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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234134/anatomical-evidence-for-scent-guided-foraging-in-the-turkey-vulture
#1
Nathan P Grigg, Justin M Krilow, Cristian Gutierrez-Ibanez, Douglas R Wylie, Gary R Graves, Andrew N Iwaniuk
The turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) is a widespread, scavenging species in the Western Hemisphere that locates carrion by smell. Scent guided foraging is associated with an expansion of the olfactory bulbs of the brain in vertebrates, but no such neuroanatomical data exists for vultures. We provide the first measurements of turkey vulture brains, including the size of their olfactory bulbs and numbers of mitral cells, which provide the primary output of the olfactory bulbs. Comparative analyses show that the turkey vulture has olfactory bulbs that are 4× larger and contain twice as many mitral cells as those of the sympatric black vulture (Coragyps atratus), despite having brains that are 20% smaller...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211936/avian-scavenging-of-small-sized-pig-carcasses-in-central-florida-utilizing-gis-to-analyze-site-variables-affecting-skeletal-dispersal
#2
John J Schultz, Alexander T Mitchell
Scavengers can significantly alter a forensic scene and consume, modify, disarticulate, and disperse bodies on the ground surface. The research purpose was to examine vulture scavenging in central Florida, USA. Four small-sized pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses were left on the ground surface of two microenvironments (shaded and open) at a secure site with game cameras. Dispersal data were mapped and analyzed using geographical information systems spatial analysis digital mapping tools. The primary avian scavengers recorded included black vultures (Coragyps atratus) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), as well as bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101695/vulture-mortality-resulting-from-illegal-poisoning-in-the-southern-balkan-peninsula
#3
Dimitar Parvanov, Emilian Stoynov, Nadya Vangelova, Hristo Peshev, Atanas Grozdanov, Ventseslav Delov, Yavor Iliev
A study was carried out to determine the incidents of illegal poisoning of griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), black vulture (Aegypius monachus), and bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) in the southern Balkan Peninsula between 1982 and 2017. A total of 38 poisoning cases affecting 224 vultures were analyzed to identify their causes and the primary target species for poisoning. Nine different compounds were used in these incidents and the most frequently applied were strychnine, carbamate, and organophosphoros compounds...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858379/hematologic-reference-intervals-for-wild-black-vultures-coragyps-atratus
#4
Jean C A Barbara, Vivian L Ferreira, Fernanda J V Guida, Fabíola E S Prioste, Eliana R Matushima, Tânia F Raso
BACKGROUND: The Black vulture (Coragyps atratus) is the most common species of vulture and is widespread in all America. The species feeds on rotting carcasses, and large groups are frequently seen in urban areas, concentrating especially on rubbish dumps. Although C atratus is a very common species in some areas, little is known about its health in the wild. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine hematologic RIs of wild adult Black vultures. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 70 wild Black vultures captured in São Paulo, Brazil...
August 31, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678813/fine-scale-assessment-of-home-ranges-and-activity-patterns-for-resident-black-vultures-coragyps-atratus-and-turkey-vultures-cathartes-aura
#5
Amanda E Holland, Michael E Byrne, A Lawrence Bryan, Travis L DeVault, Olin E Rhodes, James C Beasley
Knowledge of black vulture (Coragyps atratus) and turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) spatial ecology is surprisingly limited despite their vital ecological roles. Fine-scale assessments of space use patterns and resource selection are particularly lacking, although development of tracking technologies has allowed data collection at finer temporal and spatial resolution. Objectives of this study were to conduct the first assessment of monthly home range and core area sizes of resident black and turkey vultures with consideration to sex, as well as elucidate differences in monthly, seasonal, and annual activity patterns based on fine-scale movement data analyses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376425/effects-of-attitudes-and-demography-on-public-support-for-endangered-species-conservation
#6
Vasilios Liordos, Vasileios J Kontsiotis, Magdalini Anastasiadou, Efstathios Karavasias
It is critical for managers to understand how attitudes and demography affect public's preferences for species protection for designing successful conservation projects. 1080 adults in Greece were asked to rate pictures of 12 endangered species on aesthetic and negativistic attitudes, and intention to support their conservation. Factor analysis identified a group of animals for which respondents indicated high levels of support for their conservation (red deer, loggerhead sea turtle, brown bear, common pheasant, European ground squirrel, glossy ibis) and a group of animals for which respondents indicated low levels of support (black vulture, great white shark, fire-bellied toad, western barbastelle, Cretan tube web spider, Milos viper)...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258525/exposure-of-threatened-accipitridae-to-mycobacterium-bovis-calls-for-active-surveillance
#7
Mónica V Cunha, Beatriz Azorín, Rocío G Peñuela, Teresa Albuquerque, Ana Botelho
Anthropogenic activities have cumulatively led to the dramatic decline of world populations of vultures that currently face serious survival challenges in several regions of the world. In Portugal, the three resident species qualify as endangered and are under conservation efforts, mainly in the central east and south-east regions, where habitat protection and artificial feeding stations were implemented. Concurrently, the areas under protection are highly affected by tuberculosis (TB) in cattle and wild ungulates, whose potentially infected carcasses may naturally or artificially be used as feed by local vultures...
