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nosocomial pneumonia

Zhijie Pan, Rong Liu, Pei Zhang, Hua Zhou, Yiqi Fu, Jianying Zhou
Raoultella planticola is a gram-negative bacterium that rarely causes diseases in humans. Here, we present a case of hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by R. planticola that likely originated in the gastrointestinal tract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report describing the detection of the gene New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (blaNDM-1) in multidrug-resistant R. planticola. Clinical samples were collected for bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing from a patient during hospitalization...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Kelsey Chinnadurai, Lindy Fenlason, Brian Bridges, Mana Espahbodi, Sivakumar Chinnadurai, Jane Blood-Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection in pediatric intensive care units (ICUs). Ventilator-associated pneumonia protocols decrease the incidence of VAP; however, many components of these protocols are not feasible in all settings. This study was done in a large pediatric hospital in Nicaragua. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to implement a sustainable evidence-based VAP protocol, in a different culture, for the purpose of decreasing VAP rates...
November 2016: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Kelly Pennington, Martin Van Zyl, Patricio Escalante
Citrobacter koseri is a motile, gram-negative rod traditionally known to cause infection in individuals with significant comorbidities and immunocompromised status. While most cases represent nosocomial infections, rarely community-acquired infections have been reported. We present a previously healthy man in his 60s with C. koseri pneumonia who was subsequently found to have underlying pulmonary adenocarcinoma, illustrating the need for further investigation for immunodeficiency and/or intrapulmonary pathology...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
Víctor Daniel Rosenthal, Hail M Al-Abdely, Amani Ali El-Kholy, Safa A Aziz AlKhawaja, Hakan Leblebicioglu, Yatin Mehta, Vineya Rai, Nguyen Viet Hung, Souha Sami Kanj, Mona Foda Salama, Estuardo Salgado-Yepez, Naheed Elahi, Rayo Morfin Otero, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Braulio Matias De Carvalho, Bat Erdene Ider, Dale Fisher, Maria Carmen S G Buenaflor, Michael M Petrov, Ana Marcela Quesada-Mora, Farid Zand, Vaidotas Gurskis, Tanja Anguseva, Aamer Ikram, Daisy Aguilar de Moros, Wieslawa Duszynska, Nepomuceno Mejia, Florin George Horhat, Vladislav Belskiy, Vesna Mioljevic, Gabriela Di Silvestre, Katarina Furova, Gloria Y Ramos-Ortiz, May Osman Gamar Elanbya, Hindra Irawan Satari, Umesh Gupta, Tarek Dendane, Lul Raka, Humberto Guanche-Garcell, Bijie Hu, Denis Padgett, Kushlani Jayatilleke, Najla Ben Jaballah, Eleni Apostolopoulou, Walter Enrique Prudencio Leon, Alejandra Sepulveda-Chavez, Hector Miguel Telechea, Andrew Trotter, Carlos Alvarez-Moreno, Luis Kushner-Davalos
BACKGROUND: We report the results of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from January 2010-December 2015 in 703 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific. METHODS: During the 6-year study period, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection (DA-HAI), we collected prospective data from 861,284 patients hospitalized in INICC hospital ICUs for an aggregate of 3,506,562 days...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Jing Yu, Kun Tan, Zhihui Rong, Yue Wang, Zhongju Chen, Xuhui Zhu, Li Wu, Li Tan, Wei Xiong, Ziyong Sun, Ling Chen
BACKGROUND: The spread of resistance to carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae has become a major public health problem in recent years. In this study, we describe an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae in the neonatal ward. First, we aimed to study the drug resistance, genetic relatedness, and transmission mechanism of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae; second, we implemented infection control measures to contain the outbreak. METHODS: We investigated 27 non-repetitive strains isolated from neonates and five strains cultured from around the neonatal ward...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Rajeev Soman, Neha Gupta, Mitesh Suthar, Jatin Kothari, Alan Almeida, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Central-line-associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI) is a highly consequential nosocomial infection. The most effective management includes the removal of the infected catheter. Retention of the catheter and antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) along with systemic antibiotics may be attempted only if there are unusual extenuating circumstances. CLABSIs due to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is more common in our setting and the organisms are often highly resistant. Hence, there is a need to explore the use of novel antimicrobials for catheter lock solutions along with antibiofilm agents...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Faidad Khan, Xueqing Wu, Gideon L Matzkin, Mohsin A Khan, Fuminori Sakai, Jorge E Vidal
