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Francesco Sgarangella, Giuseppe Bitti, Maria Caterina Suelzu, Pietro Desini, Patrizia Piras, Gianuario Fiori, Maurizio Cossu, Giannina Chessa
OBJECTIVES: to assess concentration levels of dioxins, PCBs, and chemical elements in sheep milk produced in areas close to the Italian contaminated site (CS) located in the North-West of Sardinia (Southern Italy), named «Aree industriali di Porto Torres e discarica di Calancoi» (i.e., industrial areas of Porto Torres and landfill of Calancoi). DESIGN: monitoring plan of environmental contaminants on zootechnical productions based on analysis of dioxins, PCBs, heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb), and other elements (As, Be, Cr, Ni, Tl , Zn) in sheep bulk milk...
November 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Philippe Bugnon, Maike Heimann, Michaela Thallmair
Score sheets are an essential tool of animal welfare. They allow transparent assessments to be made of animal health and behavior during animal experiments and they define interventions when deviations from normal status are detected. As such, score sheets help to refine animal experiments as part of the 3R (replacement, reduction and refinement) concept. This mini review aims at summarizing the scarce literature available on score sheet design.
December 2016: Laboratory Animals
M Gertz, C Edel, I Ruß, J Dodenhoff, K-U Götz, G Thaller
The aim of our study was to compare different validation methods with respect to their impact on validation results and to evaluate the feasibility of genomic selection in the German Landrace population of the Bavarian herdbook. For this purpose, a sample of 337 boars and 1,676 sows was genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Conventional BLUP breeding values for fertility, growth, carcass, and quality traits were deregressed and used as phenotypes in genomic BLUP. The resulting genomic breeding values were also blended with information from the full conventional breeding value estimation to include information from nongenotyped parents...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
George Poinar
A mid-Cretaceous Eccrinales in Myanmar amber is described as Paleocadus burmiticus gen. et sp. nov. in the family Eccrinaceae. The fossil is represented by two types of sporangiospores formed on different thalli protruding from the anus of a primitive wasp, with secondary infestation spores multinucleate and thin walled. Its presence establishes the Eccrinales in the mid-Cretaceous and shows that at that time, lineages of this group parasitized wasps, an association unknown with extant members of the Order.
December 2016: Fungal Biology
Phoebe R Armitage, Wendy A Nelson, Judith E Sutherland
Several subspecies are defined within Codium fragile, including the invasive C. fragile ssp. fragile, first reported in New Zealand in 1973. An endemic subspecies, Codium fragile ssp. novae-zelandiae, is also found throughout New Zealand. The two subspecies exhibit morphological and molecular variation, although these have never been evaluated together. We compared variation between subspecies at locations in Auckland, identifying subspecies using rps3-rpl16 DNA sequence data, and assessing gross morphological differences, anatomical utricle characters and morphometrics...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Pedro Murúa, Dieter G Müller, David J Patiño, Renato Westermeier
Recent findings on holdfast development in the giant kelp highlighted its key importance for Macrocystis vegetative propagation. We report here for the first time the development of adventitious holdfasts from Macrocystis stipes. Swellings emerge spontaneously from different areas of the stipes, especially in senescent or creeping individuals. After being manually fastened to solid substrata, these swellings elongated into haptera, which became strongly attached after one month. Within 4 months new thalli increased in size and vitality, and developed reproductive fronds...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Lucia Porzio, Maria Cristina Buia, Maurizio Lorenti, Anna De Maio, Carmen Arena
Ocean Acidification (OA) is likely to affect macroalgal diversity in the future with species-specific responses shaping macroalgal communities. In this framework, it is important to focus research on the photosynthetic response of habitat-forming species which have an important structural and functional role in coastal ecosystems. Most of the studies on the impacts of OA involve short-term laboratory or micro/mesocosm experiments. It is more challenging to assess the adaptive responses of macroalgal community to decreasing ocean pH over long-term periods, as they represent the basis of trophic dynamics in marine environments...
