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Arántzazu Molins, Patricia Moya, Francisco J García-Breijo, José Reig-Armiñana, Eva Barreno
Three vagrant (Circinaria hispida, Circinaria gyrosa, Circinaria sp. 'paramerae') and one crustose (semi-vagrant, Circinaria sp.'oromediterranea') lichens growing in very continental areas in the Iberian Peninsula were selected to study the phycobiont diversity. Mycobiont identification was checked using nrITS DNA barcoding: Circinaria sp.'oromediterranea' and Circinaria sp. 'paramerae' formed a new clade. Phycobiont diversity was analyzed in 50 thalli of Circinaria spp. using nrITS DNA and LSU rDNA, with microalgae coexistence being found in all the species analyzed by Sanger sequencing...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Lucia Muggia, Martin Grube
Lichen symbioses develop long-living thallus structures even in the harshest environments on Earth. These structures are also habitats for many other microscopic organisms, including other fungi, which vary in their specificity and interaction with the whole symbiotic system. This contribution reviews the recent progress regarding the understanding of the lichen-inhabiting fungi that are achieved by multiphasic approaches (culturing, microscopy, and sequencing). The lichen mycobiome comprises a more or less specific pool of species that can develop symptoms on their hosts, a generalist environmental pool, and a pool of transient species...
May 22, 2018: Life
Theerapat Luangsuphabool, H Thorsten Lumbsch, Jittra Piapukiew, Ek Sangvichien
Architrypethelium murisporum Luangsuphabool, Lumbsch & Sangvichien is described for a crustose lichen occurring in dry evergreen forest in Thailand. It is characterised by a green to yellow-green corticated thallus, perithecia fused in black pseudostromata with white rim surrounding the ostiole and small, hyaline and muriform ascospores. Currently, all species in the genus Architrypethelium have transversely septate ascospores, hence the discovery of this new species indicates that ascospore septation is variable within the genus, similar to numerous other groups of lichen-forming ascomycetes...
2018: MycoKeys
Jeff K Davies, Lisa L Brennan, John Wingard, Christopher R Cogle, Neena Kapoor, Ami J Shah, Bimalangshu R Dey, Thomas R Spitzer, Marcos De Lima, Laurence Jn Cooper, Peter Thall, Richard E Champlin, Lee M Nadler, Eva C Guinan
PURPOSE: Allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment for many haematologic cancers. Use of haploidentical (mismatched) donors increases HSCT availability but is limited by severe graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and delayed immune reconstitution. Alloanergization of donor T-cells is a simple approach to rebuild immunity whilst limiting GvHD after haploidentical HSCT but the optimal T-cell dose and impact on immune reconstitution remain unknown.  Experimental Design: We performed a multicentre Phase 1 trial of alloanergized donor lymphocyte infusion (aDLI) after CD34-selected myeloablative haploidentical HSCT...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Daniela Frasca, Alain Diaz, Maria Romero, Seth Thaller, Bonnie B Blomberg
The adipose tissue (AT) contributes to systemic and B cell intrinsic inflammation, reduced B cell responses and secretion of autoimmune antibodies. In this study we show that adipocytes in the human obese subcutaneous AT (SAT) secrete several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to the establishment and maintenance of local and systemic inflammation, and consequent suboptimal immune responses in obese individuals, as we have previously shown. We also show that pro-inflammatory chemokines recruit immune cells expressing the corresponding receptors to the SAT, where they also contribute to local and systemic inflammation, secreting additional pro-inflammatory mediators...