Staphylococcus aureus (Sau) strains are a main cause of disease, including nosocomial infections which have been linked to the production of biofilms and the propagation of antibiotic resistance strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A previous study found that Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) strains kill planktonic cultures of Sau strains. In this work, we have further evaluated in detail the eradication of Sau biofilms and investigated ultrastructural interactions of the biofilmicidal effect...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Tamara V Smelaya, Olesya B Belopolskaya, Svetlana V Smirnova, Artem N Kuzovlev, Viktor V Moroz, Arkadiy M Golubev, Noel A Pabalan, Lyubov E Salnikova
The role of host genetic variation in pneumonia development and outcome is poorly understood. We studied common polymorphisms in the genes of proinflammatory cytokines (IL6 rs1800795, IL8 rs4073, IL1B rs16944), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10 rs1800896, IL4 rs2243250, IL13 rs20541) and toll-like receptors (TLR2 rs5743708 and rs4696480, TLR4 rs4986791, TLR9 rs352139, rs5743836 and rs187084) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (390 cases, 203 controls) and nosocomial pneumonia (355 cases, 216 controls)...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Vaishali Gaikwad, Tejash Gohel, Shrijeet Panickar, Vijay Chincholkar, Santosh Mangalkar
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infection, especially pneumonia, surgical site infections, blood stream infections, and continues to be a major cause of community-acquired infections. The emergence of penicillin resistance followed by the development and spread of strains resistant to the semisynthetic penicillins such as methicillin, oxacillin and nafcillin, macrolides, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides has made the treatment of staphylococcal infection a global challenge...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Jiaul Hoque, Padma Akkapeddi, Chandardhish Ghosh, Divakara S S M Uppu, Jayanta Haldar
Bacterial colonization and subsequent formation of biofilms onto surfaces of medical devices and implants is a major source of nosocomial infections. Most antibacterial coatings to combat infections are either metal-based or non-degradable polymer-based and hence limited by their non-degradability and unpredictable toxicity. Moreover, to combat infections effectively, the coatings are required to display simultaneous antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. Herein we report biocompatible and biodegradable coatings based on organo-soluble quaternary chitin polymers which were immobilized non-covalently onto surfaces as bactericidal paint...
October 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Duo Yang, Zeqiang Xie, Xuli Xin, Wenying Xue, Man Zhang
Mortality associated with infections due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) is high and the infections need to be predicted early. The risk factors for CR-KP infection are heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to construct a model allowing for the early prediction of CR-KP infection. Nosocomial infections due to K. pneumoniae were evaluated retrospectively over a 2-year period. The case cohort consisted of 370 inpatients with CR-KP infection. For each case enrolled, two matched controls with no CR-KP infection during their hospitalization were randomly selected...
October 2016: Biomedical Reports
G Kampf
Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is an antimicrobial agent used for different types of applications in hand hygiene, skin antisepsis, oral care, and patient washing. Increasing use raises concern regarding development of acquired bacterial resistance. Published data from clinical isolates with CHG minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were reviewed and compared to epidemiological cut-off values to determine resistance. CHG resistance is rarely found in Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Pooi Yin Chung
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that commonly causes nosocomial infections in the urinary tract, respiratory tract, lung, wound sites and blood in individuals with debilitating diseases. K. pneumoniae is still a cause of severe pneumonia in alcoholics in Africa and Asia, and the predominant primary pathogen of primary liver abscess in Taiwan and Southeast Asia, particularly in Asian and Hispanic patients, and individuals with diabetes mellitus. In the United States and Europe, K. pneumoniae infections are most frequently associated with nosocomial infections...
