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Bo Xing, Genie Han, Min-Juan Wang, Melissa A Snyder, Wen-Jun Gao
Prodromal memory deficits represent an important marker for the development of schizophrenia (SZ), in which glutamatergic hypofunction occurs in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (LY37) attenuates excitatory N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-induced neurotoxicity, a central pathological characteristic of glutamatergic hypofunction. We therefore hypothesized that early treatment with LY37 would rescue cognitive deficits and confer benefits for SZ-like behaviors in adults. To test this, we assessed whether early intervention with LY37 would improve learning outcomes in the Morris Water Maze for rats prenatally exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM), a neurodevelopmental SZ model...
May 14, 2018: Neuropharmacology
E Suspitsin, G Yanus, E Imyanitov
This study was aimed to incorporate PCR testing in the determination of organ/tissue origin for cancers of unknown primary site (CUP). We developed a PCR panel consisting of 7 expression markers (CDX2, CDH17, SPB, UGRP, MAM, LPB, TG) and 2 genes frequently mutated in cancer (KRAS and BRAF). The expression tests were intentionally interpreted in a non-quantitative way, i.e. classified tumors either as positive or negative expressors. While applying these tests to 135 cancers belonging to 8 common types of adenocarcinomas (AdCa), we observed that this panel was capable to clearly discriminate between gastrointestinal vs...
March 14, 2018: Neoplasma
Xiaoli Wang, Yujiao Wen, Juan Dong, Congcong Cao, Shuiqiao Yuan
Mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs) regulate important cellular functions including calcium signaling, bioenergetics, and apoptosis during neurodevelopment and carcinogenesis, but its function in male reproduction and spermatogenesis remains enigmatic because the field lacks a complete understanding of the proteome within testis MAMs. To better understand the biological processes and molecular functions of MAM in testes, here, we report a global mass spectrometry-based proteomic evaluation of the MAM obtained from human testes, mouse testes and brains, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Proteomics
Narek Darabedian, Jinxu Gao, Kelly N Chuh, Christina M Woo, Matthew R Pratt
Metabolic chemical reporters of glycosylation in combination with bioorthogonal reactions have been known for two decades and have been used by many different research labs for the identification and visualization of glycoconjugates. More recently, however, they have begun to see utility for the investigation of cellular metabolism and the tolerance of biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases to dif-ferent sugars. Here, we take this concept one step further by using the metabolic chemical reporter 6-azido-6-deoxy-glucose (6AzGlc)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Sarah J Stace, Christopher M Fellows, Graeme Moad, Daniel J Keddie
Thermolysis is examined as a method for complete desulfurization of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-synthesized polymers prepared with acid/base "switchable" N-methyl-N-pyridyldithiocarbamates [RS2 CZ or RS2 CZH+ ]. Macro-RAFT agents from more activated monomers (MAMs) (i.e., styrene (St), N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm), and methyl methacrylate (MMA)) with RS2 CZH+ and less activated monomers (LAMs) (i.e., vinyl acetate (VAc) and N-vinylpyrolidone (NVP)) with RS2 CZ are prepared by RAFT polymerization and analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis...
May 11, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Volker Auwarter, Melanie Hutter, S Broecker, Stefan Kneisel, Floria Franz, Simon D Brandt
BACKGROUND: `Herbal mixtures` containing synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) are promoted as legal alternative to marihuana and are easily available via the Internet. Keeping analytical methods for the detection of these SCRAs up-to-date is a continuous challenge for clinicians and toxicologists due to the high diversity of the chemical structures and the frequent emergence of new compounds. Since many SCRAs are extensively metabolized, analytical methods used for urine testing require previous identification of the major metabolites of each compound...
May 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
A López-López, A H Sánchez-Gómez, A Montaño, A Cortés-Delgado, A Garrido-Fernández
This work studies the influence of cultivar and farming area on the sensory profile of green Spanish-style table olives, using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The lexicon developed was subsequently applied to samples of Gordal (G), Manzanilla (M), and Hojiblanca (H) from different origins: Arahal (A), Utrera (U), Alameda (Al), Estepa (E), Casariche (C), Alcalá de Guadaira (AG), Posadas (P), and Almendralejo (Am). The analysis of the data by ANOVA, considering the effect of the sample as fixed and those of the panelists and the sessions as random, showed good repeatability (no significant effect of the session)...
