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nosocomial pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810610/microbial-investigations-in-throat-swab-and-tracheal-aspirate-specimens-are-beneficial-to-predict-the-corresponding-endotracheal-tube-biofilm-flora-among-intubated-neonates-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#1
Yun Pan, Lizhong Du, Qing Ai, Sijie Song, Xiaoli Tang, Danping Zhu, Jialin Yu
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units with high morbidity and mortality. Bacterial biofilm in the endotracheal tube (ET) provides a notable and persistent source of pathogens that may cause VAP, and thus is important for VAP detection. However, during intubation microbial investigations in ET, samples are unavailable due to the infeasibility of collecting ET samples during intubation of neonates. It is therefore of great importance to find alternative sources of samples that can help identify the ET biofilm flora...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806403/th17-cells-are-associated-with-protection-from-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#2
Marika Orlov, Victoria Dmyterko, Mark M Wurfel, Carmen Mikacenic
BACKGROUND: CD4+ T-helper 17 (Th17) cells and Interleukin (IL)-17A play an important role in clearing pathogens in mouse models of pneumonia. We hypothesized that numbers of Th17 cells and levels of IL-17A are associated with risk for nosocomial pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from mechanically ventilated (n = 25) patients undergoing quantitative bacterial culture to evaluate for ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806281/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-due-to-chryseobacterium-indologenes
#3
Vicente S Antonello, Priscila Daht, Janaína Polli, Milton Gross, Maurício Colvero
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) represents one of the most common nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units, increasing morbidity and mortality, and associated costs. The authors report the case of a neonatal patient with VAP secondary to Chryseobacterium indologenes and a review of the literature. . The most effective empiric treatment for C. indologenes infection remains unclear due to limited data in the literature, and therefore, therapy should be adjusted in accordance with the result of the susceptibility profile...
August 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802291/metoclopramide-for-preventing-nosocomial-pneumonia-in-patients-fed-via-nasogastric-tubes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
Yanjin Liu, Xiaofang Dong, Sen Yang, Aixia Wang, Min Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Metoclopramide, a prokinetic agent, has been recommended to reduce incidence of pneumonia, but its efficacy is controversial. Thus, this systematic review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of metoclopramide for pneumonia in patients fed via nasogastric tube. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, and OVID were searched from their inception to March 31th 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of metoclopramide against placebo in patients fed via nasogastric tube were identified...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789913/molecular-epidemiology-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-invasive-infections-over-a-decade-at-kilifi-county-hospital-in-kenya
#5
Sonal P Henson, Christine J Boinett, Matthew J Ellington, Ngure Kagia, Salim Mwarumba, Sammy Nyongesa, Neema Mturi, Samuel Kariuki, J Anthony G Scott, Nicholas R Thomson, Susan C Morpeth
Multidrug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Recent years have seen an explosion of resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and emergence of carbapenem resistance. Here, we examine 198 invasive K. pneumoniae isolates collected from over a decade in Kilifi County Hospital (KCH) in Kenya. We observe a significant increase in MDR K. pneumoniae isolates, particularly to third generation cephalosporins conferred by ESBLs. Using whole-genome sequences, we describe the population structure and the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes within it...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777198/nosocomial-infections-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-incidence-etiology-and-impacton-patients-outcome
#6
Giacomo Grasselli, Vittorio Scaravilli, Stefano Di Bella, Stefano Biffi, Michela Bombino, Nicolò Patroniti, Luca Bisi, Anna Maria Peri, Antonio Pesenti, Andrea Gori, Laura Alagna
OBJECTIVE: To study incidence, type, etiology, risk factors, and impact on outcome of nosocomial infections during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Italian tertiary referral center medical-surgical ICU. PATIENTS: One hundred five consecutive patients who were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation from January 2010 to November 2015...
August 2, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777158/pneumonia-with-bacterial-and-viral-coinfection
#7
Kelly Cawcutt, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review the epidemiology of pneumonia with bacterial and viral coinfection, the pathogenesis and clinical impact of coinfection along with the current state of treatment and outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: We give particular emphasis to the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral coinfection including specific highlighting on influenza, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus. Updates on the current state of diagnosis and management are included...
August 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776434/pneumonia-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-no-diagnostic-and-prognostic-value-of-different-quantitative-tracheal-aspirates-thresholds
#8
J Garnacho-Montero, A Gutiérrez-Pizarraya, I Lopez-García, J C Miranda, V González-Galán, Y Corcia-Palomo, I Alonso-Araujo, L Martín-Villén, J Aznar-Martín, R Amaya-Villar
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pneumonia in ventilated patients is challenging due to the lack of specific and definitive clinical symptoms, laboratory data or radiological abnormalities. METHODS: Based on quantitative tracheal aspirate (QTA) results, three groups of patients were compared: <10(5) cfu/ml, ≥10(5) cfu/ml and <10(6) cfu/ml, and ≥10(6) cfu/ml. We recorded demographic variables, underlying diseases and severity of illness at ICU admission...
