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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329382/adolescent-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposure-produces-enduring-changes-in-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia-susceptibility
#1
David D Aguilar, Andrea Giuffrida, Daniel J Lodge
Background: Epidemiological studies recognize cannabis intake as a risk factor for schizophrenia, yet the majority of adolescents who use marijuana do not develop psychosis. Similarly, the abuse of synthetic cannabinoids poses a risk for psychosis. For these reasons, it is imperative to understand the effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure in susceptible individuals. Method: We have recently developed a novel rodent model of schizophrenia susceptibility, the F2 MAM rat, where only a proportion (~40%) of rats display a schizophrenia-like phenotype...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327789/imaging-macrophage-distribution-and-density-in-mammary-tumors-and-lung-metastases-using-fluorine-19-mri-cell-tracking
#2
Ashley V Makela, Paula J Foster
PURPOSE: The presence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) correlates with breast cancer progression and metastatic spread. Metastasis-associated macrophages (MAMs) are also recruited to distant sites, where they support metastatic growth. In this study, we demonstrate that in vivo fluorine-19 (19 F)-based MRI cell tracking can evaluate the density and distribution of macrophages within murine breast cancer tumors and associated metastases. METHODS: Three murine breast cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials (4T1, 168FARN, and 67NR) were implanted into the mammary fat pad in mice...
January 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326365/disruption-of-mitochondria-associated-endoplasmic-reticulum-membranes-mams-integrity-contributes-to-muscle-insulin-resistance-in-mice-and-humans
#3
Emily Tubbs, Stéphanie Chanon, Maud Robert, Nadia Bendridi, Gabriel Bidaux, Marie-Agnès Chauvin, Jingwei Ji-Cao, Christine Durand, Daphné Gauvrit-Ramette, Hubert Vidal, Etienne Lefai, Jennifer Rieusset
Modifications of the interactions between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, defined as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), were recently involved in the control of hepatic insulin action and glucose homeostasis, but with conflicting results. Whereas skeletal muscle is the primary site of insulin-mediated glucose uptake and the main target for alterations in insulin resistant states, the relevance of MAM integrity in muscle insulin resistance is unknown. Deciphering the importance of MAMs on muscle insulin signaling could help to clarify this controversy...
January 11, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321542/timing-of-spermarche-and-menarche-among-urban-students-in-guangzhou-china-trends-from-2005-to-2012-and-association-with-obesity
#4
Yusheng Deng, Jianping Liang, Yinan Zong, Ping Yu, Runsheng Xie, Yangfeng Guo, Zhen Wang, Nali Deng, Yanhui Gao, Yi Jiang, Yi Yang, Jiewen Yang, Li Liu
In Guangzhou, China, whether the trend of a decreasing pubertal age has continued in recent years remained unknown, and the association between obesity and early puberty was still controversial. Herein, we conducted a serial cross-sectional study using data from physical fitness surveillance (2005-2012), to determine the recent trends in age at spermarche and menarche among students in Guangzhou, and to investigate whether elevated BMI modified timing of spermarche and menarche. This study included 1,278,258 urban students...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314761/keratinous-matrices-for-the-assessment-of-drugs-of-abuse-consumption-a-correlation-study-between-hair-and-nails
#5
Delphine Cappelle, Steven De Keukeleire, Hugo Neels, Frederic Been, Mireille De Doncker, Geert Dom, Cleo L Crunelle, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs
Keratinous matrices - hair and nails - accumulate substances over time and allow retrospective investigation of past consumption. Analysis of these matrices can provide information complementary to blood and urine analysis or can be used as standalone. So far, research has primarily focused on the detection of substances in hair, while studies in nails are scarce. In this study, we assessed concentrations of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in hair, finger- and toenails collected from the same individuals to evaluate differences and correlations between matrices...
