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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897408/muscle-fibre-capillarization-is-a-critical-factor-in-muscle-fibre-hypertrophy-during-resistance-exercise-training-in-older-men
#1
Tim Snijders, Joshua P Nederveen, Sophie Joanisse, Marika Leenders, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon, Gianni Parise
BACKGROUND: Adequate muscle fibre perfusion is critical for the maintenance of muscle mass; it is essential in the rapid delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to the muscle, stimulating muscle fibre growth. Muscle fibre capillarization is known to decrease substantially with advancing age. However, whether (relative) low muscle fibre capillarization negatively impacts the muscle hypertrophic response following resistance exercise training in older adults is unknown. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy older men (71 ± 1 years) performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance type exercise training...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895593/baseline-muscle-mass-is-a-poor-predictor-of-functional-overload-induced-gain-in-the-mouse-model
#2
Audrius Kilikevicius, Lutz Bunger, Arimantas Lionikas
Genetic background contributes substantially to individual variability in muscle mass. Muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training can also vary extensively. However, it is less clear if muscle mass at baseline is predictive of the hypertrophic response. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of genetic background on variability in muscle mass at baseline and in the adaptive response of the mouse fast- and slow-twitch muscles to overload. Males of eight laboratory mouse strains: C57BL/6J (B6, n = 17), BALB/cByJ (n = 7), DBA/2J (D2, n = 12), B6...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708684/the-impact-of-protein-quality-on-the-promotion-of-resistance-exercise-induced-changes-in-muscle-mass
#3
Stuart M Phillips
Protein supplementation during resistance exercise training augments hypertrophic gains. Protein ingestion and the resultant hyperaminoacidemia provides the building blocks (indispensable amino acids - IAA) for, and also triggers an increase in, muscle protein synthesis (MPS), suppression of muscle protein breakdown (MPB), and net positive protein balance (i.e., MPS > MPB). The key amino acid triggering the rise in MPS is leucine, which stimulates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1, a key signalling protein, and triggers a rise in MPS...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677915/training-to-fatigue-the-answer-for-standardization-when-assessing-muscle-hypertrophy
#4
Scott J Dankel, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Samuel L Buckner, Jeremy P Loenneke
Studies examining resistance training are of importance given that increasing or maintaining muscle mass aids in the prevention or attenuation of chronic disease. Within the literature, it is common practice to administer a set number of target repetitions to be completed by all individuals (i.e. 3 sets of 10) while setting the load relative to each individual's predetermined strength level (usually a one-repetition maximum). This is done under the assumption that all individuals are receiving a similar stimulus upon completing the protocol, but this does not take into account individual variability with regard to how fatiguing the protocol actually is...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613920/association-of-exercise-training-with-tobacco-smoking-prevents-fibrosis-but-has-adverse-impact-on-myocardial-mechanics
#5
Dermeval Reis Junior, Ednei Luiz Antonio, Marcello Fabiano de Franco, Helenita Antonia de Oliveira, Paulo José Ferreira Tucci, Andrey Jorge Serra
INTRODUCTION: There was no data for cardiac repercussion of exercise training associated with tobacco smoking. This issue is interesting because some smoking people can be enrolled in an exercise-training program. Thus, we evaluated swimming training effects on the function and structural myocardial in rats exposed to tobacco smoking. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were assigned to one of four groups: C, untrained rats without exposure to tobacco smoking; E, exercised rats without exposure to tobacco smoking; CS, untrained rats exposed to tobacco smoking; ECS, exercised rats exposed to tobacco smoking...
December 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600940/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-helps-to-decipher-the-genetic-and-phenotypic-heterogeneity-of-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#6
Massimiliano Cecconi, Maria I Parodi, Francesco Formisano, Paolo Spirito, Camillo Autore, Maria B Musumeci, Stefano Favale, Cinzia Forleo, Claudio Rapezzi, Elena Biagini, Sabrina Davì, Elisabetta Canepa, Loredana Pennese, Mauro Castagnetta, Dario Degiorgio, Domenico A Coviello
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is mainly associated with myosin, heavy chain 7 (MYH7) and myosin binding protein C, cardiac (MYBPC3) mutations. In order to better explain the clinical and genetic heterogeneity in HCM patients, in this study, we implemented a target-next generation sequencing (NGS) assay. An Ion AmpliSeq™ Custom Panel for the enrichment of 19 genes, of which 9 of these did not encode thick/intermediate and thin myofilament (TTm) proteins and, among them, 3 responsible of HCM phenocopy, was created...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583459/the-differential-hormonal-milieu-of-morning-versus-evening-may-have-an-impact-on-muscle-hypertrophic-potential
#7
Simon D Burley, Jayde Whittingham-Dowd, Jeremy Allen, Jean-Francois Grosset, Gladys L Onambele-Pearson
Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572153/regular-exercise-reduces-endothelial-cortical-stiffness-in-western-diet-fed-female-mice
#8
Jaume Padilla, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Javad Habibi, Brian Bostick, Annayya R Aroor, Melvin R Hayden, Guanghong Jia, Mona Garro, Vincent G DeMarco, Camila Manrique, Frank W Booth, Luis A Martinez-Lemus, James R Sowers
We recently showed that Western diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance promotes endothelial cortical stiffness in young female mice. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that regular aerobic exercise would attenuate the development of endothelial and whole artery stiffness in female Western diet-fed mice. Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomized into sedentary (ie, caged confined, n=6) or regular exercise (ie, access to running wheels, n=7) conditions for 16 weeks. Exercise training improved glucose tolerance in the absence of changes in body weight and body composition...