2018: PloS One
Sylvia Schäffer, Stephan Koblmüller, Ingeborg Klymiuk, Gerhard G Thallinger
Bilaterian mitochondrial (mt) genomes are circular molecules that typically contain 37 genes. To date, only a single complete mitogenome sequence is available for the species-rich sarcoptiform mite order Oribatida. We sequenced the mitogenome of Paraleius leontonychus, another species of this suborder. It is 14,186 bp long and contains 35 genes, including only 20 tRNAs, lacking tRNA Gly and tRNA Tyr . Re-annotation of the mitogenome of Steganacarus magnus increased the number of mt tRNAs for this species to 12...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Steven D Forsythe, Mahesh Devarasetty, Thomas Shupe, Colin Bishop, Anthony Atala, Shay Soker, Aleksander Skardal
Introduction: Environmental toxins, such as lead and other heavy metals, pesticides, and other compounds, represent a significant health concern within the USA and around the world. Even in the twenty-first century, a plethora of cities and towns in the U.S. have suffered from exposures to lead in drinking water or other heavy metals in food or the earth, while there is a high possibility of further places to suffer such exposures in the near future. Methods: We employed bioengineered 3D human liver and cardiac organoids to screen a panel of environmental toxins (lead, mercury, thallium, and glyphosate), and charted the response of the organoids to these compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Yuqin Xiong, Rui Yang, Xiaoxiao Sun, Huatian Yang, Haimin Chen
A variety of different symbiotic microbial communities are harbored on the surface of seaweeds, the interactions of which depend upon nutritional exchanges between the microbes and the hosts. Metabolomic profiling is able to provide a comprehensive and unbiased snapshot of the metabolites associated with seaweed-microbe interactions. In this study, the relationships between phycosphere bacteria and the red alga Pyropia haitanensis were investigated on a metabolomic basis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the pathways of the interactions between the seaweed and its associated phycospheric microbes were revealed...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
G Martínez-Laiz, M Ros, C Navarro-Barranco, J M Guerra-García
Habitat selection is a complex process, dependent on numerous fluctuating conditions and key to species coexistence. In a changing global scenario, it will greatly determine the fate of marine organisms and hence is an important subject to be explored. The present study evaluates host specificity of two caprellid amphipod species, Caprella grandimana and Caprella takeuchii, dwelling on a rocky intertidal where the calcifying macroalgae Jania rubens and Ellisolandia elongata show opposite seasonal fluctuation patterns throughout the year...
May 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Tim J Arciszewski, Rod R Hazewinkel, Kelly R Munkittrick, Bruce W Kilgour
Control charting is a simple technique to identify change and is well-suited for use in water quality programs. Control charts accounting for co-variation associated with discharge and time were used to explore example and representative variables routinely measured in the Athabasca River near the oil sands area for indications of change, including 5 major ions (chloride, sodium, sulphate, calcium, magnesium), 5 total metals (aluminum, iron, thallium, molybdenum, vanadium) and total suspended solids (TSS). Regression equations developed from reference data (1988-2009) were used to predict observations and calculate residuals from later test observations (2010-2016)...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Lucia Muggia, Sigrun Kraker, Theodora Gößler, Martin Grube
The thallus structure of the lichen symbiosis provides a fungal shelter for the growth of algal partners. The long-living thallus also provides a habitat for other fungi, but experimental studies, which could inform us about the details of their interactions have hardly been conducted. We present a new approach by embedding axenically cultured strains of fungi together with algae in alginate spheres, which allows easy transfer of co-cultures on solid media. As the growth rates of the organisms are differentially triggered by the underlying medium, alginate embedding can help to adjust optimal parameters for stable culture of the combined symbionts...
May 4, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Harald Penasso, Sigrid Thaller
This study investigated the effect of isometrically induced fatigue on Hill-type muscle model parameters and related task-dependent effects. Parameter identification methods were used to extract fatigue-related parameter trends from isometric and ballistic dynamic maximum voluntary knee extensions. Nine subjects, who completed ten fatiguing sets, each consisting of nine 3 s isometric maximum voluntary contractions with 3 s rest plus two ballistic contractions with different loads, were analyzed. Only at the isometric task, the identified optimized model parameter values of muscle activation rate and maximum force generating capacity of the contractile element decreased from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] Hz and from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] N, respectively...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Gerard Ariño-Estrada, Junwei Du, Hadong Kim, Leonard J Cirignano, Kanai S Shah, Simon R Cherry, Gregory S Mitchell
Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a promising semiconductor detector material for positron emission tomography (PET) because it can offer very good energy resolution and 3-D segmentation capabilities, and it also provides detection efficiency surpassing that of commonly used scintillators. Energy, timing, and spatial resolution were measured for thin (<1 mm) TlBr detectors. The energy and timing resolution were measured simultaneously for the same planar 0.87 mm-thick TlBr device. An energy resolution of (6...
May 4, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Nasreen Shaikh, Rishi Raj, Srinivas Movva, Charles Mattina
Clinical manifestations of acute myocardial infarction can be more than just chest pain. Patients can present with dyspnea, fatigue, heart burn, diaphoresis, syncope, and abdominal pain to name a few. Our patient was a 74-year-old male with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and COPD due to chronic tobacco use, who presented with persistent hiccups for 4 days and no other complaints. Coincidently, he was found to have a diabetic foot ulcer with sepsis and acute kidney injury and hence was admitted to the hospital...
