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1RM Hypertrophy

Alex S Ribeiro, Brad J Schoenfeld, Steven J Fleck, Fábio L C Pina, Matheus A Nascimento, Edilson S Cyrino
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) performed in a pyramid (PR) versus a traditional (TD) system on muscular strength, muscle mass, and hormonal responses in older women. Twenty-five older women (67.6 ± 5.1 years, 65.9 ± 11.1 kg, 154.7 ± 5.8 cm, and 27.5 ± 4.5 kg m) performed both a TD and PR system RT program in a balanced crossover design. The TD program consisted of 3 sets of 8-12 RM with a constant load for the 3 sets, whereas the PR system consisted of 3 sets of 12/10/8 RM with incrementally higher loads for each set...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
James J Tufano, Jenny A Conlon, Sophia Nimphius, Lee E Brown, Harry G Banyard, Bryce D Williamson, Leslie G Bishop, Amanda J Hopper, G Gregory Haff
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of intra-set rest frequency and training load on muscle time under tension, external work, and external mechanical power output during back squat protocols with similar changes in velocity. METHODS: Twelve strength-trained men (26.0±4.2 y; 83.1±8.8 kg; 1.75±0.06 m; 1.88 ± 0.19 1RM:body mass) performed three sets of twelve back squats using three different set structures: traditional sets with 60% 1RM (TS), cluster sets of four with 75% 1RM (CS4), and cluster sets of two with 80% 1RM (CS2)...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Simon D Burley, Jayde Whittingham-Dowd, Jeremy Allen, Jean-Francois Grosset, Gladys L Onambele-Pearson
Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol)...
2016: PloS One
G Nicholson, T Ispoglou, A Bissas
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the acute and chronic training responses to strength-, hypertrophy- and cluster-type resistance training. METHODS: Thirty-four trained males were assigned to a strength [STR: 4 × 6 repetitions, 85 % of one repetition maximum, (1RM), 900 s total rest], hypertrophy (HYP: 5 × 10 repetitions, 70 % 1RM, 360 s total rest), cluster 1 (CL-1: 4 × 6/1 repetitions, 85 % 1RM, 1400 s total rest), and cluster 2 (CL-2: 4 × 6/1 repetitions, 90 % 1RM, 1400 s total rest) regimens which were performed twice weekly for a 6-week period...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Julius Fink, Naoki Kikuchi, Shou Yoshida, Kentaro Terada, Koichi Nakazato
BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated the effects of resistance training protocols with different loads on muscle hypertrophy and strength. METHODS: Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 (n = 7 for each) resistance training (RT) protocols to failure: High load 80 % 1RM (8-12 repetitions) (H group), low load 30 % 1RM (30-40 repetitions) (L group) and a mixed RT protocol (M group) in which the participants switch from H to L every 2 weeks...
2016: SpringerPlus
Alex Klemp, Chad Dolan, Justin M Quiles, Rocky Blanco, Robert F Zoeller, B Sue Graves, Michael C Zourdos
The overarching aim of this study was to compare volume-equated high-repetition daily undulating periodization (DUPHR) versus a low-repetition daily undulating periodization (DUPLR) program for muscle performance. Sixteen college-aged (23 ± 3 years) resistance-trained males were counterbalanced into 2 groups: (i) DUPHR (n = 8), with a weekly training order of 12 repetitions (Day 1), 10 repetitions (Day 2), and 8 repetitions (Day 3); and (ii) DUPLR (n = 8), with a weekly training order of 6 repetitions (Day 1), 4 repetitions (Day 2), and 2 repetitions (Day 3)...
July 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Benedikt Schoser
In search for additional counter measures of muscle atrophy vibration exercise training may have substantial effort for patients with neuromuscular disorders. To cover safety aspects and obtain muscle morphology data, a pilot study was performed in eleven healthy men. Countermovement jump, squat jump, drop jump and one repetition maximum test (1RM) were performed on a force platform before and after a 6 week training period. No severe side effects were found. Repeated needle muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle revealed a selective pre- to post-training type-2 myofiber hypertrophy of up to 50 %...
