727/new-guidelines-for-nosocomial-pneumonia
#4
Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these entities were released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society in 2016. This review summarizes the recommendations contained within these guidelines and their supporting rationale. RECENT FINDINGS: With respect to diagnosis of HAP and VAP, the guidelines suggest using semiquantitative cultures of noninvasively obtained respiratory samples instead of quantitative cultures of invasively obtained samples...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187785/longevity-and-gender-as-the-risk-factors-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-in-southern-poland
#5
Monika Pomorska-Wesołowska, Anna Różańska, Joanna Natkaniec, Barbara Gryglewska, Anna Szczypta, Mirosława Dzikowska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach
BACKGROUND: The proportion of older people among the general population has risen. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) constitutes a significant problem. Underlying disease and functional debility, predispose the older adult to staphylococcal carriage and infection, specially bloodstream infection and pneumonia. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of older patients with SA infections. We analyzed a database containing the results of laboratory cultures from patients treated in 2013 for SA infections and selected 613 hospitalized and non-hospitalized people aged ≥60 years...
February 10, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181033/clinical-and-microbiological-determinants-of-severe-and-fatal-outcomes-in-patients-infected-with-enterobacteriaceae-producing-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase
#6
L Surgers, A Boyd, P-Y Boelle, V Lalande, P-A Jolivot, P-M Girard, G Arlet, C Cambier, A Homor, D Decre, J-L Meynard
Although extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have become a worldwide public health concern, little is known regarding the clinical course of colonized or infected individuals. Our objective was to characterize the determinants of fatal outcomes related to ESBL-producing microorganisms at a large hospital in Paris, France. In 2012-2013, all consecutive patients with clinical samples testing positive for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae at Saint-Antoine Hospital were identified...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170400/acute-bacterial-meningitis-in-iran-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Hamidreza Houri, Ali Pormohammad, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Fatemeh Fallah, Hossein Dabiri, Ramin Pouriran
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial meningitis persists in being a substantial cause of high mortality and severe neurological morbidity, despite the advances in antimicrobial therapy. Accurate data has not been available regarding the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis particularly in developing countries, yet. Indeed, the present systematic review provides a comprehensive data analysis on the prevalence and epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Iran. METHODS: We systematically reviewed articles from 1994 to 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161652/in-vitro-antimicrobial-activity-of-led-irradiation-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Morena Petrini, Paolo Trentini, Domenico Tripodi, Giuseppe Spoto, Simonetta D'Ercole
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen responsible of many deaths due to nosocomial pneumonia each year. It is particularly resistant to many different classes of antibiotics and disinfectants. For all these reasons, there is the necessity to find novel approaches of treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 880nm light emitting diodes (LED) irradiation on P. aeruginosa, in vitro. Different LED irradiation parameters (time, energy output and the addition of methylene blue and chlorhexidine) have been tested in order to evaluate the effects on this bacterium...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160955/infection-in-the-critically-ill-older-adult
#9
REVIEW
Jennifer Manning, Jean E Cefalu
Many challenges exist in caring for older adults with infection in critical care environments. Older adults are at high risk due to diminished reserve, age-related changes, comorbidities, subtle clinical presentations, and institutionalization. Additional risks include infections, such as pneumonia, influenza, and nosocomial infections. Age-related changes contribute to the increased risk of infection in older adults. Nursing assessments should be tailored to the needs of the older patient. To improve health care outcomes in this population, nursing care of the critically ill older adult with infection should include comprehensive assessment, surveillance for risks, and strategies aimed to aggressively treat infection...
March 2017: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156004/comparative-analysis-of-crispr-cas-systems-in-klebsiella-genomes
#10
Juntao Shen, Li Lv, Xudong Wang, Zhilong Xiu, Guoqiang Chen
Prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system provides adaptive immunity against invasive genetic elements. Bacteria of the genus Klebsiella are important nosocomial opportunistic pathogens. However, information of CRISPR-Cas system in Klebsiella remains largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the CRISPR-Cas systems of 68 complete genomes of Klebsiella representing four species. All the elements for CRISPR-Cas system (cas genes, repeats, leader sequences, and PAMs) were characterized. Besides the typical Type I-E and I-F CRISPR-Cas systems, a new Subtype I system located in the ABC transport system-glyoxalase region was found...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153885/first-report-on-a-cluster-of-colistin-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-india-whole-genome-shotgun-sequencing
#11
Purva Mathur, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Francis Yesurajan Inbanathan, Surbhi Khurana, Nidhi Bhardwaj, Subodh Kumar, Sushma Sagar, Amit Gupta
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a nosocomial pathogen with clinical importance due to its increasing resistance to carbapenems and colistin. Here, we report the genome sequences of eight colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae strains which might help in understanding the molecular mechanism of the species. The sequence data indicate genomes of ~5.2 to 5.4 Mb, along with several plasmids.
February 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153582/changing-trends-in-antimicrobial-susceptibility-pattern-of-bacterial-isolates-in-a-burn-unit
#12
Narendra Pal Singh, Mayuri Rani, Kavita Gupta, Tanu Sagar, Iqbal Rajinder Kaur
INTRODUCTION: Emerging antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial bacterial isolates, limits the available treatment options for burn wound infections, among them multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are major contributors to the increase in morbidity and mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was done in the Department of Microbiology, University College of Medical Sciences & Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi...
