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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133483/ctage5-deletion-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-impairs-proinsulin-trafficking-and-insulin-biogenesis-in-mice
#1
Junwan Fan, Yaqing Wang, Liang Liu, Hongsheng Zhang, Feng Zhang, Lei Shi, Mei Yu, Fei Gao, Zhiheng Xu
Proinsulin is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in pancreatic β cells and transported to the Golgi apparatus for proper processing and secretion into plasma. Defects in insulin biogenesis may cause diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms for proinsulin transport are still not fully understood. We show that β cell-specific deletion of cTAGE5, also known as Mea6, leads to increased ER stress, reduced insulin biogenesis in the pancreas, and severe glucose intolerance in mice. We reveal that cTAGE5/MEA6 interacts with vesicle membrane soluble N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor Sec22b...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112302/tmd1-domain-and-crac-motif-determine-the-association-and-disassociation-of-mxirt1-with-detergent-resistant-membranes
#2
Song Tan, Peng Zhang, Wei Xiao, Bing Feng, Lan-You Chen, Shuang Li, Peng Li, Wei-Zhong Zhao, Xiao-Ting Qi, Li-Ping Yin
Iron is essential for most living organisms. The iron-regulated transporter1 (IRT1) plays a major role in iron uptake in roots, and its trafficking from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to plasma membrane (PM) is tightly coordinated with changes in iron environment. However, studies on IRT1 response are limited. Here, we report that Malus xiaojinesis IRT1 (MxIRT1) associates with detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs, a biochemical counterpart of PM microdomains), whereas the PM microdomains are known platforms for signal transduction in the PM...
November 7, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093729/an-update-on-the-intracellular-and-intercellular-trafficking-of-carmoviruses
#3
REVIEW
José A Navarro, Vicente Pallás
Despite harboring the smallest genomes among plant RNA viruses, carmoviruses have emerged as an ideal model system for studying essential steps of the viral cycle including intracellular and intercellular trafficking. Two small movement proteins, formerly known as double gene block proteins (DGBp1 and DGBp2), have been involved in the movement throughout the plant of some members of carmovirus genera. DGBp1 RNA-binding capability was indispensable for cell-to-cell movement indicating that viral genomes must interact with DGBp1 to be transported...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074889/unravelling-pathways-downstream-sox6-induction-in-k562-erythroid-cells-by-proteomic-analysis
#4
Gloria Barbarani, Antonella Ronchi, Margherita Ruoppolo, Lucia Santorelli, Robert Steinfelder, Sudharshan Elangovan, Cristina Fugazza, Marianna Caterino
The Sox6 transcription factor is crucial for terminal maturation of definitive red blood cells. Sox6-null mouse fetuses present misshapen and nucleated erythrocytes, due to impaired actin assembly and cytoskeleton stability. These defects are accompanied with a reduced survival of Sox6(-/-) red blood cells, resulting in a compensated anemia. Sox6-overexpression in K562 cells and in human primary ex vivo erythroid cultures enhances erythroid differentiation and leads to hemoglobinization, the hallmark of erythroid maturation...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068315/inhibition-of-cholesterol-biosynthesis-through-rnf145-dependent-ubiquitination-of-scap
#5
Li Zhang, Prashant Rajbhandari, Christina Priest, Jaspreet Sandhu, Xiaohui Wu, Ryan Temel, Antonio Castrillo, Thomas Q de Aguiar Vallim, Tamer Sallam, Peter Tontonoz
Cholesterol homeostasis is maintained through concerted action of the SREBPs and LXRs. Here, we report that RNF145, a previously uncharacterized ER membrane ubiquitin ligase, participates in crosstalk between these critical signaling pathways. RNF145 expression is induced in response to LXR activation and high-cholesterol diet feeding. Transduction of RNF145 into mouse liver inhibits the expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and reduces plasma cholesterol levels. Conversely, acute suppression of RNF145 via shRNA-mediated knockdown, or chronic inactivation of RNF145 by genetic deletion, potentiates the expression of cholesterol biosynthetic genes and increases cholesterol levels both in liver and plasma...