2018: Case Reports in Cardiology
Shaoning Yang, Dingqiang Lu, Pingkai Ouyang
Epilepsy is a kind of disease with complicated pathogenesis. KCNQ (Kv7) is a voltage dependent potassium channel that is mostly associated with epilepsy and thus becomes an important target in the treatment of epilepsy. In this paper, a series of substituted piperidine derivatives targeting KCNQ were designed and synthesized by using scaffold hopping and active substructure hybridization. Compounds were evaluated by fluorescence-based thallium influx assay, Rb+ flow assay and electrophysiological patch-clamp assay...
April 17, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Bettina M Pucher, Oana A Zeleznik, Gerhard G Thallinger
Integrative analysis aims to identify the driving factors of a biological process by the joint exploration of data from multiple cellular levels. The volume of omics data produced is constantly increasing, and so too does the collection of tools for its analysis. Comparative studies assessing performance and the biological value of results, however, are rare but in great demand. We present a comprehensive comparison of three integrative analysis approaches, sparse canonical correlation analysis (sCCA), non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and logic data mining MicroArray Logic Analyzer (MALA), by applying them to simulated and experimental omics data...
April 23, 2018: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Jianhua Guo, Yinglan Cao, Zhuanxi Luo, Hongda Fang, Zhenfang Chen, Dapeng Wang, Feifei Xu, Changzhou Yan
Although thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic element, little information is available on the environmental risks of Tl in agricultural soils with intensive practices, particularly nearby mining sites. Therefore, we investigated the potential release of Tl in acidic soils with intensive cultivation nearby a waste copper mining site from southern China based on its level and chemical fractions as well as simulated release under artificial acid rain. Results showed that the average Tl content was 1.31 mg/kg in the studied area, which significantly exceeds the permissible thallium value of 1 mg/kg for agricultural soil in China...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Satoshi Kurisu, Kazuhiro Nitta, Yoji Sumimoto, Hiroki Ikenaga, Ken Ishibashi, Yukihiro Fukuda, Yasuki Kihara
BACKGROUND: Myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with thallium (Tl)-201 is an established modality for evaluating myocardial ischemia. We assessed the effects of atrial fibrillation (AF) on the myocardial washout rate (WR) of Tl-201 on myocardial perfusion SPECT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 231 patients with no evidence of myocardial ischemia were enrolled retrospectively in this study. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of the ECG at the time of myocardial perfusion SPECT...
April 20, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Lauren E Lees, Stacy A Krueger-Hadfield, Andrew J Clark, Elizabeth A Duermit, Erik E Sotka, Courtney J Murren
Theory predicts that the maintenance of haplodiplontic life cycles requires ecological differences between the haploid gametophytes and diploid sporophytes, yet evidence of such differences remain scarce. The haplodiplontic red seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla has invaded the temperate estuaries of the Northern Hemisphere, where it commonly modifies detrital and trophic pathways. In native populations, abundant hard substratum enables spore settlement, and gametophyte:tetrasporophyte ratios are approximately 40:60...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Gaspare Drago, Cinzia Perrino, Silvia Canepari, Silvia Ruggieri, Luca L'Abbate, Valeria Longo, Paolo Colombo, Daniele Frasca, Martin Balzan, Giuseppina Cuttitta, Gianluca Scaccianoce, Giuseppe Piva, Salvatore Bucchieri, Mario Melis, Giovanni Viegi, Fabio Cibella, Martin Balzan, David Bilocca, Charles Borg, Stephen Montefort, Christopher Zammit, Salvatore Bucchieri, Fabio Cibella, Paolo Colombo, Giuseppina Cuttitta, Gaspare Drago, Giuliana Ferrante, Luca L'Abbate, Stefania La Grutta, Valeria Longo, Mario R Melis, Silvia Ruggieri, Giovanni Viegi, Remo Minardi, Giuseppe Piva, Rosaria Ristagno, Gianfranco Rizzo, Gianluca Scaccianoce
Cigarette smoke is the main source of indoor chemical and toxic elements. Cadmium (Cd), Thallium (Tl), Lead (Pb) and Antimony (Sb) are important contributors to smoke-related health risks. Data on the association between Rare Earth Elements (REE) Cerium (Ce) and Lanthanum (La) and domestic smoking are scanty. To evaluate the relationship between cigarette smoke, indoor levels of PM2.5 and heavy metals, 73 children were investigated by parental questionnaire and skin prick tests. The houses of residence of 41 "cases" and 32 "controls" (children with and without respiratory symptoms, respectively) were evaluated by 48-h PM2...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Research
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