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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923347/sulforaphane-improves-disrupted-er-mitochondria-interactions-and-suppresses-exaggerated-hepatic-glucose-production
#1
Emily Tubbs, Annika S Axelsson, Guillaume Vial, Claes B Wollheim, Jennifer Reuisset, Anders H Rosengren
AIMS: Exaggerated hepatic glucose production is one of the hallmarks of type 2 diabetes. Sulforaphane (SFN) has been suggested as a new potential anti-diabetic compound. However, the effects of SFN in hepatocytes are yet unclear. Accumulating evidence points to the close structural contacts between the ER and mitochondria, known as mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs), as important hubs for hepatic metabolism. We wanted to investigate whether SFN could affect hepatic glucose production and MAMs...
September 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919436/the-notch-pathway-regulates-the-second-mitotic-wave-cell-cycle-independently-of-bhlh-proteins
#2
Abhishek Bhattacharya, Ke Li, Manon Quiquand, Gerard Rimesso, Nicholas E Baker
Notch regulates both neurogenesis and cell cycle activity to coordinate precursor cell generation in the differentiating Drosophila eye. Mosaic analysis with mitotic clones mutant for Notch components was used to identify the pathway of Notch signaling that regulates the cell cycle in the Second Mitotic Wave. Although S phase entry depends on Notch signaling and on the transcription factor Su(H), the transcriptional co-activator Mam and the bHLH repressor genes of the E(spl)-Complex were not essential, although these are Su(H) coactivators and targets during the regulation of neurogenesis...
September 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917260/roles-of-sigma-1-receptors-on-mitochondrial-functions-relevant-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Tzu-Yu Weng, Shang-Yi Anne Tsai, Tsung-Ping Su
The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a chaperone that resides mainly at the mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (called the MAMs) and acts as a dynamic pluripotent modulator in living systems. At the MAM, the Sig-1R is known to play a role in regulating the Ca(2+) signaling between ER and mitochondria and in maintaining the structural integrity of the MAM. The MAM serves as bridges between ER and mitochondria regulating multiple functions such as Ca(2+) transfer, energy exchange, lipid synthesis and transports, and protein folding that are pivotal to cell survival and defense...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912491/meiotic-arrest-with-roscovitine-and-follicular-fluid-improves-cytoplasmic-maturation-of-porcine-oocytes-by-promoting-chromatin-de-condensation-and-gene-transcription
#4
Min Zhang, Chuan-Xin Zhang, Liu-Zhu Pan, Shuai Gong, Wei Cui, Hong-Jie Yuan, Wei-Ling Zhang, Jing-He Tan
The developmental capacity of in vitro matured oocytes is inferior to that of the in vivo matured ones due to insufficient cytoplasmic maturation. Although great efforts were made to accomplish better cytoplasmic maturation by meiotic arrest maintenance (MAM) before in vitro maturation (IVM), limited progress has been achieved in various species. This study showed that MAM of porcine oocytes was better achieved with roscovitine than with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db-cAMP) or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905466/adherence-to-pi-based-2-nd-line-regimens-in-cambodia-is-not-simply-a-question-of-individual-behaviour-the-anrs-12276-2picam-study
#5
Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Bakridine Mmadi Mrenda, Vohith Khol, Laurent Ferradini, Sovatha Mam, Sopheak Ngin, Marion Mora, Gwenaëlle Maradan, Chhi Vun Mean, Olivier Ségéral, Eric Nerrienet, Vonthanak Saphonn, Bruno Spire
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) can be explained not only by individual factors but also by healthcare facilities' characteristics, among a sample of people living with HIV (PLWH) treated with PI-based regimens in Cambodia. METHODS: The ANRS 12276 2PICAM cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2013 and April 2014 among PLWH followed up in 13 healthcare facilities. The 1316 patients in this analysis corresponded to 90% of the total number of adult patients treated with 2(nd) line PI-based regimens in Cambodia in the study period...