October 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026155/trk-fused-gene-tfg-regulates-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-mass-and-insulin-secretory-activity
#6
Takeshi Yamamotoya, Yusuke Nakatsu, Akifumi Kushiyama, Yasuka Matsunaga, Koji Ueda, Yuki Inoue, Masa-Ki Inoue, Hideyuki Sakoda, Midori Fujishiro, Hiraku Ono, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Hisamitsu Ishihara, Tomoichiro Asano
The Trk-fused gene (TFG) is reportedly involved in the process of COPII-mediated vesicle transport and missense mutations in TFG cause several neurodegenerative diseases including hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P). The high coincidence ratio between HMSN-P and diabetes mellitus suggests TFG to have an important role(s) in glucose homeostasis. To examine this possibility, β-cell specific TFG knockout mice (βTFG KO) were generated. Interestingly, βTFG KO displayed marked glucose intolerance with reduced insulin secretion...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993693/uroplakin-traffic-through-the-golgi-apparatus-induces-its-fragmentation-new-insights-from-novel-in-vitro-models
#7
Tanja Višnjar, Giancarlo Chesi, Simona Iacobacci, Elena Polishchuk, Nataša Resnik, Horst Robenek, Marko Kreft, Rok Romih, Roman Polishchuk, Mateja Erdani Kreft
Uroplakins (UPs) play an essential role in maintaining an effective urothelial permeability barrier at the level of superficial urothelial cell (UC) layer. Although the organization of UPs in the apical plasma membrane (PM) of UCs is well known, their transport in UCs is only partially understood. Here, we dissected trafficking of UPs and its differentiation-dependent impact on Golgi apparatus (GA) architecture. We demonstrated that individual subunits UPIb and UPIIIa are capable of trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the GA in UCs...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973870/correction-for-hanna-et-al-tfg-facilitates-outer-coat-disassembly-on-copii-transport-carriers-to-promote-tethering-and-fusion-with-er-golgi-intermediate-compartments
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962860/key-components-of-copi-and-copii-machineries-are-required-for-chikungunya-virus-replication
#9
Na Zhang, Leiliang Zhang
The infection of CHIKV is associated with cellular membranes; however whether early secretory pathways are involved in CHIKV replication remains unclear. In the present study, we have provided initial evidences that CHIKV requires both COPI and COPII for its replication. Small interfering RNAs against COPI components, including coatomer, ARFs or GBF1, suppress CHIKV replication. Moreover, CHIKV infection is abolished by the presence of ARF1 inhibitor brefeldin A or GBF1 inhibitor golgicide A. In addition, perturbation of COPII by silencing key components of COPII pathways leads to a reduction in CHIKV replication...
November 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927260/the-roles-of-the-snare-protein-sed5-in-autophagy-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Shenshen Zou, Dan Sun, Yongheng Liang
Autophagy is a degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells in which aging proteins and organelles are sequestered into double-membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes, which fuse with vacuoles to hydrolyze cargo. The key step in autophagy is the formation of autophagosomes, which requires different kinds of vesicles, including COPII vesicles and Atg9-containing vesicles, to transport lipid double-membranes to the phagophore assembly site (PAS). In yeast, the cis-Golgi localized t-SNARE protein Sed5 plays a role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi and intra-Golgi vesicular transport...
