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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226384/-the-use-of-nudging-for-primary-prevention-a-review-and-perspectives-for-germany
#1
Mathias Krisam, Peter von Philipsborn, Björn Meder
Nudging as a means of influencing human behaviour has received increasing attention by policy makers, including those in the field of public health. Nudges are generally understood as specific aspects of a choice architecture that make certain behaviours more likely to occur without mandating them through binding rules, and without relying on economic incentives. Following the example of the United States and Great Britain, the German government has established a working group tasked with advising the federal government on the use of nudging and other behavioural interventions in policy making...
February 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225871/factors-related-to-non-adherence-to-mammography-in-a-city-of-the-brazilian-amazonian-area-a-population-based-study
#2
Camila Iasmim de Andrade Souza, Daniela Souza Araújo, Daniele Aparecida de Freitas Teles, Stéphanie Gomes Lins de Carvalho, Kyldery Wendell Moura Cavalcante, Wendell Lima Rabelo, Cibelli Navarro Rodrigues Alves, Allex Jardim da Fonseca
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of mammography use and factors related to non-adherence in Boa Vista, capital of Roraima, Brazil. METHOD: A cross sectional study, quantitative analysis, based on household survey was performed between June and August 2013, using a face-to-face interview with a pre-tested form. Target population was women between 40 and 69 years. The sample size target was 240 participants, and the sampling method was random cluster sampling. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Federal University of Roraima...
January 1, 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222793/corporate-social-responsibility-to-improve-access-to-medicines-the-case-of-brazil
#3
Halla Thorsteinsdóttir, Natasha Ovtcharenko, Jillian Clare Kohler
BACKGROUND: Access to medicines and the development of a strong national pharmaceutical industry are two longstanding pillars of health policy in Brazil. This is reflected in a clear emphasis by Brazil's Federal Government on improving access to medicine in national health plans and industrial policies aimed at promoting domestic pharmaceutical development. This research proposes that such policies may act as incentives for companies to pursue a strategic Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) agenda...
February 21, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221948/a-state-by-state-assessment-of-food-service-regulations-for-prevention-of-norovirus-outbreaks
#4
Anita Kambhampati, Kayoko Shioda, L Hannah Gould, Donald Sharp, Laura G Brown, Umesh D Parashar, Aron J Hall
Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States. Foodborne transmission of norovirus is often associated with contamination of food during preparation by an infected food worker. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Food Code provides model food safety regulations for preventing transmission of foodborne disease in restaurants; however, adoption of specific provisions is at the discretion of state and local governments. We analyzed the food service regulations of all 50 states and the District of Columbia (i...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218793/effectiveness-of-conservation-easements-in-agricultural-regions
#5
Mark Braza
Conservation easements are a standard technique for preventing habitat loss, particularly in agricultural regions with extensive cropland cultivation, yet little is known about their effectiveness. I developed a spatial econometric approach to propensity-score matching (PSM) and used the approach to estimate the amount of habitat loss prevented by a grassland conservation easement program of the U.S. federal government. I used a spatial autoregressive probit model to predict tract enrollment in the easement program as of 2001 based on tract agricultural suitability, habitat quality, and spatial interactions among neighboring tracts...
February 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216189/rotavirus-immunization-global-coverage-and-local-barriers-for-implementation
#6
Andrea Lo Vecchio, Ilaria Liguoro, Jorge Amil Dias, James A Berkley, Chris Boey, Mitchell B Cohen, Sylvia Cruchet, Eduardo Salazar-Lindo, Samir Podder, Bhupinder Sandhu, Philip M Sherman, Toshiaki Shimizu, Alfredo Guarino
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) is a major agent of gastroenteritis and an important cause of child death worldwide. Immunization (RVI) has been available since 2006, and the Federation of International Societies of Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (FISPGHAN) identified RVI as a top priority for the control of diarrheal illness. A FISPGHAN working group on acute diarrhea aimed at estimating the current RVI coverage worldwide and identifying barriers to implementation at local level...