September 14, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892496/effectiveness-of-food-supplements-in-increasing-fat-free-tissue-accretion-in-children-with-moderate-acute-malnutrition-a-randomised-2-%C3%A3-2-%C3%A3-3-factorial-trial-in-burkina-faso
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Christian Fabiansen, Charles W Yaméogo, Ann-Sophie Iuel-Brockdorf, Bernardette Cichon, Maren J H Rytter, Anura Kurpad, Jonathan C Wells, Christian Ritz, Per Ashorn, Suzanne Filteau, André Briend, Susan Shepherd, Vibeke B Christensen, Kim F Michaelsen, Henrik Friis
BACKGROUND: Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated with lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) or corn-soy blend (CSB). We assessed the effectiveness of (a) matrix, i.e., LNS or CSB, (b) soy quality, i.e., soy isolate (SI) or dehulled soy (DS), and (c) percentage of total protein from dry skimmed milk, i.e., 0%, 20%, or 50%, in increasing fat-free tissue accretion. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between September 9, 2013, and August 29, 2014, a randomised 2 × 2 × 3 factorial trial recruited 6- to 23-month-old children with MAM in Burkina Faso...
September 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882140/role-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-dysregulation-of-ca-2-homeostasis-in-the-pathophysiology-of-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Chih-Hao Wang, Yau-Huei Wei
Metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and insulin resistance have attracted great attention from biomedical researchers and clinicians because of the astonishing increase in its prevalence. Decrease in the capacity of oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction are a major contributor to the development of these metabolic disorders. Recent studies indicate that alteration of intracellular Ca(2+) levels and downstream Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways appear to modulate gene transcription and the activities of many enzymes involved in cellular metabolism...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872674/the-methylazoxymethanol-acetate-rat-model-molecular-and-epigenetic-effect-in-the-developing-prefrontal-cortex-an-editorial-highlight-for-epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-animals-in-the-mam-model
#8
EDITORIAL
Xiyu Zhu, Felipe V Gomes, Anthony A Grace
This Editorial highlights an article by Gulchina and colleagues in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors describe molecular and epigenetic changes in the developing prefrontal cortex of the rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM). They found an NMDAR hypofunction present in the prefrontal cortex of juvenile MAM rats which was associated with abnormal epigenetic regulation of the Grin2b gene. These changes may be related to early cognitive impairments observed in MAM rats and schizophrenia patients...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871257/reactivation-of-intestinal-inflammation-is-suppressed-by-catestatin-in-a-murine-model-of-colitis-via-m1-macrophages-and-not-the-gut-microbiota
#9
Mohammad F Rabbi, Nour Eissa, Peris M Munyaka, Laëtitia Kermarrec, Omar Elgazzar, Ehsan Khafipour, Charles N Bernstein, Jean Eric Ghia
While there is growing awareness of a relationship between chromogranin-A (CHGA) and susceptibility to inflammatory conditions, the role of human catestatin [(hCTS); CHGA352-67] in the natural history of established inflammatory bowel disease is not known. Recently, using two different experimental models, we demonstrated that hCTS-treated mice develop less severe acute colitis. We have also shown the implication of the macrophages in this effect. The aims of this study were to determine (1) whether hCTS treatment could attenuate the reactivation of inflammation in adult mice with previously established chronic colitis; (2) whether this effect is mediated through macrophages or the gut microbiota...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868254/mitochondria-associated-membranes-as-networking-platforms-and-regulators-of-cancer-cell-fate
#10
REVIEW
Maria Livia Sassano, Alexander R van Vliet, Patrizia Agostinis
The tight cross talk between two essential organelles of the cell, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, is spatially and functionally regulated by specific microdomains known as the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). MAMs are hot spots of Ca(2+) transfer between the ER and mitochondria, and emerging data indicate their vital role in the regulation of fundamental physiological processes, chief among them mitochondria bioenergetics, proteostasis, cell death, and autophagy. Moreover, and perhaps not surprisingly, it has become clear that signaling events regulated at the ER-mitochondria intersection regulate key processes in oncogenesis and in the response of cancer cells to therapeutics...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854352/screening-of-spice-herbal-mixtures-from-high-field-to-low-field-proton-nmr
#11
Gaëtan Assemat, Florian Dubocq, Stéphane Balayssac, Catherine Lamoureux, Myriam Malet-Martino, Véronique Gilard
Forty one samples of herbal spices intended to be introduced into the European market and seized by the French customs were analysed with high-field (1)H NMR. Nine synthetic cannabinoids (MAM-2201, JWH-073, JWH-210, JWH-122, JWH-081, JWH-250, UR-144, XLR-11 and AKB-48-5F) were detected and quantified. The ability of a compact benchtop low-field NMR spectrometer for a rapid screening of the content of herbal blends was then successfully explored for the first time. Even if low-field (1)H NMR spectra are much less resolved than high-field spectra, we demonstrate that they provide valuable clues on the chemical structures of synthetic cannabinoids with the detection of some typical signals...