December 2015: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
Robert W Morton, Sara Y Oikawa, Christopher G Wavell, Nicole Mazara, Chris McGlory, Joe Quadrilatero, Brittany L Baechler, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips
We reported, using a unilateral resistance training (RT) model, that training with high or low loads (mass per repetition) resulted in similar muscle hypertrophy and strength improvements in RT-naïve subjects. Here we aimed to determine whether the same was true in men with previous RT experience using a whole-body RT program and whether postexercise systemic hormone concentrations were related to changes in hypertrophy and strength. Forty-nine resistance-trained men (23 ± 1 yr, mean ± SE) performed 12 wk of whole-body RT...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Joshua Denham, Francine Z Marques, Emma L Bruns, Brendan J O'Brien, Fadi J Charchar
PURPOSE: Regular engagement in resistance exercise training elicits many health benefits including improvement to muscular strength, hypertrophy and insulin sensitivity, though the underpinning molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence 8 weeks of resistance exercise training has on leukocyte genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in healthy young men. METHODS: Eight young (21.1 ± 2.2 years) men completed one repetition maximum (1RM) testing before completing 8 weeks of supervised, thrice-weekly resistance exercise training comprising three sets of 8-12 repetitions with a load equivalent to 80 % of 1RM...
June 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kris Beattie, Brian P Carson, Mark Lyons, Antonia Rossiter, Ian C Kenny
Running economy (RE) and velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (VV˙O 2 max) are considered to be the best physiological performance indicators in elite distance runners. In addition to cardiovascular function, RE and VV˙O2 max are partly dictated by neuromuscular factors. One technique to improve neuromuscular function in athletes is through strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 40 week strength training intervention on strength (maximal- & reactive-strength), VVO2max, economy and body composition (body mass, fat & lean mass) in competitive distance runners...
April 21, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Mariana L Benites, Ragami C Alves, Sandro S Ferreira, Lucio Follador, Sergio G da Silva
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to verify the rate of perceived exertion and feelings of pleasure/displeasure in elderly women, who did normally perform physical exercises, following eight weeks of strength training in a constant routine. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven sedentary women were subjected to anthropometric assessment. The maximum load (100%) for each used in this study was determined by performing a test to determined the 1RM for each of them according to the protocol of Fatouros et al...
January 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Belmiro Freitas De Salles, Marcos Doederlein Polito, Karla Fabiana Goessler, Pietro Mannarino, Thiago Torres Matta, Roberto Simão
In its last position stand about strength training, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends a rest interval (RI) between sets ranging between 1 and 3 min, varying in accordance with the objective. However, there is no consensus regarding the optimal recovery between sets, and most studies have investigated fixed intervals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the effects of fixed versus self-suggested RI between sets in lower and upper body exercises performance. Twenty-seven healthy subjects (26 ± 1...
November 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Terry J Housh, Samuel L Buckner, Haley C Bergstrom, Kristen C Cochrane, Ethan C Hill, Cory M Smith, Richard J Schmidt, Glen O Johnson, Joel T Cramer
Jenkins, NDM, Housh, TJ, Buckner, SL, Bergstrom, HC, Cochrane, KC, Hill, EC, Smith, CM, Schmidt, RJ, Johnson, GO, and Cramer, JT. Neuromuscular adaptations after 2 and 4 weeks of 80% versus 30% 1 repetition maximum resistance training to failure. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2174-2185, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypertrophic, strength, and neuromuscular adaptations to 2 and 4 weeks of resistance training at 80 vs. 30% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in untrained men. Fifteen untrained men (mean ± SD; age = 21...
August 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Naoki Kikuchi, Shou Yoshida, Mizuki Okuyama, Koichi Nakazato
Kikuchi, N, Yoshida, S, Okuyama, M, and Nakazato, K. The effect of high-intensity interval cycling sprints subsequent to arm-curl exercise on upper-body muscle strength and hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2318-2323, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower limb sprint interval training (SIT) after arm resistance training (RT) influences training response of arm muscle strength and hypertrophy. Twenty men participated in this study. We divided subjects into RT group (n = 6) and concurrent training group (CT, n = 6)...