February 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214111/remediation-of-contaminated-lands-in-the-niger-delta-nigeria-prospects-and-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Nenibarini Zabbey, Kabari Sam, Adaugo Trinitas Onyebuchi
Contamination of the total environment (air, soil, water and biota) by crude oil has become a paramount interest in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Studies have revealed variable impacts of oil toxicity on the environment and exposed populations. The revelation gained much international attention in 2011 with the release of Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland report by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This has up scaled local and international pressures for urgent clean-up and restoration of degraded bio-resource rich environments of the Niger Delta, starting from Ogoniland...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210891/aquatic-monitoring-programs-conducted-during-environmental-impact-assessments-in-canada-preliminary-assessment-before-and-after-weakened-environmental-regulation
#8
Brynn Roach, Tony R Walker
Aquatic monitoring programs are imperative for the functioning of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process and a cornerstone for industrial compliance in Canada. However, in 2012, several leading pieces of federal environmental legislation (e.g., Canadian Environmental Assessment Act c.19, s. 52, 2012) were drastically altered, effectively weakening levels of environmental protection for aquatic ecosystems during project developments. This paper assesses the impact of CEAA 2012 on aquatic monitoring programs (and subsequent monitoring data reporting) across Canada for ten projects (five completed pre-CEAA 2012 and five completed post-CEAA 2012)...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209151/exploring-relationships-between-hospital-patient-safety-culture-and-consumer-reports-safety-scores
#9
Scott Alan Smith, Naomi Yount, Joann Sorra
BACKGROUND: A number of private and public companies calculate and publish proprietary hospital patient safety scores based on publicly available quality measures initially reported by the U.S. federal government. This study examines whether patient safety culture perceptions of U.S. hospital staff in a large national survey are related to publicly reported patient safety ratings of hospitals. METHODS: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (Hospital SOPS) assesses provider and staff perceptions of hospital patient safety culture...
February 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199274/seven-step-pathway-for-preventing-errors-in-healthcare
#10
Rebin Zikhani
The Institute of Medicine's 1999 report To Err Is Human shed light on the grave consequences of medical errors and led to a substantial increase in awareness in the federal government and private sector regarding medical errors. In addition, the literature contains myriad solutions, strategies, and recommendations for dealing with this problem; however, because of their complexity and inflexibility, most cannot be implemented and are inapplicable on an individual level. This essay proposes a seven-step pathway for preventing errors-a flexible, feasible, and organized method that can be used by healthcare administrators and providers...
July 2016: Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192568/early-performance-in-medicaid-accountable-care-organizations-a-comparison-of-oregon-and-colorado
#11
K John McConnell, Stephanie Renfro, Benjamin K S Chan, Thomas H A Meath, Aaron Mendelson, Deborah Cohen, Jeanette Waxmonsky, Dennis McCarty, Neal Wallace, Richard C Lindrooth
Importance: Several state Medicaid reforms are under way, but the relative performance of different approaches is unclear. Objective: To compare the performance of Oregon's and Colorado's Medicaid Accountable Care Organization (ACO) models. Design, Setting, and Participants: Oregon initiated its Medicaid transformation in 2012, supported by a $1.9 billion investment from the federal government, moving most Medicaid enrollees into 16 Coordinated Care Organizations, which managed care within a global budget...
February 13, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188681/mhealth-in-solid-organ-transplant-the-time-is-now
#12
J N Fleming, D J Taber, J McElligott, J W McGillicuddy, F Treiber
Despite being in existence for over 40 years, the application of telemedicine has lagged significantly in comparison to its generated interest. One detractor has been the immobile design of most historic telemedicine interventions and the relative deficiency of smartphones in the general populace. Recently, the exponential increase in smartphone ownership and familiarity have provided the potential for the development of mobile health (mHealth) interventions that can realistically be mirrored in clinical applications...
February 11, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181967/early-evaluation-findings-from-a-federally-funded-training-program-the-public-health-associate-program
#13
Robyn K Sobelson, Andrea C Young, Corinne J Wigington, Heather Duncan
OBJECTIVE: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the Public Health Associate Program (PHAP) to establish a continuous source of public health professionals who can deliver frontline services at the federal, state, tribal, local, and territorial levels. The article describes preliminary evaluation findings for PHAP. DESIGN: The evaluation's primary purposes are to assess the quality and effectiveness of PHAP, determine its value and impact, and provide information to continuously improve the program...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181866/raising-the-social-security-entitlement-age
#14
Julie Zissimopoulos, Barbara Blaylock, Dana P Goldman, John W Rowe
An aging America presents challenges but also brings social and economic capital. We quantify public revenues from, and public expenditures on, Americans aged 65 and older, the value of their unpaid, productive activities and financial gifts to family. Using microsimulation, we project the value of these activities, and government revenues and expenditures, under different scenarios of change to the Old Age and Survivors Insurance eligibility age through 2050. We find the value of unpaid productive activities and financial gifts are US$721 billion in 2010, while net (of tax revenues) spending on the 65 years and older is US$984 billion...
