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1RM Hypertrophy

Naoki Kikuchi, Koichi Nakazato
Aim: To investigate the effect of push-up training with a similar load of to 40% of 1- repetition maximumal (1RM) bench press on muscle hypertrophy and strength gain in men. Methods: Eighteen male participants (age, 20.2 ± 0.73 years, range: 19-22 years, height: 169.8 ± 4.4 cm, weight: 64.5 ± 4.7 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: bench press at 40%1RM (bench-press group, n = 9) or push-ups with position adjusted (e.g. kneeling) to the same load of bench-press 40%1RM (push-up group, n = 9), performed twice per week for 8 weeks...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Gederson K Gomes, Cristiane M Franco, Paulo Ricardo P Nunes, Fábio L Orsatti
We studied the effects of two different weekly frequency resistance training (RT) protocols over eight weeks on muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy in well-trained men. Twenty-three subjects (age: 26.2±4.2 years; RT experience: 6.9±3.1 years) were randomly allocated into the two groups: low frequency (LFRT, n = 12) or high frequency (HFRT, n = 11). The LFRT performed a split-body routine, training each specific muscle group once a week. The HFRT performed a total-body routine, training all muscle groups every session...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jozo Grgic, Jan Homolak, Pavle Mikulic, Javier Botella, Brad J Schoenfeld
An emerging body of evidence is starting to suggest that the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers might be load specific. In other words, it may be that resistance training with high loads (i.e., ≥60% of 1 repetition maximum [RM]) emphasizes a greater growth of type II muscle fibers, while resistance training with low loads (i.e., <60% of 1RM) might primarily augment hypertrophy of type I muscle fibers. Type I and type II muscle fibers possess certain distinct characteristics, with type II muscle fibers having faster calcium kinetics, faster shortening velocities, and ability to generate more power than type I muscle fibers...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Eduardo Oliveira De Souza, Valmor Tricoli, Acob Rauch, Michael Rene Alvarez, Gilberto Laurentino, André Yui Aihara, Fabiano Nassar Cardoso, Hamilton Roschel, Carlos Ugrinowitsch
This study investigated the effects of non-periodized (NP), traditional periodization (TP) and daily undulating (UP) regimens on muscle strength and hypertrophy in untrained individuals. Thirty-three recreationally active males were randomly divided into four groups: NP: n = 8; TP: n = 9; UP: n = 8 and control group (C): n = 8. Experimental groups underwent a 12-week strength-training program consisting of two sessions per week. Muscle strength and quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA) were assessed at baseline, 6-wk (i...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ryan J Colquhoun, Christopher M Gai, Danielle Aguilar, Daniel Bove, Jeffrey Dolan, Andres Vargas, Kaylee Couvillion, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Bill I Campbell
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of a high- versus a moderate-training frequency on maximal strength and body composition. METHODS: 28 young, healthy resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to either: 3x/week (3x; n=16) or 6x/week (6x; n=12). Dependent variables (DVs) assessed at baseline and after the 6-week training intervention included: squat 1RM (SQ1RM), bench press 1RM (BP1RM), deadlift 1RM (DL1RM), powerlifting total (PLT), Wilk's coefficient (WC), fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Johanna K Ihalainen, Heikki Peltonen, Göran Paulsen, Juha P Ahtiainen, Ritva S Taipale, Mari Hämäläinen, Eeva Moilanen, Antti A Mero
PURPOSE: Our primary aim was to study the effects of a 4 wk preparatory resistance training (RT) period followed by 12 wks of two specific RT protocols (either hypertrophic-strength, HS, or strength-hypertrophy-power, SHP, training) on inflammation markers and the possible relationship of the changes in abdominal fat and lean mass to the changes in inflammation status. METHODS: A total of 82 healthy men were included in the study. Maximal concentric leg press strength (1RM), total body lean mass, total body and abdominal fat mass, circulating high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and selected adipocytokines (resistin, adiponectin and leptin) concentrations were measured before (PRE) and after 4 (wk4) and 16 weeks (wk16) of RT...
October 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Manoel E Lixandrão, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Ricardo Berton, Felipe C Vechin, Miguel S Conceição, Felipe Damas, Cleiton A Libardi, Hamilton Roschel
BACKGROUND: Low-load resistance training (< 50% of one-repetition maximum [1RM]) associated with blood-flow restriction (BFR-RT) has been thought to promote increases in muscle strength and mass. However, it remains unclear if the magnitude of these adaptations is similar to conventional high-load resistance training (> 65% 1RM; HL-RT). OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of HL- versus BFR-RT on muscle adaptations using a systematic review and meta-analysis procedure...