September 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879181/regulation-of-the-sar1-gtpase-cycle-is-necessary-for-large-cargo-secretion-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#11
REVIEW
Kota Saito, Miharu Maeda, Toshiaki Katada
Proteins synthesized within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are transported to the Golgi via coat protein complex II (COPII)-coated vesicles. The formation of COPII-coated vesicles is regulated by the GTPase cycle of Sar1. Activated Sar1 is recruited to ER membranes and forms a pre-budding complex with cargoes and the inner-coat complex. The outer-coat complex then stimulates Sar1 inactivation and completes vesicle formation. The mechanisms of forming transport carriers are well-conserved among species; however, in mammalian cells, several cargo molecules such as collagen, and chylomicrons are too large to be accommodated in conventional COPII-coated vesicles...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871045/loss-of-arabidopsis-p24-function-affects-erd2-traffic-and-golgi-structure-and-activates-the-unfolded-protein-response
#12
Noelia Pastor-Cantizano, Cesar Bernat-Silvestre, María Jesús Marcote, Fernando Aniento
p24 proteins are key regulators of protein trafficking along the secretory pathway but very little is known about their functions in plants. A quadruple loss-of-function mutant affecting the p24 genes from the δ-1 subclass of the p24 delta subfamily (p24δ3δ4δ5δ6) showed alterations in the Golgi apparatus, suggesting that these p24 proteins play a role in the organization of the compartments of the early secretory pathway in Arabidopsis Loss of p24δ-1 proteins also induced the accumulation of the K/HDEL receptor ERD2 at the Golgi apparatus and increased secretion of the ER chaperone BiP, an HDEL ligand, probably due to an inhibition of COPI-dependent Golgi-to-ER transport of ERD2 and thus retrieval of K/HDEL ligands...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869000/similarities-in-intracellular-transport-of-plant-viral-movement-proteins-bmb2-and-tgb3
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ekaterina A Lazareva, Alexander A Lezzhov, Sergey A Golyshev, Sergey Y Morozov, Manfred Heinlein, Andrey G Solovyev
The cell-to-cell transport of many plant viruses through plasmodesmata requires viral movement proteins (MPs) encoded by a 'triple gene block' (TGB) and termed TGB1, TGB2 and TGB3. TGB3 is a small integral membrane protein that contains subcellular targeting signals and directs both TGB2 and the helicase domain-containing TGB1 protein to plasmodesmata-associated structures. Recently, we described a 'binary movement block' (BMB) coding for two MPs, BMB1 and BMB2. The BMB2 protein associates with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, accumulates at plasmodesmata-associated membrane bodies and directs the BMB1 helicase to these structures...
September 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851831/tfg-facilitates-outer-coat-disassembly-on-copii-transport-carriers-to-promote-tethering-and-fusion-with-er-golgi-intermediate-compartments
#14
Michael G Hanna, Samuel Block, E B Frankel, Feng Hou, Adam Johnson, Lin Yuan, Gavin Knight, James J Moresco, John R Yates, Randolph Ashton, Randy Schekman, Yufeng Tong, Anjon Audhya
The conserved coat protein complex II (COPII) mediates the initial steps of secretory protein trafficking by assembling onto subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in two layers to generate cargo-laden transport carriers that ultimately fuse with an adjacent ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). Here, we demonstrate that Trk-fused gene (TFG) binds directly to the inner layer of the COPII coat. Specifically, the TFG C terminus interacts with Sec23 through a shared interface with the outer COPII coat and the cargo receptor Tango1/cTAGE5...
