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nosocomial pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638419/diagnostic-yield-of-a-direct-quantitative-smear-of-lower-respiratory-tract-secretions-in-patients-with-suspected-pneumonia-compared-to-a-semi-quantitative-culture
#1
Shervin Shokouhi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Maryam Sadeghi, Latif Gachkar, Samaneh Dolatshahi
BACKGROUND: Microorganism isolation from respiratory tract specimens is the standard of care in patients with suspected nosocomial and ventilator associated pneumonia. However, these methods are time-consuming and are influenced by several factors. A direct quantitative smear (DQS) with proper staining may be an easy, cost-effective, rapid method. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of direct smears compared to semi-quantitative culture methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hospitalized, intubated patients with clinically suspected pneumonia and patients who underwent diagnostic bronchoscopic alveolar lavage (BAL) and trans-endotracheal aspiration (TEA) were enrolled in a prospective study...
2017: Tanaffos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636666/molecular-and-microbiological-report-of-a-hospital-outbreak-of-ndm-1-carrying-enterobacteriaceae-in-mexico
#2
Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Elvira Garza-González, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Humberto Barrios, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Santiago Petersen-Morfin, Jesus Silva-Sanchez
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the microbiological, molecular and epidemiological data of an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico. METHODS: From September 2014 to July 2015, all CRE clinical isolates recovered during an outbreak in the Hospital Civil "Fray Antonio Alcalde" in Jalisco, Mexico were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, carbapenemase production, carbapenemase-encoding genes, and plasmid profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625267/-application-of-quality-control-chart-in-quality-control-for-nosocomial-infection-in-intensive-care-unit
#4
Yumei Cheng, Yuanyi Liu, Difen Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the application value of control chart in the management of nosocomial infection in intensive care unit (ICU) by using quality control chart to monitor the infections in ICU. METHODS: From October 2011 to June 2016, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), namely the three catheters, occurred in ICU of the Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University were monitored and recorded monthly, then the data was imput into the Excel, and the data was analyzed using SPSS...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623574/the-bactericidal-effect-of-simultaneous-titanium-oxide-on-common-hospital-bacteria
#5
Ziaeddin Bonyadi, Maisam Mirzaee, Mohammad Mehdi Ejtehadi, Mehdi Mokhtari
Bacteria prevalence has increased in health centers and hospitals. Infection control can decrease the number of bacteria. Bacteria cause 90% of nosocomial infections and fungi, viruses, or protozoa are less involved. Bacteria control can decrease the number of diseases. The Simultaneous titanium oxide (SMTiO) is a new method of disinfection. This process degrades bacteria by producing hydroxyl radical. The present study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the bactericidal effect of simultaneous titanium oxide on common hospital bacteria...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617330/identification-of-pathogenic-factors-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-using-impedimetric-sensor-equipped-with-biomimetic-surfaces
#6
Duyen Thi Ngoc Huynh, Ah-Young Kim, Young-Rok Kim
K.pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that causes nosocomial infections, such as, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, septic shock, and gastro intestinal disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capsular polysaccharide, and fimbriae are recognized major virulence factors of K.pneumoniae and play key roles during early stages of infections. In this study, we functionalized the surface of gold electrode with mannose and mucin to monitor the adhesion-associated virulence factors of K.pneumoniae. The binding characteristics of K...
June 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615687/multi-drug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-circulating-in-hospital-setting-whole-genome-sequencing-and-bayesian-phylogenetic-analysis-for-outbreak-investigations
#7
Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi, Alessandra Lo Presti, Marta Fogolari, Taj Azarian, Mattia Prosperi, Marco Salemi, Michele Equestre, Francesca Antonelli, Alessia Conti, Marina De Cesaris, Silvia Spoto, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi, Roberto Coppola, Giordano Dicuonzo, Silvia Angeletti
Carbapenems resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections are increasing worldwide representing an emerging public health problem. The application of phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses to bacterial whole genome sequencing (WGS) data have become essential in the epidemiological surveillance of multi-drug resistant nosocomial pathogens. Between January 2012 and February 2013, twenty-one multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae strains, were collected from patients hospitalized among different wards of the University Hospital Campus Bio-Medico...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612844/nlrp3-inflammasome-pathway-has-a-critical-role-in-the-host-immunity-against-clinically-relevant-acinetobacter-baumannii-pulmonary-infection
#8
N Dikshit, S D Kale, H J Khameneh, V Balamuralidhar, C Y Tang, P Kumar, T P Lim, T T Tan, A L Kwa, A Mortellaro, B Sukumaran
The opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) is a leading cause of life-threatening nosocomial pneumonia. Outbreaks of multidrug resistant (MDR)-AB belonging to international clones (ICs) I and II with limited treatment options are major global health threats. However, the pathogenesis mechanisms of various AB clonal groups are understudied. Although inflammation-associated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels and IL-1 receptor antagonist polymorphisms were previously implicated in MDR-AB-related pneumonia in patients, whether inflammasomes has any role in the host defense and/or pathogenesis of clinically relevant A...