October 17, 2017: Sports Medicine
Cody T Haun, Petey W Mumford, Paul A Roberson, Matthew A Romero, Christopher B Mobley, Wesley C Kephart, Richard G Anderson, Ryan J Colquhoun, Tyler W D Muddle, Michael J Luera, Cameron S Mackey, David D Pascoe, Kaelin C Young, Jeffrey S Martin, Jason M DeFreitas, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Michael D Roberts
Recent evidence suggests that resistance training with light or heavy loads to failure results in similar adaptations. Herein, we compared how both training modalities affect the molecular, neuromuscular, and recovery responses following exercise. Resistance-trained males (mean ± SE: 22 ± 2 years, 84.8 ± 9.0 kg, 1.79 ± 0.06 m; n = 15) performed a crossover design of four sets of leg extensor exercise at 30% (light RE) or 80% (heavy RE) one repetition maximum (1RM) to repetition failure, and heavy RE or light RE 1 week later...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
Shigeto Tomiya, Naoki Kikuchi, Koichi Nakazato
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 30-min moderate intensity cycling exercise immediately after upper-body resistance training on the muscle hypertrophy and strength gain. Fourteen subjects were randomly divided between two groups. One group performed moderate intensity (55% of maximum oxygen consumption [VO2max], 30 min) cycle training immediately after arm resistance training as concurrent training (CT; n = 7, age: 21.8 ± 0.7 years, height: 1.68 ± 0.06 m, weight: 60.3 ± 7.4 kg); the second group performed the same endurance and arm RT on separate days as control group (SEP; n=7, age: 22...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Brad J Schoenfeld, Jozo Grgic, Dan Ogborn, James W Krieger
Schoenfeld, BJ, Grgic, J, Ogborn, D, and Krieger, JW. Strength and hypertrophy adaptations between low- vs. high-load resistance training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3508-3523, 2017-The purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review of the current body of literature and a meta-analysis to compare changes in strength and hypertrophy between low- vs. high-load resistance training protocols. Searches of PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were conducted for studies that met the following criteria: (a) an experimental trial involving both low-load training [≤60% 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and high-load training (>60% 1RM); (b) with all sets in the training protocols being performed to momentary muscular failure; (c) at least one method of estimating changes in muscle mass or dynamic, isometric, or isokinetic strength was used; (d) the training protocol lasted for a minimum of 6 weeks; (e) the study involved participants with no known medical conditions or injuries impairing training capacity...
December 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Saulo Martorelli, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Mikel Izquierdo, Rodrigo Celes, André Martorelli, Vitor Alonso Cleto, José Gustavo Alvarenga, Martim Bottaro
This study investigated the effects of a 10-week resistance training to failure on neuromuscular adaptations in young women. Eighty-nine active young women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) repetitions to failure (RF; three sets of repetitions to failure); 2) repetitions not to failure with equalized volume (RNFV; four sets of 7 repetitions); and 3) repetitions not to failure (RNF; three sets of 7 repetitions). All groups performed the elbow flexor exercise (bilateral biceps curl) and trained 2 days per week using 70% of 1RM...
June 24, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
Jonato Prestes, Ramires Alsamir Tibana, Eduardo de Araujo Sousa, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento, Pollyanna de Oliveira Rocha, Nathalia Ferreira Camarço, Nuno Manuel Frade de Sousa, Jeffrey M Willardson
The purpose of the present study was to compare the longitudinal effects of six weeks of rest-pause versus traditional multiple-set RT on muscle strength, hypertrophy, localized muscular endurance, and body composition in trained subjects. Eighteen trained subjects (mean ± SD; age = 30.2 ± 6.6 years; weight = 74.8 ± 17.2 kg; height = 171.4 ± 10.3 cm) were randomly assigned to either a traditional multiple-set group (n = 9; 7 males and 2 females; 3 sets of 6 repetitions with 80% of 1-RM and 2 min rest intervals between sets) or a rest-pause group (n = 9; 7 males and 2 females)...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Amelia A Miramonti, Ethan C Hill, Cory M Smith, Kristen C Cochrane-Snyman, Terry J Housh, Joel T Cramer
We examined the neuromuscular adaptations following 3 and 6 weeks of 80 vs. 30% one repetition maximum (1RM) resistance training to failure in the leg extensors. Twenty-six men (age = 23.1 ± 4.7 years) were randomly assigned to a high- (80% 1RM; n = 13) or low-load (30% 1RM; n = 13) resistance training group and completed leg extension resistance training to failure 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Testing was completed at baseline, 3, and 6 weeks of training. During each testing session, ultrasound muscle thickness and echo intensity, 1RM strength, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, and contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris were measured...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Fernando Naclerio, Marco Seijo-Bujia, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Conrad P Earnest
Beef powder is a new high-quality protein source scarcely researched relative to exercise performance. The present study examined the impact of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and carbohydrate on strength performance (1RM), body composition (via plethysmography), limb circumferences and muscular thickness (via ultrasonography), following an 8-week resistance-training program. After being randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Beef, Whey, or Carbohydrate, twenty four recreationally physically active males (n = 8 per treatment) ingested 20 g of supplement, mixed with orange juice, once a day (immediately after workout or before breakfast)...
