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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601346/multi-locus-phylogenetic-inference-among-new-world-vultures-aves-cathartidae
#1
Jeff A Johnson, Joseph W Brown, Jérôme Fuchs, David P Mindell
New World Vultures are large-bodied carrion feeding birds in the family Cathartidae, currently consisting of seven species from five genera with geographic distributions in North and South America. No study to date has included all cathartid species in a single phylogenetic analysis. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among all cathartid species using five nuclear (nuc; 4060bp) and two mitochondrial (mt; 2165bp) DNA loci with fossil calibrated gene tree (27 outgroup taxa) and coalescent-based species tree (2 outgroup taxa) analyses...
December 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243150/antibody-prevalence-and-isolation-of-viable-toxoplasma-gondii-from-raptors-in-the-southeastern-usa
#2
David Love, Oliver C Kwok, Shiv Kumar Verma, Jitender P Dubey, Jamie Bellah
Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos )...
July 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235333/sex-determination-in-the-wild-a-field-application-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-successfully-determines-sex-across-three-raptor-species
#3
A Centeno-Cuadros, I Abbasi, R Nathan
PCR-based methods are the most common technique for sex determination of birds. Although these methods are fast, easy and accurate, they still require special facilities that preclude their application outdoors. Consequently, there is a time lag between sampling and obtaining results that impedes researchers to take decisions in situ and in real time considering individuals' sex. We present an outdoor technique for sex determination of birds based on the amplification of the duplicated sex-chromosome-specific gene Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein using a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)...
May 28, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26790745/ticks-collected-from-humans-domestic-animals-and-wildlife-in-yucatan-mexico
#4
R I Rodríguez-Vivas, D A Apanaskevich, M M Ojeda-Chi, I Trinidad-Martínez, E Reyes-Novelo, M D Esteve-Gassent, A A Pérez de León
Domestic animals and wildlife play important roles as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens that are transmitted to humans by ticks. Besides their role as vectors of several classes of microorganisms of veterinary and public health relevance, ticks also burden human and animal populations through their obligate blood-feeding habit. It is estimated that in Mexico there are around 100 tick species belonging to the Ixodidae and Argasidae families. Information is lacking on tick species that affect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife through their life cycle...
January 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26687342/wild-birds-frequent-carriers-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-of-ctx-m-and-shv-12-types
#5
Leticia Alcalá, Carla Andrea Alonso, Carmen Simón, Chabier González-Esteban, Jesús Orós, Antonio Rezusta, Carmelo Ortega, Carmen Torres
To get a better insight into the role of birds as reservoirs of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) Escherichia coli producers, 100 fecal samples belonging to 15 different wild avian species from Northern Spain were analyzed. Cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) E. coli isolates were identified in 16 of the 100 tested birds, which corresponded to 9 animal species (Gyps fulvus-griffon vulture, Larus michahellis-yellow-legged gull, Milvus migrans-black kite, Milvus milvus-red kite, Ciconia ciconia-white stork, Sturnus unicolor-spotless starling, Aquila chrysaetos-golden eagle, Cuculus canorus-common cuckoo, Tyto alba-barn owl)...
December 21, 2015: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26177533/stop-and-smell-the-pollen-the-role-of-olfaction-and-vision-of-the-oriental-honey-buzzard-in-identifying-food
#6
Shu-Yi Yang, Bruno A Walther, Guo-Jing Weng
The importance of olfaction for various avian behaviors has become increasingly evident. So far, the use of olfaction for food detection among raptors has only been demonstrated for Cathartes vultures. The Oriental honey buzzard (Pernis orientalis) is a resident and migrant in Taiwan and regularly forages in apiaries. One of its foods in apiaries is yellow pollen dough, a softball-sized mixture of pollen, soybeans, and sugar that beekeepers provide as a supplementary food for bees. Given that pollen dough is not similar to any naturally occurring food, we hypothesized that buzzards identify the dough's nutritious contents using olfaction, perhaps in combination with vision...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25795925/chronic-lead-exposure-is-epidemic-in-obligate-scavenger-populations-in-eastern-north-america
#7
Shannon Behmke, Jesse Fallon, Adam E Duerr, Andreas Lehner, John Buchweitz, Todd Katzner
Lead is a prominent and highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to wildlife. To understand the degree to which wildlife populations are chronically exposed, we quantified lead levels within American black vultures (Coragyps atratus; BLVU) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura; TUVU), two species that are useful as environmental sentinels in eastern North America. Every individual sampled (n=108) had bone lead levels indicative of chronic exposure to anthropogenic lead (BLVU: x¯=36.99 ± 55.21 mg Pb/kg tissue (±SD); TUVU: x¯=23...