June 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251454/assessing-multi-tissue-lead-burdens-in-free-flying-obligate-scavengers-in-eastern-north-america
#8
Shannon Behmke, Patricia Mazik, Todd Katzner
Avian scavengers are regularly exposed to anthropogenic lead. Although many studies evaluate lead concentrations of either blood or tissues of lead-poisoned birds, there is comparatively less research on lead burdens of free-flying, apparently healthy individuals and populations. Here, we address this lack of information by assessing lead levels of multiple tissues (femur, liver, kidney, breast muscle, thigh muscle) in free-flying black vultures (n = 98) and turkey vultures (n = 10) collected outside the hunting season...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601346/multi-locus-phylogenetic-inference-among-new-world-vultures-aves-cathartidae
#9
Jeff A Johnson, Joseph W Brown, Jérôme Fuchs, David P Mindell
New World Vultures are large-bodied carrion feeding birds in the family Cathartidae, currently consisting of seven species from five genera with geographic distributions in North and South America. No study to date has included all cathartid species in a single phylogenetic analysis. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among all cathartid species using five nuclear (nuc; 4060bp) and two mitochondrial (mt; 2165bp) DNA loci with fossil calibrated gene tree (27 outgroup taxa) and coalescent-based species tree (2 outgroup taxa) analyses...
December 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243150/antibody-prevalence-and-isolation-of-viable-toxoplasma-gondii-from-raptors-in-the-southeastern-usa
#10
David Love, Oliver C Kwok, Shiv Kumar Verma, Jitender P Dubey, Jamie Bellah
Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos )...
July 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235333/sex-determination-in-the-wild-a-field-application-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-successfully-determines-sex-across-three-raptor-species
#11
A Centeno-Cuadros, I Abbasi, R Nathan
PCR-based methods are the most common technique for sex determination of birds. Although these methods are fast, easy and accurate, they still require special facilities that preclude their application outdoors. Consequently, there is a time lag between sampling and obtaining results that impedes researchers to take decisions in situ and in real time considering individuals' sex. We present an outdoor technique for sex determination of birds based on the amplification of the duplicated sex-chromosome-specific gene Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)...
March 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26790745/ticks-collected-from-humans-domestic-animals-and-wildlife-in-yucatan-mexico
#12
R I Rodríguez-Vivas, D A Apanaskevich, M M Ojeda-Chi, I Trinidad-Martínez, E Reyes-Novelo, M D Esteve-Gassent, A A Pérez de León
Domestic animals and wildlife play important roles as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens that are transmitted to humans by ticks. Besides their role as vectors of several classes of microorganisms of veterinary and public health relevance, ticks also burden human and animal populations through their obligate blood-feeding habit. It is estimated that in Mexico there are around 100 tick species belonging to the Ixodidae and Argasidae families. Information is lacking on tick species that affect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife through their life cycle...
January 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26687342/wild-birds-frequent-carriers-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-of-ctx-m-and-shv-12-types
#13
Leticia Alcalá, Carla Andrea Alonso, Carmen Simón, Chabier González-Esteban, Jesús Orós, Antonio Rezusta, Carmelo Ortega, Carmen Torres
To get a better insight into the role of birds as reservoirs of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) Escherichia coli producers, 100 fecal samples belonging to 15 different wild avian species from Northern Spain were analyzed. Cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) E. coli isolates were identified in 16 of the 100 tested birds, which corresponded to 9 animal species (Gyps fulvus-griffon vulture, Larus michahellis-yellow-legged gull, Milvus migrans-black kite, Milvus milvus-red kite, Ciconia ciconia-white stork, Sturnus unicolor-spotless starling, Aquila chrysaetos-golden eagle, Cuculus canorus-common cuckoo, Tyto alba-barn owl)...