August 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852477/endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-tethering-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Yi Liu, Xiongwei Zhu
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria are tubular organelles with a characteristic "network structure" that facilitates the formation of inter-organellar connections. As a result, mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs), a subdomain of the ER that is tightly linked to and communicates with mitochondria, serve multiple physiological functions including lipid synthesis and exchange, calcium signaling, bioenergetics, and apoptosis. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that the abnormality and dysfunction of MAMs have been involved in various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842532/the-arabidopsis-leucine-rich-repeat-receptor-kinase-bir3-negatively-regulates-bak1-receptor-complex-formation-and-stabilizes-bak1
#13
Julia Imkampe, Thierry Halter, Shuhua Huang, Sarina Schulze, Sara Mazzotta, Nikola Schmidt, Raffaele Manstretta, Sandra Postel, Michael Wierzba, Yong Yang, Walter Mam vanDongen, Mark Stahl, Cyril Zipfel, Michael B Goshe, Steven Clouse, Sacco C de Vries, Frans Tax, Xiaofeng Wang, Birgit Kemmerling
BAK1 is a co-receptor and positive regulator of multiple ligand-binding leucine-rich-repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) and is involved in brassinosteroid (BR)-dependent growth and development, innate immunity and cell death control. The BAK1-interacting LRR-RKs BIR2 and BIR3 were previously identified by proteomics analyses of in vivo BAK1 complexes. Here we show that BAK1-related pathways such as innate immunity and cell death control are affected by BIR3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. BIR3 also has a strong negative impact on BR signaling...
August 25, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841980/electrochemical-enzyme-biosensors-based-on-calcium-phosphate-materials-for-tyramine-detection-in-food-samples
#14
Marta Sánchez-Paniagua López, Esther Redondo-Gómez, Beatriz López-Ruiz
Electrochemical tyrosinase biosensors for tyramine determination were developed by the immobilization of the enzyme in calcium phosphate materials (CaPs) followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Tyramine was detected by the electrochemical reduction at -0.1V of the o- enzymatically-formed dopaquinone. Three different CaPs were explored as immobilization systems, monetite, brushite and brushite cement. Biosensors based on brushite matrices provide better analytical properties than the monetite one. Compared to brushite, a 10-fold increase of sensitivity was obtained with the brushite cement-based biosensor, which highlights the effect of brushite crystal formation in the presence of the enzyme in the biosensor performance...
December 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827061/disruption-of-the-mitochondria-associated-er-membrane-mam-plays-a-central-role-in-palmitic-acid-induced-insulin-resistance
#15
Satoko Shinjo, Shuying Jiang, Masaaki Nameta, Tomohiro Suzuki, Mai Kanai, Yuta Nomura, Nobuhito Goda
The mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) is a specialized subdomain of ER that physically connects with mitochondria. Although disruption of inter-organellar crosstalk via the MAM impairs cellular homeostasis, its pathological significance in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus remains unclear. Here, we reveal the importance of reduced MAM formation in the induction of fatty acid-evoked insulin resistance in hepatocytes. Palmitic acid (PA) repressed insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in HepG2 cells within 12hours...