November 16, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Navneet Sharma, Himanshu Ojha, Dharam Pal Pathak, Rajeev Goel, Rakesh Kumar Sharma
AIMS: p-Tertbutylcalix [4]arene loaded nanoemulsion has been designed, characterized and evaluated for skin decontamination of radionuclides of interest in nuclear and radiological emergencies. Further, nanoemulsion was evaluated for Ex-vivo complexation, skin permeation, interaction and cytodermal toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex-vivo skin complexation studies were conducted using High-resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICPMS)...
November 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Fernanda Kokowicz Pilatti, Fernanda Ramlov, Eder Carlos Schmidt, Christopher Costa, Eva Regina de Oliveira, Claudia M Bauer, Miguel Rocha, Zenilda Laurita Bouzon, Marcelo Maraschin
Fossil fuels, e.g. gasoline and diesel oil, account for substantial share of the pollution that affects marine ecosystems. Environmental metabolomics is an emerging field that may help unravel the effect of these xenobiotics on seaweeds and provide methodologies for biomonitoring coastal ecosystems. In the present study, FTIR and multivariate analysis were used to discriminate metabolic profiles of Ulva lactuca after in vitro exposure to diesel oil and gasoline, in combinations of concentrations (0.001%, 0...
November 12, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi Fard, Ahmad Zare Javid, Maryam Ravanbakhsh, Zahra Ramezani, Mehdi Ahmadi, Kambiz Ahmadi Angali, Shirin Ardeshirzadeh
Heavy metals with high bioaccumulation capacity are considered as important contaminants and may be available in high concentrations in environment and biota samples. The main aim of this study was to determine the concentration of nickel and thallium in Cynoglossus arel fish in Musa estuary. Sixty-seven fish samples were collected from Musa estuary during five intervals of 15 days in summer 2013. After biometric measurements, the concentrations of nickel and thallium were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer...
November 14, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Matthias Preusser, Anna S Berghoff, Christiane Thallinger, Christoph C Zielinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: ESMO Open
Pedro Thalles Bernardo de Carvalho Nogueira, Ozawa Brasil, Antonio Dionízio de Albuquerque Neto, Luciano Leocádio Teixeira Nogueira Filho, Bruna Lopes Souza, José Rodrigues Laureano Filho
Leukoplakia is a nondetachable, potentially malignant, white lesion that is commonly found in smokers of advanced age. Leukoplakia occurs more frequently in men; however, there is a higher index of dysplastic changes and malignant transformation in women. The proposed treatments for this disease range from monitoring to surgical excision. Cryosurgery has been reported as an alternative to conventional surgery. Cryosurgery destroys the tissues of a potentially malignant lesion through the application of low temperatures...
November 2016: General Dentistry
Yume Imada, Makoto Kato
Dipteran larval morphology exhibits overwhelming variety, affected by their diverse feeding habits and habitat use. In particular, larval mouthpart morphology is associated with feeding behavior, providing key taxonomic traits. Despite most larval Brachycera being carnivorous, a basal brachyceran family, Rhagionidae, contains bryophyte-feeding taxa with multiple feeding habits. To elucidate the life history, biology, and morphological evolution of the bryophyte-feeding rhagionids, the larval feeding behavior and morphology, and the adult oviposition behavior of four species belonging to three genera of Spaniinae (Spania Meigen, Litoleptis Chillcott and Ptiolina Zetterstedt) are described...
2016: PloS One
Lourdes Infantes, Rosa M Claramunt, Dionisia Sanz, Ibon Alkorta, José Elguero
The introduction of poly(1H-pyrazolyl)borate anions, better known as scorpionates, as negatively charged ligands for a great diversity of metal cations has had a tremendous influence in coordination chemistry. The structures of two salts of tetrakispyrazolylborate, namely [tetrakis(3-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)borato]thallium(I), [Tl(C36H28BN8)], and catena-poly[potassium-[μ2-tetrakis(3-cyclopropyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)borato]], [K(C24H28BN8)]n, have been determined at 296 K in the monoclinic P21/c and C2/c space groups, respectively...