June 2018: Food Research International
Julia E Abery, Susan Todd
In multi-arm adaptive trials, several treatments are assessed simultaneously and accumulating data are used to inform decisions about the trial, such as whether treatments are dropped or continued. Different methodological approaches have been developed for such trials and research has compared the performance of different subsets of these. One particular approach, for which we use the acronym MAMS(R), has generally not been included in these comparisons because control of the family-wise error rate (FWER) could not be guaranteed...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Heather C Stobaugh, Beatrice L Rogers, Irwin H Rosenberg, Patrick Webb, Kenneth M Maleta, Mark J Manary, Indi Trehan
Background: Nutrition programs frequently approach wasting and stunting as 2 separate conditions with distinct causes and effects. Although several cross-sectional studies have identified an association between the 2 conditions, longitudinal studies are useful to quantify the risk of acute malnutrition based on the trajectory of linear growth. Objective: We analyzed data from a longitudinal study to explore associations between linear growth and relapse to acute malnutrition in high-risk children during the year after recovery from moderate acute malnutrition (MAM)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Smritee Singh, Priya Mishra, Ivneet Banga, Avanish S Parmar, Prem Prakash Tripathi, Sonu Gandhi
Introduction: Continuous use of opiates causes drug-related illnesses, which poses an alarming situation to develop sensitive detection platform. In this study, a highly sensitive and reliable chemiluminescence immunoassay (CI) has been developed for the detection of heroin and its major metabolites in spiked urine samples. Methods: To develop robust immunoassay, monoacetyl morphine-bovine serum albumin (MAM-BSA) conjugate was synthesized and characterized thoroughly by physicochemical techniques. The anti-MAM antibodies were developed, labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and immunoassay was developed to detect the presence of target drug in spiked urine samples...
2018: BioImpacts: BI
Srishti Singh, Carrie L Lomelino, Mam Y Mboge, Susan C Frost, Robert McKenna
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to produce bicarbonate and a proton. Multiple CA isoforms are implicated in a range of diseases, including cancer. In solid tumors, continuously dividing cells create hypoxic conditions that eventually lead to an acidic microenvironment. Hypoxic tumor cells have different mechanisms in place to regulate and adjust the surrounding microenvironment for survival. These mechanisms include expression of CA isoform IX (CA IX) and XII (CA XII)...
April 30, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Felipe V Gomes, Jessica R Edelson, David W Volk, Anthony A Grace
Altered cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) expression has been reported in the brain of subjects with schizophrenia, a developmental mental illness that usually emerges in late adolescence/early adulthood. However, the developmental period at which changes in the CB1R expression appear in schizophrenia is unknown. To gain insight into this factor, we assessed the postnatal developmental trajectory of CB1R expression in the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) model of schizophrenia. Using in situ hybridization with film and grain analyses, CB1R messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were quantified in multiple brain regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), secondary motor cortex, dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum, dorsal subregions and ventral subiculum of the hippocampus, of MAM-treated rats and normal controls at three developmental periods [juvenile - postnatal day (PD) 30; adolescence - PD45; and adulthood - PD85]...
April 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Amanda E McIlhone, Ngaio J Beausoleil, Nikki J Kells, David J Mellor, Craig B Johnson
The reliable assessment and management of avian pain is important in the context of animal welfare. Overtly expressed signs of pain vary substantially between and within species, strains and individuals, limiting the use of behaviour in pain studies. Similarly, physiological indices of pain can also vary and may be confounded by influence from non-painful stimuli. In mammals, changes in the frequency spectrum of the electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded under light anaesthesia (the minimal anaesthesia model; MAM) have been shown to reliably indicate cerebral responses to noxious stimuli in a range of species...
2018: PloS One
Gilda A Neves, Anthony A Grace
Recent evidence has emerged supporting a role for the cholinergic system in schizophrenia, including the potential of α7 modulators as a treatment strategy. However, preclinical studies to date have relied on studies in normal systems rather than on a validated developmental model of schizophrenia. Furthermore, there have been only few studies on whether orthosteric and allosteric modulators have differential impacts in such models. Thus, we investigated the effects of α7 agonists and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) on dopamine (DA) neuron activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) developmental disruption model of schizophrenia...
