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nosocomial pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535440/management-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-with-a-new-antibiotic-adjuvant-entity-ceftriaxone-sulbactam-disodium-edetate-a-novel-approach-to-spare-carbapenems
#1
Prachee Sathe, Sagar Maddani, Shilpa Kulkarni, Nita Munshi
BACKGROUND: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most serious nosocomial infections in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to evaluate a new approach to spare the carbapenems for the management of patients diagnosed with VAP due to Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii). METHOD: This retrospective study was conducted on VAP patients presenting for treatment at tertiary care centre between May 2014 and March 2016. The case sheets of patients who have been treated for VAP with meropenem, antibiotic adjuvant entity (AAE) and colistin were analysed...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533998/ipilimumab-as-a-cause-of-severe-pan-colitis-and-colonic-perforation
#2
Raj Shah, Danielle Witt, Talal Asif, Fahad F Mir
Ipilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody that functions as a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor that is used to treat malignant melanoma. Due to ipilimumab's removal of immune regulation, specifically through the inactivation of CTLA-4, it is commonly associated with inflammatory and autoimmune events. Gastrointestinal (GI) related immune-related adverse events such as diarrhea occur in 29% of patients with 7.6% of patients specifically suffering from colitis. We describe a case of colonic perforation with ipilimumab use...
April 20, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532398/clinical-outcomes-of-linezolid-and-vancomycin-in-patients-with-nosocomial-pneumonia-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-stratified-by-baseline-renal-function-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#3
Ping Liu, Blair Capitano, Amy Stein, Ali A El-Solh
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study is to assess whether baseline renal function impacts treatment outcomes of linezolid and vancomycin (with a dose-optimized regimen) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of data generated from a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial (NCT 00084266). The analysis included 405 patients with culture-proven MRSA pneumonia. Baseline renal function was stratified based on creatinine clearance...
May 22, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527564/prospective-comparison-of-perioperative-antibiotic-management-protocols-in-oncological-head-and-neck-surgery
#4
Alexander K Bartella, Mohammad Kamal, Jan Teichmann, Anita Kloss-Brandstätter, Timm Steiner, Frank Hölzle, Bernd Lethaus
OBJECTIVES: The adequate perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in head and neck cancer surgery is an important and easy applicable tool to decrease nosocomial morbidity and mortality by reducing the rate of infections. In the study a strictly perioperative antibiosis is compared with an extended postoperative prophylactic antibiosis. We aim to clarify the value of postoperative prophylactic antibiosis for the recovery and clinical course of patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study 75 consecutive patients, who underwent major oncological head and neck surgery were included and divided in three groups, each containing 25 patients...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515717/the-leaderless-bacteriocin-enterocin-k1-is-highly-potent-against-enterococcus-faecium-a-study-on-structure-target-spectrum-and-receptor
#5
Kirill V Ovchinnikov, Per Eugen Kristiansen, Daniel Straume, Marianne S Jensen, Tamara Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Ingolf F Nes, Dzung B Diep
Enterocin K1 (EntK1), enterocin EJ97 (EntEJ97), and LsbB are three sequence related leaderless bacteriocins. Yet LsbB kills only lactococci while EntK1 and EntEJ97 target wider spectra with EntK1 being particularly active against Enterococcus faecium, including nosocomial multidrug resistant isolates. NMR study of EntK1 showed that it had a structure very similar to LsbB - both having an amphiphilic N-terminal α-helix and an unstructured C-terminus. The α-helix in EntK1 is, however, about 3-4 residues longer than that of LsbB...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515629/microbial-competition-in-environmental-nosocomial-reservoirs-and-diffusion-capacity-of-oxa48-klebsiella-pneumoniae-potential-impact-on-patients-and-possible-control-methods
#6
REVIEW
R Herruzo, G Ruiz, M J Vizcaino, L Rivas, V Pérez-Blanco, M Sanchez
BACKGROUND: We have found clusters of Klebsiella pneumoniae with OXA48-carbepenemase cases in some hospital rooms, and decided to investigate whether bathroom siphons could be a reservoir for OXA48 bacteria, as occurs with K. oxytoca with other types of carbepenemases. METHODS: We evaluated the microbial competition between strains with OXA48 and VIM carbepenemases, in diluted nutrient-broth, on a slime germ-carrier. We compared the number of colonies at 5 and 10 days on the contaminated carriers with one or two strains...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514703/bacterial-infections-and-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-liver-cirrhosis-prophylaxis-and-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Damian Piotrowski, Anna Boroń-Kaczmarska
Infections are common among patients with liver cirrhosis. They occur more often in cirrhotic patient groups than in the general population and result in higher mortality. One reason for this phenomenon is bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen that occurs as a consequence of intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased permeability and decreased motility. The most common infections in cirrhotic patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and urinary tract infections, followed by pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections...