June 2015: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25682585/contaminants-in-the-southern-tip-of-south-america-analysis-of-organochlorine-compounds-in-feathers-of-avian-scavengers-from-argentinean-patagonia
#8
E Martínez-López, S Espín, F Barbar, S A Lambertucci, P Gómez-Ramírez, A J García-Fernández
The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to organochlorine compounds (OC) in 91 primary wing feathers of avian scavengers, Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), American black vulture (Coragyps atratus) and Southern crested caracaras (Polyborus plancus) from the southern tip of South America, in the Argentinean Patagonia. We analyzed for a series of OC including hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), heptachlor and heptachlor-epoxide...
May 2015: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24698902/validity-of-bartram-s-painted-vulture-aves-cathartidae
#9
Noel F R Snyder, Joel T Fry
William Bartram described the Painted Vulture (Vultur sacra) as a new species in his 1791 book on travels in Florida and other southeastern states. However, no specimen of this bird survives, and it has not been reported by any subsequent ornithologist. Bartram's detailed description is not presently endorsed by the American Ornithologists' Union and has been widely regarded as a myth, a misdescribed King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus), a misdescribed Northern Caracara Caracara cheriway (Jacquin), or a garbled mixture of species...
2013: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24331554/veterinary-assessment-for-free-ranging-eurasian-black-vulture-aegypius-monachus-chicks-in-southeastern-mongolia
#10
REVIEW
David E Kenny, Cynthia L Bickel, Richard P Reading
Working as a veterinarian in remote field locations can be physically and intellectually challenging. A collaborative multi-disciplinary approach is often required for successful data collection. Technologies and methodologies frequently need to be modified to work in these harsh field environments. This article will describe a collaboration in southeastern Mongolia collecting blood for sera analytes and physiologic data from Eurasian Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) chicks during a tagging operation.
November 2013: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24249399/comparison-of-eye-morphology-and-retinal-topography-in-two-species-of-new-world-vultures-aves-cathartidae
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Thomas J Lisney, Karyn Stecyk, Jeffrey Kolominsky, Gary R Graves, Douglas R Wylie, Andrew N Iwaniuk
Vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. In this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Cathartidae), turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (Coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. We found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both species, but that black vultures have larger corneas relative to eye size than turkey vultures...
December 2013: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24026471/from-daily-movements-to-population-distributions-weather-affects-competitive-ability-in-a-guild-of-soaring-birds
#12
Emily L C Shepard, Sergio A Lambertucci
The ability of many animals to access and exploit food is dependent on the ability to move. In the case of scavenging birds, which use soaring flight to locate and exploit ephemeral resources, the cost and speed of movement vary with meteorological factors. These factors are likely to modify the nature of interspecific interactions, as well as individual movement capacity, although the former are less well understood. We used aeronautical models to examine how soaring performance varies with weather within a guild of scavenging birds and the consequences this has for access to a common resource...
November 6, 2013: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23805550/estimation-of-normal-tear-production-in-free-living-eurasian-black-vultures-aegypius-monachus-and-griffon-vultures-gyps-fulvus-in-dadia-national-park-greece
#13
Anastasia T Komnenou, Angelos L N Thomas, Stefania E Danika, Theodora Skartsi, Dimitris P Vasilakis, Beatriz Cárcamo, Ron Ofri
The aim of this study was to record the Schirmer tear test I (STT I) measurements in free-living vultures in order to estimate normal values. The Eurasian black vulture (Aegypius monachus), which breeds in the Mediterranean region and Asia, is listed as near threatened; it is also classified as vulnerable at the European level and endangered in Greece. The griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), once widespread across the continent, has undergone a dramatic decline which has led to its extinction in many regions. Sixty-two animals were examined in total including 54 black vultures and 8 griffon vultures...