August 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Brad J Schoenfeld, Zachary K Pope, Franklin M Benik, Garrett M Hester, John Sellers, Josh L Nooner, Jessica A Schnaiter, Katherine E Bond-Williams, Adrian S Carter, Corbin L Ross, Brandon L Just, Menno Henselmans, James W Krieger
Schoenfeld, BJ, Pope, ZK, Benik, FM, Hester, GM, Sellers, J, Nooner, JL, Schnaiter, JA, Bond-Williams, KE, Carter, AS, Ross, CL, Just, BL, Henselmans, M, and Krieger, JW. Longer interset rest periods enhance muscle strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1805-1812, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters...
July 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Martino V Franchi, Daniel J Wilkinson, Jonathan I Quinlan, William K Mitchell, Jonathan N Lund, John P Williams, Neil D Reeves, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton, Marco V Narici
UNLABELLED: We recently reported that the greatest distinguishing feature between eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) muscle loading lays in architectural adaptations: ECC favors increases in fascicle length (Lf), associated with distal vastus lateralis muscle (VL) hypertrophy, and CON increases in pennation angle (PA). Here, we explored the interactions between structural and morphological remodeling, assessed by ultrasound and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and long-term muscle protein synthesis (MPS), evaluated by deuterium oxide (D2O) tracing technique...
November 2015: Physiological Reports
Michael C Zourdos, Edward Jo, Andy V Khamoui, Sang-Rok Lee, Bong-Sup Park, Michael J Ormsbee, Lynn B Panton, Robert J Contreras, Jeong-Su Kim
The primary aim of this study was to compare 2 daily undulating periodization (DUP) models on one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength in the squat, bench press, deadlift, total volume (TV) lifted, and temporal hormone response. Eighteen male, college-aged (21.1 ± 1.9 years) powerlifters participated in this study and were assigned to one of 2 groups: (a) traditional DUP training with a weekly training order: hypertrophy-specific, strength-specific, and power-specific training (HSP, n = 9) or (b) modified DUP training with a weekly training order: hypertrophy-specific, power-specific, and strength-specific training (HPS, n = 9)...
March 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
R Csapo, L M Alegre
The purpose of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of heavy (∼80% of one repetition maximum, 1RM) vs light-moderate load (∼45% 1RM) resistance training (RT) programs in inducing strength gains and skeletal muscle hypertrophy in elderly people. To assess the role of training volumes, studies in which training protocols were matched for mechanical work were independently analyzed. In all 15 studies included (448 subjects, age 67.8 years), when comparing heavy with light-moderate loads, strength gains tended to be larger following RT with higher intensities of load, with the resulting total population effect being μ = 0...
September 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Gerald T Mangine, Jay R Hoffman, Adam M Gonzalez, Jeremy R Townsend, Adam J Wells, Adam R Jajtner, Kyle S Beyer, Carleigh H Boone, Amelia A Miramonti, Ran Wang, Michael B LaMonica, David H Fukuda, Nicholas A Ratamess, Jeffrey R Stout
This investigation compared the effect of high-volume (VOL) versus high-intensity (INT) resistance training on stimulating changes in muscle size and strength in resistance-trained men. Following a 2-week preparatory phase, participants were randomly assigned to either a high-volume (VOL; n = 14, 4 × 10-12 repetitions with ~70% of one repetition maximum [1RM], 1-min rest intervals) or a high-intensity (INT; n = 15, 4 × 3-5 repetitions with ~90% of 1RM, 3-min rest intervals) training group for 8 weeks...
August 2015: Physiological Reports
David P Looney, William J Kraemer, Michael F Joseph, Brett A Comstock, Craig R Denegar, Shawn D Flanagan, Robert U Newton, Tunde K Szivak, William H DuPont, David R Hooper, Keijo Häkkinen, Carl M Maresh
This investigation examined peak motor unit activity during sets that differed in resistance (50, 70, or 90% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]). Ten resistance-trained men (age, 23 ± 3 years; height, 187 ± 7 cm; body mass, 91.5 ± 6.9 kg; squat 1RM, 141 ± 28 kg) were assessed by electromyography (EMG) on the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles in a randomized within-subject experiment consisting of 2 test visits: a drop-set day and a single-set day using only the 50% of 1RM intensity performed to failure...
March 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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