November 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508853/-op-8a-01-exercise-induced-hypertension-and-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-epinephrine-deficient-mice
#9
P Mendes, R Martinho, S Leite, A Leite-Moreira, A Lourenço, M Moreira-Rodrigues
OBJECTIVE: Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (Pnmt) is required for the conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine. Bao et al (2007) described that Pnmt-knockout (Pnmt-KO) mice have an increased ratio of left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness to internal dimensions (LVPW/LVID) but not overall cardiac hypertrophy. Pnmt-KO mice showed normal resting blood pressure (BP) but became hypertensive during treadmill exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac morphological and functional alterations after chronic exercise in Pnmt-KO mice...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488660/increased-hypertrophic-response-with-increased-mechanical-load-in-skeletal-muscles-receiving-identical-activity-patterns
#10
Einar Eftestøl, Ingrid M Egner, Ida G Lunde, Stian Ellefsen, Tom Andersen, Cecilie Sjåland, Kristian Gundersen, Jo C Bruusgaard
It is often assumed that mechanical factors are important for effects of exercise on muscle, but during voluntary training and most experimental conditions the effects could solely be attributed to differences in electrical activity, and direct evidence for a mechanosensory pathway has been scarce. We here show that, in rat muscles stimulated in vivo under deep anesthesia with identical electrical activity patterns, isometric contractions induced twofold more hypertrophy than contractions with 50-60% of the isometric force...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486490/cardiac-imaging-in-athletes
#11
Asaad A Khan, Lucy Safi, Malissa Wood
Athletic heart syndrome refers to the physiological and morphological changes that occur in a human heart after repetitive strenuous physical exercise. Examples of exercise-induced changes in the heart include increases in heart cavity dimensions, augmentation of cardiac output, and increases in heart muscle mass. These cardiac adaptations vary based on the type of exercise performed and are often referred to as sport-specific cardiac remodeling. The hemodynamic effects of endurance and strength training exercise lead to these adaptations...
April 2016: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484678/-surgical-treatment-of-anterosuperior-impingement-of-the-shoulder
#12
J Pogorzelski, K Beitzel, A B Imhoff, P Millett, S Braun
OBJECTIVE: Therapy of intraarticular lesions and elimination of structural risk factors for those suffering from clinical manifest anterosuperiorer impingement (ASI) of the shoulder. This includes as a maximum version the arthroscopic repair of supraspinatus (SST) and subscapularis tendon (SCT) tears with subsequent subpectoral tenodesis of the long head of the biceps tendon (LBT) and arthroscopic coracoplasty. INDICATIONS: Clinical manifest anterosuperiorer impingement of the shoulder with anterior shoulder pain, failed conservative treatment and clear intraarticular damage in radiological imaging...
December 2016: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447104/local-wound-care-for-primary-cleft-lip-repair-treatment-and-outcomes-with-use-of-topical-hydrogen-peroxide
#13
Amy L Strong, Allison C Nauta, Anna A Kuang
OBJECTIVES: This study highlights and validates a peroxide-based wound healing strategy for treatment of surgically closed facial wounds in a pediatric population. The authors identified pediatric patients undergoing primary cleft lip repair as a specific population to evaluate the outcomes of such a protocol. Through analysis of defined outcome measures, a reliable and reproducible protocol for postoperative wound care following primary cleft lip repair with favorable results is described...