May 14, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512093/population-genomic-analysis-of-1-777-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-houston-texas-unexpected-abundance-of-clonal-group-307
#8
S Wesley Long, Randall J Olsen, Todd N Eagar, Stephen B Beres, Picheng Zhao, James J Davis, Thomas Brettin, Fangfang Xia, James M Musser
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. The emergence and spread of strains resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and documented large nosocomial outbreaks are especially concerning. To develop new therapeutic strategies for K. pneumoniae, it is imperative to understand the population genomic structure of strains causing human infections. To address this knowledge gap, we sequenced the genomes of 1,777 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506672/comparison-of-the-nosocomial-pneumonia-mortality-prediction-npmp-model-with-standard-mortality-prediction-tools
#9
M Srinivasan, N Shetty, S Gadekari, G Thunga, K Rao, V Kunhikatta
BACKGROUND: Severity or mortality prediction of nosocomial pneumonia could aid in the effective triage of patients and assisting physicians. AIM: To compare various severity assessment scoring systems for predicting intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in nosocomial pneumonia patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care university-affiliated hospital in Manipal, India. One hundred patients with nosocomial pneumonia, admitted in the ICUs who developed pneumonia after >48h of admission, were included...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503496/prevalence-of-acquired-carbapenemase-genes-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-by-multiplex-pcr-in-isfahan
#10
Farzin Khorvash, Mohammed Reza Yazdani, Ali Asghar Soudi, Shiva Shabani, Nirvana Tavahen
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has been considered as a serious global threat. This study was done to investigate carbapenemase producing genomes among K. pneumoniae isolates in Isfahan, Central Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study from 2011 to 2012, 29 carbapenem resistant (according to disc diffusion method) carbapenemase producing (according to modified Hodge test) K. pneumoniae strains were collected from Intensive Care Unit (ICUs) of Al-Zahra referral Hospital...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501761/improving-the-quality-of-the-intensive-care-follow-up-of-ventilated-patients-during-a-national-registration-program
#11
P Reper, D Dicker, P Damas, W Aelvoet, L Huyghens, M Haelterman
OBJECTIVES: The Belgian Public Health Organization is concerned with rates of hospital-acquired infections like ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Implementing best practice guidelines for these nosocomial infections has variable success in the literature. This retrospective study was undertaken to see whether implementation of the evidence-based practices as a bundle was feasible, would influence compliance, and could reduce the rates of VAP. STUDY DESIGN: We utilized easily collectable data about regular care to rapidly assess whether interventions already in place were effectively successfully applied...
May 11, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493197/risk-factors-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-among-patients-undergoing-major-oncological-surgery-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#12
Yutao Liu, Yaxia Di, Shuai Fu
Patients undergoing major oncological surgery for head and neck cancer (SHNC) have a particularly high risk of nosocomial infections. We aimed to identify risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients undergoing SHNC. The study included 465 patients who underwent SHNC between June 2011 and June 2014. The rate of VAP, risk factors for VAP, and biological aspects of VAP were retrospectively evaluated. The incidence of VAP was 19.6% (n = 95) in patients who required more than 48 h of mechanical ventilation...