August 4, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822807/spontaneous-activation-of-a-mavs-dependent-antiviral-signaling-pathway-determines-high-basal-interferon-%C3%AE-expression-in-cardiac-myocytes
#16
Efraín E Rivera-Serrano, Nicole DeAngelis, Barbara Sherry
Viral myocarditis is a leading cause of sudden death in young adults as the limited turnover of cardiac myocytes renders the heart particularly vulnerable to viral damage. Viruses induce an antiviral type I interferon (IFN-α/β) response in essentially all cell types, providing an immediate innate protection. Cardiac myocytes express high basal levels of IFN-β to help pre-arm them against viral infections, however the mechanism underlying this expression remains unclear. Using primary cultures of murine cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, we demonstrate here that the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway is spontaneously activated in unstimulated cardiac myocytes but not cardiac fibroblasts or skeletal muscle cells...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819315/mce-domain-proteins-conserved-inner-membrane-lipid-binding-proteins-required-for-outer-membrane-homeostasis
#17
Georgia L Isom, Nathaniel J Davies, Zhi-Soon Chong, Jack A Bryant, Mohammed Jamshad, Maria Sharif, Adam F Cunningham, Timothy J Knowles, Shu-Sin Chng, Jeffrey A Cole, Ian R Henderson
Bacterial proteins with MCE domains were first described as being important for Mammalian Cell Entry. More recent evidence suggests they are components of lipid ABC transporters. In Escherichia coli, the single-domain protein MlaD is known to be part of an inner membrane transporter that is important for maintenance of outer membrane lipid asymmetry. Here we describe two multi MCE domain-containing proteins in Escherichia coli, PqiB and YebT, the latter of which is an orthologue of MAM-7 that was previously reported to be an outer membrane protein...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815534/alterations-in-ca-2-signalling-via-er-mitochondria-contact-site-remodelling-in-cancer
#18
Martijn Kerkhofs, Carlotta Giorgi, Saverio Marchi, Bruno Seitaj, Jan B Parys, Paolo Pinton, Geert Bultynck, Mart Bittremieux
Inter-organellar contact sites establish microdomains for localised Ca(2+)-signalling events. One of these microdomains is established between the ER and the mitochondria. Importantly, the so-called mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs) contain, besides structural proteins and proteins involved in lipid exchange, several Ca(2+)-transport systems, mediating efficient Ca(2+) transfer from the ER to the mitochondria. These Ca(2+) signals critically control several mitochondrial functions, thereby impacting cell metabolism, cell death and survival, proliferation and migration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815530/role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-communication-in-type-2-diabetes
#19
Jennifer Rieusset
Although mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and disrupted lipid and calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis are classically associated with both insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the interplay between these metabolic stresses is less known. Both organelles interact through contact points known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), in order to exchange both lipids and Ca(2+) and regulate cellular homeostasis. Recent evidences suggest that MAM could be an important hub for hormonal and nutrient signaling in the liver and that ER-mitochondria miscommunication could participate to hepatic insulin resistance, highlighting the importance of MAM in the control of glucose homeostasis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815529/mitochondrial-associated-membranes-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Nobutaka Hattori, Taku Arano, Taku Hatano, Akio Mori, Yuzuru Imai
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, with ageing being a major risk factor. Accordingly, estimates predict an increasing number of PD patients due to our expanding life span. Consequently, developing a true disease-modifying therapy is necessary. In this regard, monogenic PD offers a suitable means for determining pathogenesis. Among monogenic forms of PD, mitochondrial dysfunction may be a major cause and is also likely to be involved in sporadic PD. Thus, mitochondrial impairment may be a common pathway...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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