January 5, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306167/wastewater-based-epidemiology-and-enantiomeric-profiling-for-drugs-of-abuse-in-south-african-wastewaters
#6
E Archer, E Castrignanò, B Kasprzyk-Hordern, G M Wolfaardt
The current study is aimed to introduce a wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach for the first time on the African continent where substance abuse data is limited. The study included the quantification of several drugs of abuse (DOA) in raw wastewater samples. Quantification of urinary metabolites as drug target residues (DTR), as well as enantiomeric profiling of chiral DOA was performed to distinguish between consumption and direct disposal into sewage. Monitoring campaigns were undertaken at two South African wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) located within two provinces of the country...
January 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287955/remodeling-of-ca2-signaling-in-cancer-regulation-of-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptors-through-oncogenes-and-tumor-suppressors
#7
REVIEW
Hideaki Ando, Katsuhiro Kawaai, Benjamin Bonneau, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
The calcium ion (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous intracellular signaling molecule that regulates diverse physiological and pathological processes, including cancer. Increasing evidence indicates that oncogenes and tumor suppressors regulate the Ca2+ transport systems. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs) are IP3-activated Ca2+ release channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). They play pivotal roles in the regulation of cell death and survival by controlling Ca2+ transfer from the ER to mitochondria through mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs)...
December 20, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244080/quantification-of-methadone-and-main-metabolites-in-nails
#8
Teresa Patrícia Magalhães, Sara Cravo, Diana Dias da Silva, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Carlos Afonso, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Helena Carmo
The quantification of drugs of abuse in keratinized matrices is becoming of special relevance for monitoring consumption and for post-mortem investigations. We aimed to implement an analytical method for the simultaneous detection of morphine (MORF), 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), methadone (MET), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and 2-ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EMDP) in nails. After decontamination, the nail samples (30 mg) were submitted to an alkaline digestion followed by a two-step liquid-liquid and SPE extraction using mixed-mode cation exchange cartridges...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212030/loss-of-caveolin-1-in-metastasis-associated-macrophages-drives-lung-metastatic-growth-through-increased-angiogenesis
#9
Ward Celus, Giusy Di Conza, Ana Isabel Oliveira, Manuel Ehling, Bruno M Costa, Mathias Wenes, Massimiliano Mazzone
Although it is well established that tumor-associated macrophages take part in each step of cancer progression, less is known about the distinct role of the so-called metastasis-associated macrophages (MAMs) at the metastatic site. Previous studies reported that Caveolin-1 (Cav1) has both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressive functions. However, the role of Cav1 in bone-marrow-derived cells is unknown. Here, we describe Cav1 as an anti-metastatic regulator in mouse models of lung and breast cancer pulmonary metastasis...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212023/disc1-modulates-neuronal-stress-responses-by-gate-keeping-er-mitochondria-ca2-transfer-through-the-mam
#10
Sung Jin Park, Su Been Lee, Yeongjun Suh, Su-Jeong Kim, Namgyu Lee, Ji-Ho Hong, Cana Park, Youngsik Woo, Koko Ishizuka, Joung-Hun Kim, Per-Olof Berggren, Akira Sawa, Sang Ki Park
A wide range of Ca2+-mediated functions are enabled by the dynamic properties of Ca2+, all of which are dependent on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a scaffold protein that is involved in the function of intracellular organelles and is linked to cognitive and emotional deficits. Here, we demonstrate that DISC1 localizes to the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM). At the MAM, DISC1 interacts with IP3R1 and downregulates its ligand binding, modulating ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer through the MAM...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211835/massive-iatrogenic-outbreak-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-in-rural-cambodia-2014-2015
#11
François Rouet, Janin Nouhin, Du-Ping Zheng, Benjamin Roche, Allison Black, Sophearot Prak, Marie Leoz, Catherine Gaudy-Graffin, Laurent Ferradini, Chandara Mom, Sovatha Mam, Charlotte Gautier, Gérard Lesage, Sreymom Ken, Kerya Phon, Alexandra Kerleguer, Chunfu Yang, William Killam, Masami Fujita, Chhivun Mean, Didier Fontenille, Francis Barin, Jean-Christophe Plantier, Trevor Bedford, Artur Ramos, Vonthanak Saphonn
Background: In 2014-2015, 242 individuals aged 2-89 were newly HIV-1 diagnosed in Roka, a rural commune in Cambodia. A case-control study attributed the outbreak to unsafe injections. We aimed to reconstruct the likely transmission history of the outbreak. Methods: We assessed in 209 (86.4%) HIV-infected cases the presence of hepatitis C and B viruses (HCV, HBV). We identified recent infections using antibody (Ab) avidity testing for HIV and HCV, and HBcIgM Ab for HBV...