June 2013: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23785435/need-and-seek-for-dietary-micronutrients-endogenous-regulation-external-signalling-and-food-sources-of-carotenoids-in-new-world-vultures
#14
Guillermo Blanco, Dámaso Hornero-Méndez, Sergio A Lambertucci, Luis M Bautista, Guillermo Wiemeyer, José A Sanchez-Zapata, Juan Garrido-Fernández, Fernando Hiraldo, José A Donázar
Among birds, vultures show low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to the combination of their large size, general dull colouration and a diet based on carrion. We recorded the concentration of each carotenoid type present in plasma of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) according to age and sex, that determine colour signalling and dominance hierarchies in the carcasses. We compared the carotenoid profile in wild condors with that of captive condors fed with a controlled diet of flesh to test the hypothesis that wild individuals could acquire extra carotenoids from vegetal matter contained in carcass viscera and fresh vegetation...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23031159/the-presence-of-black-vultures-at-the-calving-sites-and-its-effects-on-cows-and-calves-behaviour-immediately-following-parturition
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
L M Toledo, M J R Paranhos da Costa, A Schmidek, J Jung, J N S G Ciryllo, V U Cromberg
Black vultures (Coragyps atratus) are often present near calving sites, and under this situation they may play a positive role by removing animal carcasses and afterbirth or a negative role by attacking neonate calves or disturbing cow-calf behaviours following parturition. Cow-calf behaviour was recorded over a 4-year study period from a total of 300 births involving 200 Nellore, 54 Guzerat, 20 Gyr and 26 Caracu cows. The calving site in relation to the location of the herd, considering cow-calf pairs within, close or distant to the herd, the presence of vultures and the behaviour of cows and calves were recorded instantaneously, at 5-min interval...
March 2013: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22903399/mycoplasma-corogypsi-associated-polyarthritis-and-tenosynovitis-in-black-vultures-coragyps-atratus
#16
A J Van Wettere, D H Ley, D E Scott, H D Buckanoff, L A Degernes
Three wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were presented to rehabilitation centers with swelling of multiple joints, including elbows, stifles, hocks, and carpal joints, and of the gastrocnemius tendons. Cytological examination of the joint fluid exudate indicated heterophilic arthritis. Radiographic examination in 2 vultures demonstrated periarticular soft tissue swelling in both birds and irregular articular surfaces with subchondral bone erosion in both elbows in 1 bird. Prolonged antibiotic therapy administered in 2 birds did not improve the clinical signs...
March 2013: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22856203/serologic-evidence-of-exposure-of-raptors-to-influenza-a-virus
#17
Patrick T Redig, Sagar M Goyal
Serum or plasma samples from raptors that prey or scavenge upon aquatic birds were tested by a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the evidence of antibodies to influenza A virus. Samples were taken from birds (n = 616) admitted to two rehabilitation centers in the United States. In addition, samples from 472 migrating peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) trapped on autumnal and vernal migrations for banding purposes were also tested. Only bald eagles were notably seropositive (22/406)...
June 2012: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22651097/use-of-black-vulture-coragyps-atratus-in-complementary-and-alternative-therapies-for-cancer-in-colombia-a-qualitative-study
#18
Ricardo Sánchez-Pedraza, Magda R Gamba-Rincón, Andrés L González-Rangel
BACKGROUND: Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. OBJECTIVES: To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. METHODS: This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients with cancer or caregivers of patients with the disease...
2012: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22499260/reproductive-success-of-south-american-terns-sterna-hirundinacea-from-cardos-islands-florian%C3%A3-polis-sc-brazil
#19
Hélio A A Fracasso, Joaquim O Branco
Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831) is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile) and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil) to Terra del Fuego (Argentina). This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005...
June 2012: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21831525/presence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-and-neospora-caninum-dna-in-the-brain-of-wild-birds
#20
L Darwich, O Cabezón, I Echeverria, M Pabón, I Marco, R Molina-López, O Alarcia-Alejos, F López-Gatius, S Lavín, S Almería
Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in many avian species and can cause mortality in some bird hosts. Although T. gondii has been isolated from various species of birds, the role of many different species of wild birds in the epidemiology of T. gondii remains unknown. Neospora caninum, a closely related parasite to T. gondii, has been recently confirmed to infect domestic chickens and wild birds such as house sparrows (Passer domesticus). The present study reports the presence of T. gondii and N. caninum DNA by PCR in brain tissues of 14 species of wild birds from Spain...
February 10, 2012: Veterinary Parasitology
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