June 14, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611429/streptococcus-sp-in-neonatal-endotracheal-tube-biofilms-is-associated-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-and-enhanced-biofilm-formation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#9
Yun Pan, Sijie Song, Xiaoli Tang, Qing Ai, Danping Zhu, Zhenqiu Liu, Jialin Yu
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation leading to high morbidity and mortality among intubated neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Endotracheal tube (ETT) biofilm flora were considered to be responsible for the occurrence of VAP as a reservoir of pathogens. However, regarding neonates with VAP, little is known about the complex microbial signatures in ETT biofilms. In the present study, a culture-independent approach based on next generation sequencing was performed as an initial survey to investigate the microbial communities in ETT biofilms of 49 intubated neonates with and without VAP...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608660/emergence-of-community-genotype-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-korean-hospitals-clinical-characteristics-of-nosocomial-infections-by-community-genotype-strain
#10
Eun Jeong Joo, Doo Ryeon Chung, So Hyun Kim, Jin Yang Baek, Nam Yong Lee, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Cheol In Kang, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae Hoon Song
BACKGROUND: As community-genotype methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains spread into hospitals, the genotypes of the MRSA strains causing hospital-acquired (HA) infections have become more diverse. We describe clinical characteristics of nosocomial MRSA infections by a community-genotype of sequence type (ST) 72. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was designed among patients with HA-MRSA infections. Forty patients with infections caused by ST72-MRSA SCCmec type IV were selected as cases...
May 26, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608133/frequency-associated-factors-and-outcome-of-multi-drug-resistant-intensive-care-unit-acquired-pneumonia-among-patients-colonized-with-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#11
Keyvan Razazi, Armand Mekontso Dessap, Guillaume Carteaux, Chloé Jansen, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Nicolas de Prost, Christian Brun-Buisson
BACKGROUND: We assessed prevalence, associated factors and prognosis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae pneumonia acquired in intensive care unit (ESBL-PE pneumonia) among carriers. Variables associated with nosocomial pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant bacteria (CRB) were also assessed. METHODS: A 6-year prospective study (May 2009-March 2015) in the medical ICU of an 850-bed university-affiliated hospital was conducted. RESULTS: Of the 6303 patients admitted, 843 (13...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605923/bacterial-sepsis-in-neonates-single-centre-study-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#12
Izeta Softić, Husref Tahirović, Vincenzo Di Ciommo, Cinzia Auriti
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence, mortality, risk factors, aetiology and the susceptibility to antibiotics of the bacteria responsible for sepsis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A single centre, prospective, observational study, involving 200 neonates admitted over 12 months to the NICU of the University Children's Hospital, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina. RESULTS: The crude incidence of all neonatal sepsis was 68.0% (136/200) and that of late-onset sepsis (LOS) was 48...