August 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771139/high-frequency-of-the-combined-presence-of-qrdr-mutations-and-pmqr-determinants-in-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-and-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-nosocomial-and-community-acquired-infections
#9
Bruna Fuga Araújo, Paola Amaral de Campos, Sabrina Royer, Melina Lorraine Ferreira, Iara Rossi Gonçalves, Deivid William da Fonseca Batistão, Daiane Silva Resende, Cristiane Silveira de Brito, Paulo Pinto Gontijo-Filho, Rosineide Marques Ribas
Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants combined with mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) and clonal dissemination were investigated in 40 fluoroquinolone-resistant Klebsiellapneumoniae and Escherichiacoli isolates from nosocomial and community-acquired infections. We observed nucleotide substitutions in gyrA (Ser83Ile, Val37Leu, Lys154Arg, Ser171Ala, Ser19Asn, Ile198Val, Ser83Tyr, Ser83Leu, Asp87Asn and Asp87Gly) and parC genes (Ser80Ile, Glu84Lys, Ala129Ser, Val141Ala and Glu84Gly)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767588/successful-ceftazidime-avibactam-treatment-of-mdr-kpc-positive-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-in-a-patient-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#10
Agnese Gugliandolo, Carla Caio, Maria Lina Mezzatesta, Carmela Rifici, Placido Bramanti, Stefania Stefani, Emanuela Mazzon
RATIONALE: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections are a serious health care problem, because of the high mortality. Carbapenem resistance is mainly caused by carbapenemases production, including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Ceftazidime-avibactam is a new cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combination for the treatment of complicated urinary, intra-abdominal infections, and nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram negative, or other serious gram-negative infections...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764164/chryseobacterium-indologenes-pneumonitis-in-an-infant-a-case-report
#11
Parijat Das, Santosh Karade, Kanwaljit Kaur, Ravi Ramamurthy, Praveer Ranjan
Chryseobacterium indologenes, a non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli distributed widely in nature, is an emerging nosocomial pathogen, inherently resistant to a wide range of antibiotics. There is limited number of C. indologenes infections reported from India. We report a case of C. indologenes associated pneumonia in a three-month-old infant with congenital heart disease. This case highlights the importance of prompt diagnostic workup and targeted antibiotic therapy for its effective management.
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760848/comprehensive-arrayed-transposon-mutant-library-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-outbreak-strain-kpnih1
#12
Beth Ramage, Roxanne Erolin, Kiara Held, Joe Gasper, Eli Weiss, Mitch Brittnacher, Larry Gallagher, Colin Manoil
Klebsiella pneumoniae and other carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a major cause of hospital-acquired infections, yet the basis of their success as nosocomial pathogens is poorly understood. To help provide a foundation for genetic analysis of K. pneumoniae, we created an arrayed, sequence-defined transposon mutant library of an isolate from the 2011 outbreak of infections at the U.S. National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. The library is made up of 12,000 individually arrayed mutants of a carbapenemase deletion parent strain and provides coverage of 85% of predicted genes...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759469/what-is-new-in-the-prevention-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-in-the-icu
#13
Michael Klompas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and contextualize recent evidence on preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). RECENT FINDINGS: Many centers continue to report dramatic decreases in VAP rates after implementing ventilator bundles. Interpreting these reports is complicated, however, by the subjectivity and lack of specificity of VAP definitions. More objective data suggest VAP rates may not have meaningfully changed over the past decade. If so, this compels us to re-examine and revise the prevention bundles we have been using to prevent VAP...
July 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759466/the-current-status-of-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-nosocomial-pneumonias
#14
Jorge I F Salluh, Vicente C Souza-Dantas, Pedro Póvoa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nosocomial pneumonia is a frequent and severe nosocomial infection divided in two distinct groups: hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). In this context, the VAP is notoriously difficult to diagnose clinically, resulting from the lack of a 'gold standard' method of diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of biomarkers may potentially improve the early diagnosis of infections allowing earlier and better identification and treatment...