October 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Thue Kvorning, Mikkel R B Hansen, Kurt Jensen
Kvorning, T, Hansen, MRB, and Jensen, K. Strength and conditioning training by the Danish national handball team before an Olympic tournament. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1759-1765, 2017-The physical demands imposed on national team handball teams during the Olympics imply significant physical preparation to improve performance and reduce incidence of injuries. The purpose of this case report was to describe and analyze the strength and conditioning (S&C) training performed by the Danish national handball team before the Beijing Olympic Games...
July 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Roberto Moriggi Junior, Ricardo Berton, Thiago Mattos Frota de Souza, Mara Patrícia Traina Chacon-Mikahil, Cláudia Regina Cavaglieri
PURPOSE: It has been suggested that flexibility training may reduce the total volume of training during resistance trainings. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of flexibility training immediately before resistance training (FLEX-RT) versus resistance training without flexibility training (RT) on maximum strength and the vastus lateralis muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Participants had each leg assigned to RT or FLEX-RT. Both groups performed four sets of leg extensions to voluntary failure of 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM); however, FLEX-RT performed two sets of 25 s of static stretching before resistance training...
April 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Mark Waldron, Kieran Whelan, Owen Jeffries, Dean Burt, Louis Howe, Stephen David Patterson
This study investigated the effects of acute branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage among experienced resistance-trained athletes. In a double-blind matched-pairs design, 16 resistance-trained participants, routinely performing hypertrophy training, were randomly assigned to a BCAA (n = 8) or placebo (n = 8) group. The BCAAs were administered at a dosage of 0.087 g/kg body mass, with a 2:1:1 ratio of leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The participants performed 6 sets of 10 full-squats at 70% 1-repetition maximum to induce muscle damage...
June 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Jakub Chycki, Miłośz Czuba, Artur Gołaś, Adam Zając, Olga Fidos-Czuba, Adrian Młynarz, Wojciech Smółka
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 6 week resistance training protocol under hypoxic conditions (FiO2 = 12.9%, 4000 m) on muscle hypertrophy. The project included 12 resistance trained male subjects, randomly divided into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 6; age 21 ± 2.4 years; body height [BH] 178.8 ± 7.3 cm; body mass [BM] 80.6 ± 12.3 kg) and group 2 (n = 6; age 22 ± 1.5 years; BH 177.8 ± 3.7cm; BM 81.1 ± 7.5 kg). Each group performed resistance exercises alternately under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (4000 m) for 6 weeks...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
Brianna D McKay, Noelle M Yeo, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Amelia A Miramonti, Joel T Cramer
McKay, BD, Yeo, NM, Jenkins, NDM, Miramonti, AA, and Cramer, JT. Exertional rhabdomyolysis in a 21-year-old healthy woman: a case report. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1403-1410, 2017-The optimal resistance training program to elicit muscle hypertrophy has been recently debated and researched. Although 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 70-80% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) are widely recommended, recent studies have shown that low-load (∼30% 1RM) high-repetition (3 sets of 30-40 repetitions) resistance training can elicit similar muscular hypertrophy...
May 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Joshua A Cotter, Matthew J Garver, Taylor K Dinyer, Ciaran M Fairman, Brian C Focht
Cotter, JA, Garver, MJ, Dinyer, TK, Fairman, CM, and Focht, BC. Ratings of perceived exertion during acute resistance exercise performed at imposed and self-selected loads in recreationally trained women. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2313-2318, 2017-Resistance exercise (RE) is commonly used to elicit skeletal muscle adaptation. Relative intensity of a training load links closely with the outcomes of regular RE. This study examined the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to acute bouts of RE using imposed (40% and 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and self-selected (SS) loads in recreationally trained women...
August 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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