September 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839076/golgi-entry-core-compartment-functions-as-the-copii-independent-scaffold-for-er-golgi-transport-in-plant-cells
#15
Yoko Ito, Tomohiro Uemura, Akihiko Nakano
Many questions remain about how the stacked structure of the Golgi apparatus is formed and maintained. In our previous study, we challenged this question using tobacco BY-2 cells and revealed that, upon Brefeldin A (BFA) treatment, previously undescribed small punctate structures containing a particular subset of cis-Golgi proteins are formed adjacent to the ER exit sites and act as the scaffold of Golgi regeneration after BFA removal. In this study, we have analyzed these structures further. The proteins that localize to these punctate structures originate from the cis-most cisternae...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801610/creb3l2-mediated-expression-of-sec23a-sec24d-is-involved-in-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-through-er-golgi-transport
#16
Shotaro Tomoishi, Shinichi Fukushima, Kentaro Shinohara, Toshiaki Katada, Kota Saito
Hepatic fibrosis is caused by exaggerated wound healing response to chronic injury, which eventually leads to hepatic cirrhosis. Differentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to myofibroblast-like cells by inflammatory cytokines is the critical step in fibrosis. This step is accompanied by enlargement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus, suggesting that protein synthesis and secretion are augmented in the activated HSCs. However, the process of rearrangement of secretory organelles and their functions remain to be fully elucidated...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768830/neurodegeneration-associated-mutant-trem2-proteins-abortively-cycle-between-the-er-and-er-golgi-intermediate-compartment
#17
Daniel W Sirkis, Renan E Aparicio, Randy Schekman
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a transmembrane protein expressed on microglia within the brain. Several rare mutations in TREM2 cause an early-onset form of neurodegeneration when inherited homozygously. Here we investigate how these mutations affect the intracellular transport of TREM2. We find that most pathogenic TREM2 mutant proteins fail to undergo normal maturation in the Golgi complex and show markedly reduced cell-surface expression. Prior research has suggested that two such mutants are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but we find, using a cell-free coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicle budding reaction, that mutant TREM2 is exported efficiently from the ER...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754694/remodeling-of-er-exit-sites-initiates-a-membrane-supply-pathway-for-autophagosome-biogenesis
#18
Liang Ge, Min Zhang, Samuel J Kenny, Dawei Liu, Miharu Maeda, Kota Saito, Anandita Mathur, Ke Xu, Randy Schekman
Autophagosomes are double-membrane vesicles generated during autophagy. Biogenesis of the autophagosome requires membrane acquisition from intracellular compartments, the mechanisms of which are unclear. We previously found that a relocation of COPII machinery to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) generates ERGIC-derived COPII vesicles which serve as a membrane precursor for the lipidation of LC3, a key membrane component of the autophagosome. Here we employed super-resolution microscopy to show that starvation induces the enlargement of ER-exit sites (ERES) positive for the COPII activator, SEC12, and the remodeled ERES patches along the ERGIC A SEC12 binding protein, CTAGE5, is required for the enlargement of ERES, SEC12 relocation to the ERGIC, and modulates autophagosome biogenesis...
September 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747320/microscopic-analysis-of-reconstituted-copii-coat-polymerization-and-sec16-dynamics
#19
Hirohiko Iwasaki, Tomohiro Yorimitsu, Ken Sato
COPII coat and the small GTPase Sar1 mediate protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via specialized domains known as the ER exit sites. The peripheral ER protein Sec16 has been proposed to organize ER exit sites. However, it remains unclear how these molecules drive COPII coat polymerization. Here, we characterized the spatiotemporal relationships between the COPII components during their polymerization using fluorescence microscopy combined with an artificial planar membrane. We demonstrated that Sar1 dissociates from the membrane shortly after the COPII coat recruitment, and Sar1 is then no longer required for the COPII coat to bind to the membrane...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727280/two-novel-effectors-of-trafficking-and-maturation-of-the-yeast-plasma-membrane-h-atpase
#20
Yosef Geva, Jonathan Crissman, Eric C Arakel, Natalia Gómez-Navarro, Silvia G Chuartzman, Kyle R Stahmer, Blanche Schwappach, Elizabeth A Miller, Maya Schuldiner
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the entry site of proteins into the endomembrane system. Proteins exit the ER via coat protein II (COPII) vesicles in a selective manner, mediated either by direct interaction with the COPII coat or aided by cargo receptors. Despite the fundamental role of such receptors in protein sorting, only a few have been identified. To further define the machinery that packages secretory cargo and targets proteins from the ER to Golgi membranes, we used multiple systematic approaches, which revealed 2 uncharacterized proteins that mediate the trafficking and maturation of Pma1, the essential yeast plasma membrane proton ATPase...
October 2017: Traffic
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