January 2017: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167004/e-cigarettes-an-update-on-considerations-for-the-otolaryngologist
#15
REVIEW
Sneh Biyani, Craig S Derkay
PURPOSE: We provide an update in the literature and national regulations regarding electronic cigarettes with special attention to the pediatric population. BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are handheld battery operated devices that vaporize nicotine-containing liquids for inhalation. Use of these products has dramatically increased over the last several years, particularly among the youth. ENDS are being marketed with advertising techniques and flavors which appeal to the adolescent and young adult population...
March 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166233/applying-spatio-temporal-models-to-assess-variations-across-health-care-areas-and-regions-lessons-from-the-decentralized-spanish-national-health-system
#16
Julián Librero, Berta Ibañez, Natalia Martínez-Lizaga, Salvador Peiró, Enrique Bernal-Delgado
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the ability of hierarchical Bayesian spatio-temporal models in capturing different geo-temporal structures in order to explain hospital risk variations using three different conditions: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI), Colectomy in Colorectal Cancer (CCC) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). RESEARCH DESIGN: This is an observational population-based spatio-temporal study, from 2002 to 2013, with a two-level geographical structure, Autonomous Communities (AC) and Health Care Areas (HA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161671/generating-political-priority-for-regulatory-interventions-targeting-obesity-prevention-an-australian-case-study
#17
Phillip Baker, Timothy Gill, Sharon Friel, Gemma Carey, Adrian Kay
Effective obesity prevention requires a synergistic mix of population-level interventions including a strong role for government and the regulation of the marketing, labelling, content and pricing of energy-dense foods and beverages. In this paper we adopt the agenda of the Australian Federal Government (AFG) as a case study to understand the factors generating or hindering political priority for such 'regulatory interventions' between 1990 and 2011. Using a theoretically-guided process tracing method we undertook documentary analysis and conducted 27 interviews with a diversity of actors involved in obesity politics...
January 24, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157770/global-adverse-event-reports-of-breast-implant-associated-alcl-an-international-review-of-40-government-authority-databases
#18
Dhivya R Srinivasa, Roberto N Miranda, Arminder Kaura, Ashleigh M Francis, Antonella Campanale, Rosaria Boldrini, Janette Alexander, Anand Deva, Paula Gravina, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Karen Nast, Charles E Butler, Mark W Clemens
BACKGROUND: An estimated 200 patients have been reported with breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL), a rare T-cell lymphoma developing around breast prostheses. The purpose of this study was to review federal database submissions relating to BI-ALCL in 37 countries representing the majority of breast implant markets worldwide with available adverse event reporting. METHODS: Database queries were performed for Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Columbia, Japan, Mexico, National Competent Authorities of the European Member States, New Zealand, South Korea, and United States...
January 20, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145767/examining-guidelines-for-school-based-breakfast-programs-in-canada-a-systematic-review-of-the-grey-literature
#19
Katelyn M Godin, Sharon I Kirkpatrick, Rhona M Hanning, Jackie Stapleton, Scott T Leatherdale
School breakfast programs are widespread and serve varying objectives regarding youth health promotion. Evidence-based guidelines for breakfast programs may be important in maximizing their effectiveness related to student outcomes, yet it is unclear what is available in Canada. A systematic review was conducted to identify and compare Canadian guidelines related to breakfast programs. Data sources included grey literature databases, customized search engines, targeted websites, and content expert consultations...
February 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140320/alignment-of-healthy-dietary-patterns-and-environmental-sustainability-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Miriam E Nelson, Michael W Hamm, Frank B Hu, Steven A Abrams, Timothy S Griffin
To support food security for current and future generations, there is a need to understand the relation between sustainable diets and the health of a population. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated and compared different dietary patterns to better understand which foods and eating patterns have less of an environmental impact while meeting nutritional needs and promoting health. This systematic review (SR) of population-level dietary patterns and food sustainability extends and updates the SR that was conducted by the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, an expert committee commissioned by the federal government to inform dietary guidance as it relates to the committee's original conclusions...
November 2016: Advances in Nutrition
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