May 2017: Acta Medica Academica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594615/oral-decontamination-techniques-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#13
Ranjitha Chacko, Amala Rajan, Prabha Lionel, M Thilagavathi, Bijesh Yadav, Jeyarani Premkumar
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the major nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit (ICU), contributing to increased mortality and morbidity. Studies have shown that oral decontamination through the use of mechanical and pharmacological agents significantly reduces the incidence of VAP, but oral care practices in ICUs are not consistent. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was undertaken in the medical ICU of a tertiary care centre in India, to assess the efficacy of a toothbrush-based oral care technique in reducing incidence of VAP...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589148/skeletal-muscle-and-lymphocyte-mitochondrial-dysfunctions-in-septic-shock-trigger-icu-acquired-weakness-and-sepsis-induced-immunoparalysis
#14
REVIEW
Quentin Maestraggi, Benjamin Lebas, Raphaël Clere-Jehl, Pierre-Olivier Ludes, Thiên-Nga Chamaraux-Tran, Francis Schneider, Pierre Diemunsch, Bernard Geny, Julien Pottecher
Fundamental events driving the pathological processes of septic shock-induced multiorgan failure (MOF) at the cellular and subcellular levels remain debated. Emerging data implicate mitochondrial dysfunction as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated MOF. If macrocirculatory and microcirculatory dysfunctions undoubtedly participate in organ dysfunction at the early stage of septic shock, an intrinsic bioenergetic failure, sometimes called "cytopathic hypoxia," perpetuates cellular dysfunction...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587316/bacteria-from-animals-as-a-pool-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes
#15
REVIEW
Maria Angeles Argudín, Ariane Deplano, Alaeddine Meghraoui, Magali Dodémont, Amelie Heinrichs, Olivier Denis, Claire Nonhoff, Sandrine Roisin
Antimicrobial agents are used in both veterinary and human medicine. The intensive use of antimicrobials in animals may promote the fixation of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria, which may be zoonotic or capable to transfer these genes to human-adapted pathogens or to human gut microbiota via direct contact, food or the environment. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the use of antimicrobial agents in animal health and explores the role of bacteria from animals as a pool of antimicrobial resistance genes for human bacteria...
June 6, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584733/nosocomial-infections-and-antibiotic-resistance-pattern-in-open-heart-surgery-patients-at-imam-ali-hospital-in-kermanshah-iran
#16
Fatemeh Heydarpour, Youssef Rahmani, Behzad Heydarpour, Atefeh Asadmobini
Background: Patients undergoing open heart surgery have a relatively high risk of acquiring nosocomial infections. The development of antibiotic-resistant infections is associated with prolonged hospital stays and mortalities. Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate nosocomial infections and the antibiotic resistance pattern in bacteria causing these infections in open heart surgery patients at Imam Ali Hospital in Kermanshah in the west of Iran over a 4-year period from March 2011 to March 2014...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578555/infections-due-to-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-the-icu-treatment-options
#17
Joseph P Lynch, George G Zhanel, Nina M Clark
Bacteria within the genus Acinetobacter (principally A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex [ABC]) are gram-negative coccobacilli that may cause nosocomial infections in critically ill or debilitated patients (particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia and infections of the bloodstream, urinary tract, and wounds). Treatment of Acinetobacter infections is difficult, as Acinetobacter spp. are intrinsically resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, and have a remarkable ability to acquire new resistance determinants via mechanisms that include plasmids, transposons, integrons, and resistance islands...
June 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578550/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-the-role-of-emerging-diagnostic-technologies
#18
Marin H Kollef, Carey-Ann D Burnham
Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a key determinant of outcome in patients with serious infections along with the virulence of the underlying pathogen. Within the intensive care unit (ICU) setting, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection that is frequently caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Antimicrobial resistance is a growing challenge in the care of critically ill patients. Escalating rates of antibiotic resistance add substantially to the morbidity, mortality, and cost related to infection in the ICU...
June 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567296/thyrotoxicosis-leading-to-adrenal-crises-reveals-primary-bilateral-adrenal-lymphoma
#19
Catarina Roque, Ricardo Fonseca, Carlos Tavares Bello, Carlos Vasconcelos, António Galzerano, Sância Ramos
Primary adrenal lymphoma is a rare malignancy. It frequently presents bilaterally and with symptoms of adrenal insufficiency. Amiodarone may induce secondary organ dysfunction, and thyrotoxicosis develops in 15% of cases. The symptomatology of both conditions is nonspecific, especially in the elderly, and a high suspicion index is necessary for appropriate diagnosis. A 78-year-old female presented to the emergency department with confusion, nausea and vomiting. She had recently been to the emergency department with urinary tract infection, vomiting and acute hypochloremic hyponatremia...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559046/ceftazidime-induced-thrombocytopenia
#20
E Domingo-Chiva, M Díaz-Rangel, J Á Monsalve-Naharro, P Cuesta-Montero, J V Catalá-Ripoll, E M García-Martínez
Ceftazidime is an antibiotic belonging to the group of third generation cephalosporins, frequently used in clinical practice for its broad antibacterial spectrum. A case report is presented on a 78-year-old man who entered the intensive care unit due to respiratory failure secondary to nosocomial pneumonia in the postoperative period of a laparoscopic hepatic bisegmentectomy for a hepatocarcinoma. It required invasive mechanical ventilation and was treated with ceftazidime, developing a progressive decrease in platelet count after the onset of this drug and after re-exposure to it, not coinciding with the introduction of other drugs...
May 27, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
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