December 2015: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433861/anthropometric-and-cardiovascular-responses-to-hypertrophic-resistance-training-in-postmenopausal-women
#14
Brandon S Shaw, Monique Gouveia, Shannon McIntyre, Ina Shaw
OBJECTIVE: Menopause induces a phase of decreased physical fitness and altered body composition characterized by increased total and abdominal fat and reduced lean mass. It is, however, inconclusive which specific resistance training (RT) subtypes can reverse these deleterious changes in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Thirty-seven postmenopausal women were randomized to a 6-week nonexercising control group (n = 18) or hypertrophic RT group (n = 19) that engaged in two 40-minute sessions weekly using three sets of 12 repetitions at 67% to 85% one-repetition maximum for 10 whole-body exercises...
July 18, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380100/determining-strength-a-case-for-multiple-methods-of-measurement
#15
Samuel L Buckner, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Scott J Dankel, Jeremy P Loenneke
Muscle strength is often measured through the performance of a one-repetition maximum (1RM). However, we that feel a true measurement of 'strength' remains elusive. For example, low-load alternatives to traditional resistance training result in muscle hypertrophic changes similar to those resulting from traditional high-load resistance training, with less robust changes observed with maximal strength measured by the 1RM. However, when strength is measured using a test to which both groups are 'naive', differences in strength become less apparent...
July 5, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318203/the-structural-effects-of-mutations-can-aid-in-differential-phenotype-prediction-of-beta-myosin-heavy-chain-myosin-7-missense-variants
#16
Nouf S Al-Numair, Luis Lopes, Petros Syrris, Lorenzo Monserrat, Perry Elliott, Andrew C R Martin
MOTIVATION: High-throughput sequencing platforms are increasingly used to screen patients with genetic disease for pathogenic mutations, but prediction of the effects of mutations remains challenging. Previously we developed SAAPdap (Single Amino Acid Polymorphism Data Analysis Pipeline) and SAAPpred (Single Amino Acid Polymorphism Predictor) that use a combination of rule-based structural measures to predict whether a missense genetic variant is pathogenic. Here we investigate whether the same methodology can be used to develop a differential phenotype predictor, which, once a mutation has been predicted as pathogenic, is able to distinguish between phenotypes-in this case the two major clinical phenotypes (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, HCM and dilated cardiomyopathy, DCM) associated with mutations in the beta-myosin heavy chain (MYH7) gene product (Myosin-7)...
October 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102172/effects-of-resistance-training-frequency-on-measures-of-muscle-hypertrophy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Brad J Schoenfeld, Dan Ogborn, James W Krieger
BACKGROUND: A number of resistance training (RT) program variables can be manipulated to maximize muscular hypertrophy. One variable of primary interest in this regard is RT frequency. Frequency can refer to the number of resistance training sessions performed in a given period of time, as well as to the number of times a specific muscle group is trained over a given period of time. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effects of resistance training frequency on hypertrophic outcomes...
April 21, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27101291/aerobic-exercise-augments-muscle-transcriptome-profile-of-resistance-exercise
#18
Tommy R Lundberg, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, Per A Tesch, Eric Rullman, Thomas Gustafsson
Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061026/mybpc3-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-can-be-detected-by-using-advanced-ecg-in-children-and-young-adults
#19
E Fernlund, P Liuba, J Carlson, P G Platonov, T T Schlegel
INTRODUCTION: The conventional ECG is commonly used to screen for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but up to 25% of adults and possibly larger percentages of children with HCM have no distinctive abnormalities on the conventional ECG, whereas 5 to 15% of healthy young athletes do. Recently, a 5-min resting advanced 12-lead ECG test ("A-ECG score") showed superiority to pooled criteria from the strictly conventional ECG in correctly identifying adult HCM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether in children and young adults, A-ECG scoring could detect echocardiographic HCM associated with the MYBPC3 genetic mutation with greater sensitivity than conventional ECG criteria and distinguish healthy young controls and athletes from persons with MYBPC3 HCM with greater specificity...
May 2016: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27055984/training-specific-functional-neural-and-hypertrophic-adaptations-to-explosive-vs-sustained-contraction-strength-training
#20
Thomas G Balshaw, Garry J Massey, Thomas M Maden-Wilkinson, Neale A Tillin, Jonathan P Folland
Training specificity is considered important for strength training, although the functional and underpinning physiological adaptations to different types of training, including brief explosive contractions, are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of 12 wk of explosive-contraction (ECT, n = 13) vs. sustained-contraction (SCT, n = 16) strength training vs. control (n = 14) on the functional, neural, hypertrophic, and intrinsic contractile characteristics of healthy young men. Training involved 40 isometric knee extension repetitions (3 times/wk): contracting as fast and hard as possible for ∼1 s (ECT) or gradually increasing to 75% of maximum voluntary torque (MVT) before holding for 3 s (SCT)...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
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