September 22, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Sofia Maraki, Elpis Mantadakis, Viktoria Eirini Mavromanolaki, Diamantis P Kofteridis, George Samonis
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial outbreaks. It is particularly associated with nosocomial pneumonia and bloodstream infections in immunocompromised and debilitated patients with serious underlying pathologies. Over the last two decades, a remarkable rise in the rates of multidrug resistance to most antimicrobial agents that are active against A. baumannii has been noted worldwide. We evaluated the rates of antimicrobial resistance and changes in resistance over a 5-year period (2010-2014) in A...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
Mevlut Karatas, Sedat Saylan, Ugur Kostakoglu, Gurdal Yilmaz
OBJECTIVES: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a significant cause of hospital-related infections, one that must be prevented due to its high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors in patients developing VAP in our intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study involved in mechanically ventilated patients hospitalized for more than 48 hours. VAP diagnosed patients were divided into two groups, those developing pneumonia (VAP(+)) and those not (VAP(-))...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Etsuko Sugawara, Seiji Kojima, Hiroshi Nikaido
: Klebsiella pneumoniae, one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, is becoming a major problem in health care because of its resistance to multiple antibiotics including cephalosporins of the latest generation and more recently even carbapenems. This is largely due to the spread of plasmid-coded extended spectrum β-lactamases. However, antimicrobial agents must first penetrate through the outer membrane barrier in order to reach their targets, and hydrophilic and charged β-lactams presumably diffuse through the porin channels...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Maryam Karkhane, Mohamad Amin Pourhosiengholi, Mohammad Reza Akbariyan Torkabad, Zahra Kimiia, Seyed Mehdi Mortazavi, Seyed Karim Hossieni Aghdam, Abdolrazagh Marzban, Mohammad Reza Zali
So far, too little attention has been paid to total burden of healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in Iran. In the present study, we aimed to assess the rate of HAIs, as well as economic burden of hospitalization and antibiotic related cost associated with HAIs in ICU at training Taleghani hospital in Iran and to compare our results with national nosocomial infections surveillance (NNIS) system. This research to date for the first time has tended to focus on the economic burden of HAIs rather than epidemiology of HAIs evaluation...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
John C O'Horo, Haitao Lan, Charat Thongprayoon, Louis Schenck, Adil Ahmed, Mikhail Dziadzko
OBJECTIVE Ventilator-associated events (VAEs) are nosocomial events correlated with length of stay, costs, and mortality. Current ventilator bundle practices target the older definition of ventilator-associated pneumonia and have not been systematically evaluated for their impact on VAEs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING Tertiary medical center between January 2012 and August 2014. PARTICIPANTS All adult patients ventilated for at least 24 hours at our institution. INTERVENTIONS We conducted univariate analyses for compliance with each element; we focused on VAEs occurring within a 2-day window of failure to meet any ventilator bundle element...
September 19, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
M De Laveleye, T D Huang, P Bogaerts, C Berhin, C Bauraing, P Sacré, A Noel, Y Glupczynski
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly reported worldwide. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and molecular epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing (CP) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-E/K) in Belgium. Eleven hospital-based laboratories collected carbapenem non-susceptible (CNS) isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae detected in clinical specimens from January 2013 to December 2014. All CNS strains were tested for carbapenemase production and typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for a 6-month period as part of the European Survey on Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe (EuSCAPE) structured survey...
September 17, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Marjolein F Q Kluytmans-van den Bergh, John W A Rossen, Patricia C J Bruijning-Verhagen, Marc J M Bonten, Alexander W Friedrich, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Rob J L Willems, Jan A J W Kluytmans
Molecular typing has become indispensable in the detection of nosocomial transmission of bacterial pathogens and the identification of sources and routes of transmission in outbreak settings, but current methods are labour intensive, are difficult to standardize or have limited resolution. Whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) has emerged as a whole genome sequencing (WGS)-based gene-by-gene typing method that may overcome these limitations, and has been applied successfully for several species in outbreak settings...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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