December 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208753/compartment-resolved-proteomic-analysis-of-mouse-aorta-during-atherosclerotic-plaque-formation-reveals-osteoclast-specific-protein-expression
#12
Michael Wierer, Matthias Prestel, Herbert Schiller, Guangyao Yan, Christoph Schaab, Sepiede Azghandi, Julia Werner, Thorsten Kessler, Rainer Malik, Marta Murgia, Zouhair Aherrahrou, Heribert Schunkert, Martin Dichgans, Matthias Mann
Atherosclerosis leads to vascular lesions that involve major rearrangements of the vascular proteome, especially of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Using single aortas from ApoE knock out mice, we quantified formation of plaques by single-run, high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. To probe localization on a proteome-wide scale we employed quantitative detergent solubility profiling. This compartment- and time-resolved resource of atherogenesis comprised 5,117 proteins, 182 of which changed their expression status in response to vessel maturation and atherosclerotic plaque development...
December 4, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196117/magnetic-alginate-microfibers-as-scaffolding-elements-for-the-fabrication-of-microvascular-like-structures
#13
Tao Sun, Qing Shi, Qiang Huang, Huaping Wang, Xiaolu Xiong, Chengzhi Hu, Toshio Fukuda
Traditional cell-encapsulating scaffolds may elicit adverse host responses and inhomogeneity in cellular distribution. Thus, fabrication techniques for cellular self-assembly with micro-scaffold incorporation have been used recently to generate toroidal cellular modules for the bottom-up construction of vascular-like structures. The micro-scaffolds show advantage in promoting tissue formation. However, owing to the lack of annular cell micro-scaffolds, it remains a challenge to engineer micro-scale toroidal cellular modules (micro-TCMs) to fabricate microvascular-like structures...
November 28, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192343/a-view-on-the-importance-of-multi-attribute-method-for-measuring-purity-of-biopharmaceuticals-and-improving-overall-control-strategy
#14
Richard S Rogers, Michael Abernathy, Douglas D Richardson, Jason C Rouse, Justin B Sperry, Patrick Swann, Jette Wypych, Christopher Yu, Li Zang, Rohini Deshpande
Today, we are experiencing unprecedented growth and innovation within the pharmaceutical industry. Established protein therapeutic modalities, such as recombinant human proteins, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and fusion proteins, are being used to treat previously unmet medical needs. Novel therapies such as bispecific T cell engagers (BiTEs), chimeric antigen T cell receptors (CARTs), siRNA, and gene therapies are paving the path towards increasingly personalized medicine. This advancement of new indications and therapeutic modalities is paralleled by development of new analytical technologies and methods that provide enhanced information content in a more efficient manner...
November 30, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184058/doxycycline-induces-apoptosis-via-er-stress-selectively-to-cells-with-a-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties-importance-of-stem-cell-plasticity
#15
Takashi Matsumoto, Takeshi Uchiumi, Keisuke Monji, Mikako Yagi, Daiki Setoyama, Rie Amamoto, Yuichi Matsushima, Masaki Shiota, Masatoshi Eto, Dongchon Kang
Tumor heterogeneity can be traced back to a small subset of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can be derived from a single stem cell and show chemoresistance. Recent studies showed that CSCs are sensitive to mitochondrial targeting antibiotics such as doxycycline. However, little is known about how cancer cells undergo sphere formation and how antibiotics inhibit CSC proliferation. Here we show that under sphere-forming assay conditions, prostate cancer cells acquired CSC-like properties: promoted mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, expression of characteristic CSC markers and resistance to anticancer agents...