November 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Eric R Sirianni, Daniel C Cummins, Glenn P A Yap, Klaus H Theopold
Scorpionate (or trispyrazolylborate) ligands have seen much structural variation due to the relative ease of modifying their electronic and steric effects. Second-generation scorpionates were created by increasing the bulk in the 3-position of the pyrazole (pz) ring. A new class of third-generation scorpionates was obtained by modifying the remaining boron substituent. A series of thallium(I) and cobalt(II) complexes of the ferrocenyltris(3-R-pyrazolyl)borate ligand [FcTp(R); R = isopropyl ((i)Pr) or tert-butyl ((t)Bu)] have been synthesized in order to expand the range of redox-active third-generation scorpionates...
November 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Kiyoshi Fujisawa, Masaya Shimizu, Robert K Szilagyi
Tris(pyrazolyl)borate (scorpionate) ligands can be considered as the most prolific ligands in contemporary coordination chemistry due to the availability of various steric and electronic substituents at the pyrazolyl rings that allow fine-tuning of the open-coordination site for metal centres. The thallium(I) complexes of anionic tridentate-chelating scorpionate ligands, namely [tris(3-mesityl-5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2))hydroborato]thallium(I) monohydrate, [Tl(C39H46BN6)]·H2O, (I), and [bis(3-mesityl-5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2))(5-mesityl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2))hydroborato]thallium(I), [Tl(C39H46BN6)], (II), show a {Tl(I)N3} coordination, with average Tl(I)-N bond lengths of 2...
November 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Yang Du, Yaohu Lei, Xin Liu, Jianheng Huang, Zhigang Zhao, Jinchuan Guo, Ji Li, Hanben Niu
Grating interferometry is advantageous over conventional x-ray absorption imaging because it enables the detection of samples constituted by low atomic number elements (low-Z materials). Therefore, it has a potential application in biological science and medical diagnostics. The grating interferometry has some critical optics components such as absorption gratings which are conventionally manufactured by the lithography, electroplating, and molding (LIGA) technique and employing gold as the absorbent material in it...
December 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Prassana K Dadi, Nicholas Catin Vierra, Emily L Days, Matthew Dickerson, Paige N Vinson, C David Weaver, David A Jacobson
The two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channel TREK-2 serves to modulate plasma membrane potential in dorsal root ganglia c-fiber nociceptors, which tunes electrical excitability and nociception. Thus, TREK-2 activators are considered a potential therapeutic target for treating pain; however, there are currently no selective pharmacological tools for TREK-2 channels. Here we report the identification of the first TREK-2 selective activators using a high-throughput fluorescence-based thallium (Tl(+)) flux screen (HTS)...
November 2, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Delei Xu, Haiqing Yao, Zhaoxian Xu, Rui Wang, Zheng Xu, Sha Li, Xiaohai Feng, Youhua Liu, Hong Xu
The aim of this study was to produce ε-poly-lysine (ε-PL) by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 through solid-state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial residues. Maximum ε-PL production (86.62mg/g substrate) was obtained a mixed substrate of rapeseed cake and wheat bran (2:1, w/w) supplemented with glucose (4%, w/w), (NH4)2SO4 (3%, w/w), with an initial moisture content of 65%, initial pH of 7.0 and inoculum size of 13% v/w, incubated at 30°C for 8days. The results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that the filamentous thallus could penetrate the substrate surface...
October 14, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Ying-Jiun C Chen, Huei-Jing Wang, Guang-Yuh Jauh
In eukaryotic cells, ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are transcribed, processed, and assembled with ribosomal proteins in the nucleolus. Regulatory mechanisms of rRNA gene (rDNA) transcription and processing remain elusive in plants, especially their connection to nucleolar organization. We performed an in silico screen for essential genes of unknown function in Arabidopsis thaliana and identified Thallo (THAL) encoding a SAS10/C1D family protein. THAL disruption caused enlarged nucleoli in arrested embryos, aberrant processing of precursor rRNAs at the 5' External Transcribed Spacer, and repression of the major rDNA variant (VAR1)...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
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