January 30, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149493/prevalence-of-colonization-and-mitochondrial-large-subunit-rrna-mutation-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-among-iranian-children
#13
Parisa Badiee, Ali Rezapour, Amin Abbasian, Hamid Reza Foroutan, Hadis Jafarian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pneumocystis jiroveci is an important causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia. During childhood, exposure to Pneumocystis occurs and antibody was built in early childhood. The aim of this study was to describe the molecular epidemiology of P. jiroveci in children without any respiratory syndrome and survey the distribution of different mitochondrial large subunit, ribosomal ribonucleic acid (mtLSU- rRNA) genotypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mini-BAL) fluids from pediatric patients with no history of lung disorders were obtained during a 14-month period...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148263/potency-and-selectivity-indices-of-acetone-leaf-extracts-of-nine-selected-south-african-trees-against-six-opportunistic-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-from-commercial-chicken-eggs
#14
Ishaku L Elisha, Alexander R Jambalang, Francien S Botha, Elna M Buys, Lyndy J McGaw, Jacobus N Eloff
BACKGROUND: The rise in antimicrobial resistance in a plethora of nosocomial and opportunistic bacterial pathogens often isolated from commercial eggs, poses a serious public health concern. The existence of these contaminants may also serve as a drawback in the current efforts of improving the well-being of immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of plant extracts that had good activity on Escherichia coli in previous word on pathogens isolated from eggs for possible use in combating pathogens from eggs...
February 2, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143414/impact-of-oral-hygiene-involving-toothbrushing-versus-chlorhexidine-in-the-prevention-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-a-randomized-study
#15
Claudia Fernanda de Lacerda Vidal, Aurora Karla de Lacerda Vidal, José Gildo de Moura Monteiro, Aracele Cavalcanti, Ana Paula Trindade Henriques, Márcia Oliveira, Michele Godoy, Mirella Coutinho, Pollyanna Dutra Sobral, Claudia Ângela Vilela, Bárbara Gomes, Marta Amorim Leandro, Ulisses Montarroyos, Ricardo de Alencar Ximenes, Heloísa Ramos Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonia has correlated to dental plaque and to oropharynx colonization in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. The interruption of this process, by preventing colonization of pathogenic bacteria, represents a potential procedure for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). METHODS: The study design was a prospective, randomized trial to verify if oral hygiene through toothbrushing plus chlorhexidine in gel at 0.12% reduces the incidence of ventilatior-associated pneumonia, the duration of mechanical ventilation, the length of hospital stay and the mortality rate in ICUs, when compared to oral hygiene only with chlorhexidine, solution of 0...
January 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138943/nosocomial-transmission-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-elucidated-by-single-nucleotide-variation-analysis-a-case-investigation
#16
Hideharu Hagiya, Kotaro Aoki, Yukihiro Akeda, Noriko Sakamoto, Norihisa Yamamoto, Hisao Yoshida, Isao Nishi, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kazunori Tomono
Identifying transmission route of antimicrobial-resistant pathogen is essential for appropriate infection control strategy in healthcare facilities. We report the utility of single-nucleotide variation analysis in tracing nosocomial transmission of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens by describing a pseudo-outbreak case of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. The present case highlights that infection control strategy should encompass pathological dissection rooms, neglected but potentially highly contaminated places in hospitals...
January 30, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132768/bacteremia-and-other-body-site-infection-caused-by-hypervirulent-and-classic-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#17
Hua Wu, Dongdong Li, Haijian Zhou, Yunfang Sun, Ling Guo, Dingxia Shen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate bacteremia and other body site infection caused by hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP), a recently recognized pathogen of invasive infection, and classic Klebsiella pneumoniae (cKP), a very common organism associated with many kinds of nosocomial infection. METHODS: Clinical information obtained from patients with both bacteremia and other body site infections caused by hvKP and/or cKP was retrospectively reviewed. Homo-hvKP (or homo-cKP) was defined as homologous hvKP (or cKP) strains from different body sites in each individual patient according to string test, virulence gene amplification and PFGE pattern...
January 26, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119484/overproduction-of-outer-membrane-protein-a-ompa-by-acinetobacter-baumannii-is-a-risk-factor-for-nosocomial-pneumonia-bacteremia-and-mortality-increase
#18
Viviana Sánchez-Encinales, Rocío Álvarez-Marín, María Eugenia Pachón-Ibáñez, Felipe Fernández-Cuenca, Alvaro Pascual, José Garnacho-Montero, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Jordi Vila, María Mar Tomás, José Miguel Cisneros, Germán Bou, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Jerónimo Pachón, Younes Smani
BACKGROUND: OmpA is a porin involved in Acinetobacter baumannii pathogenesis. However, OmpA clinical implication in hospital-acquired infections remains unknown. We aimed to determine whether OmpA overproduction was a risk factor associated with pneumonia, bacteremia, and mortalilty. METHODS: Demographic, microbiological and clinical data from 100 and 246 patients included, respectively, in a unicenter cohort (UC) and a multicenter cohort (MC) were analyzed. Representative isolates were classified in two groups: i-16 UC and 20 MC isolates from colonized patients (CP) by A...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115349/survival-of-carbapenem-resistant-st258-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-human-blood
#19
Frank R DeLeo, Scott D Kobayashi, Adeline R Porter, Brett Freedman, David W Dorward, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a prominent cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Bloodstream infections caused by carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae, including the epidemic lineage known as multilocus sequence type 258 (ST258), are difficult to treat and mortality is high. Thus, it is imperative that we gain a better understanding of host defense against this pathogen as a step toward developing novel therapies. Here we tested the hypothesis that resistance of ST258 to bactericidal components of human blood, such as serum complement, is linked to virulence capacity in the context of bacteremia...
January 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109845/outbreak-of-nosocomial-ndm-1-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st1419-in-a-neonatal-unit
#20
Jing Yu, Yue Wang, Zhongju Chen, Xuhui Zhu, Lei Tian, Li Li, Ziyong Sun
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterise carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recovered from neonatal clinical specimens over a 4-month period. METHODS: Seven carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were analysed. Antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by the agar dilution method, and the drug resistance genes were evaluated by PCR. Clonal relatedness of the isolates was assessed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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