July 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756068/a-phase-ii-randomized-double-blind-multicenter-study-to-evaluate-efficacy-and-safety-of-intravenous-iclaprim-versus-vancomycin-for-the-treatment-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-suspected-or-confirmed-to-be-due-to-gram-positive-pathogens
#15
David B Huang, Thomas M File, Antoni Torres, Andrew F Shorr, Mark H Wilcox, Paul Hadvary, Matthew Dryden, G Ralph Corey
PURPOSE: The primary objective of this Phase II study was to compare the clinical cure rates of 2 iclaprim dosages versus vancomycin in the treatment of patients with nosocomial pneumonia suspected or confirmed to be caused by gram-positive pathogens. METHODS: This study was a double-blind, randomized, multicenter trial. A total of 70 patients were randomized 1:1:1 to receive iclaprim 0.8 mg/kg IV q12h (iclaprim q12h; n = 23), iclaprim 1.2 mg/kg IV q8h (iclaprim q8h; n = 24), or vancomycin 1 g IV q12h (vancomycin; n = 23) for 7 to 14 days...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754148/nosocomial-bacterial-infections-and-their-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-among-patients-in-ugandan-intensive-care-units-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Peter Agaba, Janat Tumukunde, J V B Tindimwebwa, Arthur Kwizera
BACKGROUND: The intensive care unit (ICU) admits critically ill patients requiring advanced airway, respiratory, cardiac and renal support. Despite the highly-specialized interventions, the mortality and morbidity is still high due to a number of reasons including nosocomial infections, which are the most likely complications in hospitalized patients with the rates being highest among ICU patients. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 111 adult patients admitted to 2 of the ICUs in Uganda, we set out to describe the commonest bacterial infections, their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and factors associated with development of a nosocomial infection...
July 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750048/competition-is-the-basis-of-the-transport-mechanism-of-the-nhab-na-h-exchanger-from-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#17
Miyer Patiño-Ruiz, Constanța Ganea, Klaus Fendler, Octavian Călinescu
Na+/H+ exchange is essential for survival of all organisms, having a role in the regulation of the intracellular Na+ concentration, pH and cell volume. Furthermore, Na+/H+ exchangers were shown to be involved in the virulence of the bacterium Yersinia pestis, indicating they might be potential targets for novel antibiotic treatments. The model system for Na+/H+ exchangers is the NhaA transporter from Escherichia coli, EcNhaA. Therefore, the general transport mechanism of NhaA exchangers is currently well characterized...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749714/risk-factors-for-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-a-meta-analysis
#18
Pin Liu, Xuan Li, Mei Luo, Xuan Xu, Kewen Su, Shuai Chen, Ying Qing, Yingli Li, Jingfu Qiu
AIMS: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infection has been rapidly emerging as a life-threatening nosocomial disease in many countries. However, studies on the corresponding risk factors of CRKP infection showed inconsistent results. To resolve these inconsistencies, we conducted a meta-analysis of previous studies on the potential risk factors of CRKP infection. The results of this study could be used to develop CRKP infection prevention strategies. METHODS: Relevant works were systematically searched from five electronic databases up to September 2016...
July 27, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747785/discovery-of-monoclonal-antibodies-cross-reactive-to-novel-subserotypes-of-k-pneumoniae-o3
#19
Luis M Guachalla, Katarina Stojkovic, Katharina Hartl, Marta Kaszowska, Yadhu Kumar, Benjamin Wahl, Tobias Paprotka, Eszter Nagy, Jolanta Lukasiewicz, Gábor Nagy, Valéria Szijártó
Klebsiella pneumoniae is responsible for nosocomial infections causing significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment of newly emerging multi-drug resistant strains is hampered due to severely limited antibiotic choices. Passive immunization targeting LPS O-antigens has been proposed as an alternative therapeutic option, given the limited variability of Klebsiella O-antigens. Here we report that the O3 serogroup, previously considered to have uniform O-antigen built of mannan, represents three different subtypes differing in the number of mannose residues within the O-antigen repeating units...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743652/molecular-epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumonia-at-a-turkish-center-is-the-increase-of-resistance-a-threat-for-europe
#20
Aslıhan Candevir Ulu, Tülin Güven Gökmen, Filiz Kibar, Behice Kurtaran, Cansu Önlen, Ferit Kuşçu, Ayşe Seza İnal, Süheyla Kömür, Akgün Yaman, Hasan Salih Zeki Aksu, Yeşim Taşova
INTRODUCTION: In recent years carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has became an important threat to hospitalized patients. Our aim in this study was to identify the genetic mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in our center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, a total of 98K. pneumoniae isolated from patients who registered at Cukurova University Balcali Hospital and determined phenotypically carbapenem resistant were screened for genotypic presence of carbapenemase enzymes with the multiplex-PCR in the period of 2013-2014...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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