April 19, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jeanette Bailey, Natasha Lelijveld, Bethany Marron, Pamela Onyoo, Lara S Ho, Mark Manary, André Briend, Charles Opondo, Marko Kerac
BACKGROUND: Acute malnutrition is a continuum condition, but severe and moderate forms are treated separately, with different protocols and therapeutic products, managed by separate United Nations agencies. The Combined Protocol for Acute Malnutrition Study (ComPAS) aims to simplify and unify the treatment of uncomplicated severe and moderate acute malnutrition (SAM and MAM) for children 6-59 months into one protocol in order to improve the global coverage, quality, continuity of care and cost-effectiveness of acute malnutrition treatment in resource-constrained settings...
April 24, 2018: Trials
Natasha Lelijveld, Jeanette Bailey, Amy Mayberry, Lani Trenouth, Dieynaba S N'Diaye, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Chloe Puett
BACKGROUND: Acute malnutrition is currently divided into severe (SAM) and moderate (MAM) based on level of wasting. SAM and MAM currently have separate treatment protocols and products, managed by separate international agencies. For SAM, the dose of treatment is allocated by the child's weight. A combined and simplified protocol for SAM and MAM, with a standardised dose of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), is being trialled for non-inferior recovery rates and may be more cost-effective than the current standard protocols for treating SAM and MAM...
April 24, 2018: Trials
Kai Zhang, Qionglin Zhou, Yu Guo, Linxi Chen, Lanfang Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Li Feng, Shuang Liu, Huaili Zheng, Jianjun Liang, Yongjun Sun, Shixin Zhang, Xin Chen
In this study, the ultrasonic (US)-initiated template copolymerization was employed to synthesize a novel cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) characterized by a microblock structure using dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (DMDAAC) and acrylamide (AM) as monomers, and sodium polyacrylate (NaPAA) as template. The polymers structure property was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H NMR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that a novel cationic microblock structure was successfully synthesized in the template copolymer of DMDAAC and AM (TPADM)...
June 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Gabriel Bidaux, Dmitri Gordienko, George Shapovalov, Valerio Farfariello, Anne-Sophie Borowiec, Oksana Iamshanova, Loic Lemonnier, Maxime Gueguinou, Roseline Guibon, Gaelle Fromont, Mélanie Paillard, Yves Gouriou, Christophe Chouabe, Etienne Dewailly, Dimitra Gkika, Pilar López-Alvarado, J Carlos Menéndez, Laurent Héliot, Christian Slomianny, Natalia Prevarskaya
Calcium (Ca2+ ) release from the endoplasmic reticulum plays an important role in many cell-fate defining cellular processes. Traditionally, this Ca2+ release was associated with the ER Ca2+ release channels, inositol 1,4,5‑triphosphate receptor (IP3 R) and ryanodine receptor (RyR). Lately, however, other calcium conductances have been found to be intracellularly localized and to participate in cell fate regulation. Nonetheless, molecular identity and functional properties of the ER Ca2+ release mechanisms associated with multiple diseases, e...
April 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Susan B Roberts, Maria Angela Franceschini, Amy Krauss, Pei-Yi Lin, Augusto Braima de Sa, Raimundo Có, Salima Taylor, Carrie Brown, Oliver Chen, Elizabeth J Johnson, William Pruzensky, Nina Schlossman, Carlito Balé, Kuan-Cheng Tony Wu, Katherine Hagan, Edward Saltzman, Paul Muentener
Background: Cognitive impairment associated with childhood malnutrition and stunting is generally considered irreversible. Objective: The aim was to test a new nutritional supplement for the prevention and treatment of moderate-acute malnutrition (MAM) focused on enhancing cognitive performance. Methods: An 11-wk, village-randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted in 78 children aged 1-3 or 5-7 y living in villages in Guinea-Bissau. The supplement contained 291 kcal/d for young children and 350 kcal/d for older children and included 5 nutrients and 2 flavan-3-ol-rich ingredients not present in current food-based recommendations for MAM...
November 2017: Current developments in nutrition
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