November 29, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183729/mir-596-modulates-melanoma-growth-by-regulating-cell-survival-and-death
#16
Szu-Mam Liu, Chen-Huan Lin, Jean Lu, In-Yu Lin, Mu-Shiun Tsai, Ming-Hong Chen, Nianhan Ma
Tumors grow because cancer cells lack the ability to balance cell survival and death signaling pathways. miR-596, a microRNA located at the 8p23.3 locus, has been shown by the TCGA-Assembler to be deleted in a significant number of melanoma samples. Here, we also validated the low levels of miR-596 in melanoma compared to tissue nevi, and Kaplan-Meier curve analysis revealed that low miR-596 expression was associated with worse overall survival. Moreover, we showed that miR-596 overexpression effectively inhibited MAPK/ERK signaling, cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and increased the cell apoptosis of melanoma cells...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182994/motor-fatigability-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-relation-between-different-upper-limb-muscles-and-with-fatigue-and-the-perceived-use-of-the-arm-in-daily-life
#17
Deborah Severijns, Fanny Van Geel, Peter Feys
BACKGROUND: Motor fatigability is increasingly acknowledged in persons with MS (pwMS). It is unknown whether fatigability is generalized across upper limb muscles and relates to fatigue and perceived difficulties in upper limb use. METHODS: This observational case-controlled study included twenty PwMS (median EDSS = 3, range 1.5-6.5) and twenty healthy controls who performed 30″ sustained maximal muscle contractions for index finger abduction, hand grip, elbow flexion and shoulder abduction...
November 22, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174863/adolescent-environmental-enrichment-prevents-the-emergence-of-schizophrenia-like-abnormalities-in-a-neurodevelopmental-model-of-schizophrenia
#18
Ewelina Bator, Joachim Latusz, Krzysztof Wędzony, Marzena Maćkowiak
In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to an enriched environment (EE) during adolescence might affect the behavioural dysfunction (sensorimotor gating deficit, memory and social interaction impairments) and neurochemical changes (GAD67 expression, histone methylation) induced by methylazoxymethanol (MAM) in the MAM-E17 rat model of schizophrenia. EE was introduced for 7 days in early adolescence (days 23-29), and behavioural and biochemical studies were performed on adult rats at postnatal day 70...
November 22, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154155/the-dynamic-characteristics-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-resting-state-fmri-of-patients-with-depression
#19
Hongna Zheng, Feng Li, Qijing Bo, Xianbin Li, Li Yao, Zhijun Yao, Chuanyue Wang, Xia Wu
BACKGROUND: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is part of the limbic system of the brain. It is a bridge between attentional and emotional processing, which is responsible for the integration of visceral, attentional, and affective information. Lesioning of the ACC, which produces striking changes, is used to treat major depression disorder (MDD). Moreover, the brain dynamically integrates and coordinates functions of its different subparts to realize its cognitive capability. Hence, the spatio-temporal community distribution of the ACC is necessary to completely understand MDD...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150675/mechanisms-by-which-in-vitro-meiotic-arrest-and-sexual-maturity-improve-developmental-potential-of-mouse-oocytes
#20
Fei Chen, Juan Lin, Xue Sun, Bin Xiao, Shu-Fen Ning, Shuai Zhu, Hui-Li Wang, Jing-He Tan
To study the relationship between chromatin condensation, gene transcription and developmental competence during oocyte maturation and to explore the mechanisms by which meiotic arrest maintenance (MAM) and sexual maturity improve oocyte competence, we examined effects of MAM with roscovitine or db-cAMP on chromatin condensation, gene transcription and developmental potential of NSN or SN oocytes from prepubertal or adult mice. MAM with roscovitine improved the developmental competence and global gene transcription of prepubertal NSN (prep-NSN) and adult-SN oocytes while having no effect on those of prep-SN oocytes...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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