May 11, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487676/identification-of-d-galactan-iii-as-part-of-the-lipopolysaccharide-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-serotype-o1
#13
Katarina Stojkovic, Valéria Szijártó, Marta Kaszowska, Tomasz Niedziela, Katharina Hartl, Gábor Nagy, Jolanta Lukasiewicz
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, ubiquitous bacterium capable of causing severe nosocomial infections in individuals with impaired immune system. Emerging multi-drug resistant strains of this species and particularly carbapenem-resistant strains pose an urgent threat to public health. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen is the main surface antigen. It contributes to the virulence of this species and determines the O-serotype of K. pneumoniae isolates. Among the nine main O-serotypes of K. pneumoniae, O1-and O2-type pathogens are causative agents of over 50% of all infections...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485710/epidemiological-typing-of-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-which-causes-paediatric-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-egypt
#14
Eman R Mohamed, Sherine A Aly, Hamada M Halby, Shabaan H Ahmed, Amira M Zakaria, Osama M El-Asheer
PURPOSE: Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common nosocomial pathogen that plays an important role in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This study aimed to define the clonal relatedness of K. pneumoniae strains isolated from paediatric VAP in addition to those isolated from environmental samples. METHODOLOGY: This study included 19 clinical and 4 environmental K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in Assiut University Children's Hospital...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483623/perioperative-infections-after-open-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair-lead-to-increased-risk-of-subsequent-complications
#15
Su Yeon Lee, Matthew R Peacock, Alik Farber, Nishant K Shah, Mohammad H Eslami, Jeffrey A Kalish, Denis Rybin, Sevan Komshian, Jeffrey J Siracuse
OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair are at risk of perioperative infections that can lead to subsequent complications. Our goal was to understand how an initial infectious complication influences the risk of subsequent complications in this cohort of patients. METHODS: Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database (2005 to 2012), we evaluated the relationship between three index infectious complications after open elective AAA repair (pneumonia, deep/organ surgical site infection, and urinary tract infection) and subsequent complications...
May 5, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479017/reduced-nosocomial-infection-rate-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-during-a-4-year-surveillance-period
#16
Yong-Chuan Chen, Chen-Fu Lin, Yun-Jiau Fuh Rehn, Juei-Chao Chen, Po-Yen Chen, Chao-Huei Chen, Teh-Ming Wang, Fang-Liang Huang
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The aim of the study was to investigate the change of nosocomial infection rate in a NICU during a 4-year surveillance period. METHODS: We investigated the changes in nosocomial infection rates, infection sites, and microorganism species in a NICU before and after the unit was moved to a new location, extending from November 2008 to October 2012...
May 3, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464462/effect-of-low-to-moderate-dose-corticosteroids-on-mortality-of-hospitalized-adolescents-and-adults-with-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-viral-pneumonia
#17
Hui Li, Shi-Gui Yang, Li Gu, Yao Zhang, Xi-Xin Yan, Zong-An Liang, Wei Zhang, Hong-Yu Jia, Wei Chen, Meng Liu, Kai-Jiang Yu, Chun-Xue Xue, Ke Hu, Qi Zou, Lan-Juan Li, Bin Cao, Chen Wang
BACKGROUND: The effect of corticosteroids on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viral pneumonia patients remains controversial and the impact of dosage has never been studied. METHODS: Using data of hospitalized adolescent and adult patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viral pneumonia, prospectively collected from 407 hospitals in mainland China, the effects of low-to-moderate dose (25-150 mg·day(-1) ) and high-dose (> 150 mg·day(-1) ) corticosteroids on 30-day mortality, 60-day mortality, and nosocomial infection were assessed with multivariate Cox regression and propensity score-matched case-control analysis...
May 2, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463942/diagnostic-practices-for-suspected-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infection-in-the-post-conjugate-vaccine-era
#18
Natalie Banniettis, Saumya Joshi, Shubhi Kaushik, Stephan Kohlhoff, Margaret R Hammerschlag
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic practices for suspected community-acquired central nervous system (CNS) infection in an urban pediatric population. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective single-center review of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in children, 1 month to 21 years old, evaluated for suspected CNS infection from 2004 to 2014. Cases of suspected nosocomial meningitis were excluded. The frequency of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NMDAR ab) encephalitis was analyzed from 2010 to 2014...
May 1, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462212/animal-models-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-current-practices-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Kenny Bielen, Bart 's Jongers, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Philippe G Jorens, Herman Goossens, Samir Kumar-Singh
Lower respiratory tract infections are amongst the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Especially in hospital settings and more particularly in critically ill ventilated patients, nosocomial pneumonia is one of the most serious infectious complications frequently caused by opportunistic pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of ventilator-associated pneumonia as well as the major cause of chronic pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. Animal models of pneumonia allow us to investigate distinct types of pneumonia at various disease stages, studies that are not possible in patients...
March 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458051/emergence-and-nosocomial-spread-of-carbapenem-resistant-oxa-232-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-brunei-darussalam
#20
Muhd Haziq Fikry Abdul Momin, Apostolos Liakopoulos, Lynette M Phee, David W Wareham
OBJECTIVES: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are identified as a major global health concern. The success of CRE is facilitated by the emergence, acquisition and spread of successful clones carrying plasmid-encoded resistance genes. In this study, an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infections in patients hospitalised in Brunei Darussalam was investigated. METHODS: Over a 3-month period (May-July 2015), five multidrug-resistant K...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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