November 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26177533/stop-and-smell-the-pollen-the-role-of-olfaction-and-vision-of-the-oriental-honey-buzzard-in-identifying-food
#14
Shu-Yi Yang, Bruno A Walther, Guo-Jing Weng
The importance of olfaction for various avian behaviors has become increasingly evident. So far, the use of olfaction for food detection among raptors has only been demonstrated for Cathartes vultures. The Oriental honey buzzard (Pernis orientalis) is a resident and migrant in Taiwan and regularly forages in apiaries. One of its foods in apiaries is yellow pollen dough, a softball-sized mixture of pollen, soybeans, and sugar that beekeepers provide as a supplementary food for bees. Given that pollen dough is not similar to any naturally occurring food, we hypothesized that buzzards identify the dough's nutritious contents using olfaction, perhaps in combination with vision...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25795925/chronic-lead-exposure-is-epidemic-in-obligate-scavenger-populations-in-eastern-north-america
#15
Shannon Behmke, Jesse Fallon, Adam E Duerr, Andreas Lehner, John Buchweitz, Todd Katzner
Lead is a prominent and highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to wildlife. To understand the degree to which wildlife populations are chronically exposed, we quantified lead levels within American black vultures (Coragyps atratus; BLVU) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura; TUVU), two species that are useful as environmental sentinels in eastern North America. Every individual sampled (n=108) had bone lead levels indicative of chronic exposure to anthropogenic lead (BLVU: x¯=36.99 ± 55.21 mg Pb/kg tissue (±SD); TUVU: x¯=23...
June 2015: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25682585/contaminants-in-the-southern-tip-of-south-america-analysis-of-organochlorine-compounds-in-feathers-of-avian-scavengers-from-argentinean-patagonia
#16
E Martínez-López, S Espín, F Barbar, S A Lambertucci, P Gómez-Ramírez, A J García-Fernández
The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to organochlorine compounds (OC) in 91 primary wing feathers of avian scavengers, Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), American black vulture (Coragyps atratus) and Southern crested caracaras (Polyborus plancus) from the southern tip of South America, in the Argentinean Patagonia. We analyzed for a series of OC including hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), heptachlor and heptachlor-epoxide...
May 2015: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24698902/validity-of-bartram-s-painted-vulture-aves-cathartidae
#17
Noel F R Snyder, Joel T Fry
William Bartram described the Painted Vulture (Vultur sacra) as a new species in his 1791 book on travels in Florida and other southeastern states. However, no specimen of this bird survives, and it has not been reported by any subsequent ornithologist. Bartram's detailed description is not presently endorsed by the American Ornithologists' Union and has been widely regarded as a myth, a misdescribed King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus), a misdescribed Northern Caracara Caracara cheriway (Jacquin), or a garbled mixture of species...
2013: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24331554/veterinary-assessment-for-free-ranging-eurasian-black-vulture-aegypius-monachus-chicks-in-southeastern-mongolia
#18
REVIEW
David E Kenny, Cynthia L Bickel, Richard P Reading
Working as a veterinarian in remote field locations can be physically and intellectually challenging. A collaborative multi-disciplinary approach is often required for successful data collection. Technologies and methodologies frequently need to be modified to work in these harsh field environments. This article will describe a collaboration in southeastern Mongolia collecting blood for sera analytes and physiologic data from Eurasian Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) chicks during a tagging operation.
November 2013: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24249399/comparison-of-eye-morphology-and-retinal-topography-in-two-species-of-new-world-vultures-aves-cathartidae
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Thomas J Lisney, Karyn Stecyk, Jeffrey Kolominsky, Gary R Graves, Douglas R Wylie, Andrew N Iwaniuk
Vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. In this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Cathartidae), turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (Coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. We found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both species, but that black vultures have larger corneas relative to eye size than turkey vultures...
December 2013: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24026471/from-daily-movements-to-population-distributions-weather-affects-competitive-ability-in-a-guild-of-soaring-birds
#20
Emily L C Shepard, Sergio A Lambertucci
The ability of many animals to access and exploit food is dependent on the ability to move. In the case of scavenging birds, which use soaring flight to locate and exploit ephemeral resources, the cost and speed of movement vary with meteorological factors. These factors are likely to modify the nature of interspecific interactions, as well as individual movement capacity, although the former are less well understood. We used aeronautical models to examine how soaring performance varies with weather within a guild of scavenging birds and the consequences this has for access to a common resource...
November 6, 2013: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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