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Zhijuan Chen, Lingbao Ai, Mam Y Mboge, Robert McKenna, Christopher J Frost, Coy D Heldermon, Susan C Frost
Human cell lines are an important resource for research, and are often used as in vitro models of human diseases. In response to the mandate that all cells should be authenticated, we discovered that the MDA-MB-231 cells that were in use in our lab, did not validate based on the alleles of 9 different markers (STR Profile). We had been using this line as a model of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that has the ability to form tumors in immuno-compromised mice. Based on marker analysis, these cells most closely resembled the MCF10A line, which are a near diploid and normal mammary epithelial line...
March 21, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Roghayeh Javan, Akram Kooshki, Monavvar Afzalaghaee, Mitra Aldaghi, Mahdi Yousefi
Background: Despite the decreasing rate of under nutrition children in recent years overall, the negative affect in growth and development make it as a main concern in the world. Applying an available and appropriate supplementary food is a major approach in treating children with Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM). Objective: To compare the effectiveness of a new supplementary blended flour (containing chickpea, rice, wheat and barley, named Shadameen) in combination with multivitamin/mineral supplement and nutritional counseling versus multivitamin/mineral supplement and nutritional counseling alone, in the treatment of children with MAM...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Gilles Martinez, Charlotte Alexandre, Célia Mam-Lam-Fook, Narjes Bendjemaa, Raphaël Gaillard, Patricia Garel, Isabel Dziobek, Isabelle Amado, Marie-Odile Krebs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Paolo Pinton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Ewelina Bator, Joachim Latusz, Urszula Głowacka, Aleksandra Radaszkiewicz, Kinga Mudlaff, Marzena Maćkowiak
Social isolation (SI) during adolescence may induce schizophrenia-like behavior. In the present study, we investigated whether adolescent SI might affect the development of schizophrenia-like behavior in the MAM-E17 neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Rats were socially isolated for 10 days during adolescence (postnatal days (P) 30-40), followed by resocialization until late adolescence (P45-P48) or early adulthood (P70-P75); behavioral and neurochemical studies were performed at these ages. The behavioral studies analyzed locomotor activity, social interaction, recognition memory, and sensorimotor gating; GAD65 and GAD67 protein levels were measured in the prefrontal cortex...
March 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Bernardette Cichon, Christian Fabiansen, Ann-Sophie Iuel-Brockdorf, Charles W Yaméogo, Christian Ritz, Vibeke B Christensen, Suzanne Filteau, André Briend, Kim F Michaelsen, Henrik Friis
Background: Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) or corn-soy blends (CSBs) but little is known about the impact of these supplements on hemoglobin, iron status, and inflammation. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of supplementary foods for treatment of MAM on hemoglobin, iron status, inflammation, and malaria. Design: A randomized 2 × 2 × 3 factorial trial was conducted in Burkina Faso...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Benjamin Gottschalk, Christinae Klec, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Roland Malli, Wolfgang F Graier
Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that essentially contribute to cell signaling by sophisticated mechanisms of communications. Live cell imaging studies showed that mitochondria are dynamic and complex structures that form ramified networks by directed movements, fission, and fusion events. There is emerging evidence that the morphology of mitochondria determines cellular functions and vice versa. Several intracellular signaling pathways and messengers including Ca2+ dynamically influence the architecture of mitochondria...
March 12, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Cheng-Jun Li, Jie-Hua Xu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Pilocarpine-induced acute seizures strongly induce aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, characterized by increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fibre sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs), which may disturb hippocampal neuronal circuits and thus contribute to cognitive impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and animal models. Previous studies via ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures produced inconsistent results regarding the development of long-term cognitive impairment...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Jennifer Rieusset
The contact sites that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms with mitochondria, called mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), are a hot topic in biological research, and both their molecular determinants and their numerous roles in several signaling pathways are is continuously evolving. MAMs allow the exchange between both organelles of lipids, calcium (Ca2+ ), and likely reactive oxygen species, allowing adaptations of both cellular bioenergetics and cell fate depending of cellular needs or stresses. Therefore, it is not surprising that MAMs affect cellular metabolism...
March 9, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Manon Viaud, Stoyan Ivanov, Nemanja Vujic, Madalina Duta-Mare, Lazaro-Emilio Aira, Thibault Barouillet, Elsa Garcia, François Orange, Isabelle Dugail, Isabelle Hainault, Christian Stehlik, Sandrine Marchetti, Laurent Boyer, Rodolphe Guinamard, Fabienne Foufelle, Andrea E Bochem, Kees G Hovingh, Edward B Thorp, Emmanuel L Gautier, Dagmar Kratky, Paul A Da Silva-Jardine, Laurent Yvan-Charvet
<u>Rationale:</u> Macrophages face a substantial amount of cholesterol following the ingestion of apoptotic cells and the lysosomal acid lipase (LIPA) has a major role in hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters in the endocytic compartment. <u>Objective:</u> Here, we directly investigated the role of LIPA-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells both in vitro and in vivo. <u>Methods and Results:</u> We show that LIPA inhibition causes a defective efferocytic response due to impaired generation of 25-OHC and 27-OHC...
March 9, 2018: Circulation Research
Benjamin Delprat, Tangui Maurice, Cécile Delettre
Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodegenerative disease, the main pathological hallmarks of which associate with diabetes, optic atrophy, and deafness. Other symptoms may be identified in some but not all patients. Prognosis is poor, with death occurring around 35 years of age. To date, no treatment is available. WS was first described as a mitochondriopathy. However, the localization of the protein on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane challenged this hypothesis. ER contacts mitochondria to ensure effective Ca2+ transfer, lipids transfer, and apoptosis within stabilized and functionalized microdomains, termed "mitochondria-associated ER membranes" (MAMs)...
March 6, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Heather C Stobaugh, Beatrice L Rogers, Patrick Webb, Irwin H Rosenberg, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, Kenneth M Maleta, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Factors associated with relapse among children who are discharged after reaching a threshold denoted 'recovered' from moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are not well understood. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with sustained recovery, defined as maintaining a mid-upper-arm circumference≥12·5 cm for 1 year after release from treatment. On the basis of an observational study design, we analysed data from an in-depth household (HH) survey on a sub-sample of participants within a larger cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) that followed up children for 1 year after recovery from MAM...
March 5, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Patricia Gómez-Suaga, José M Bravo-San Pedro, Rosa A González-Polo, José M Fuentes, Mireia Niso-Santano
Mitochondria form close physical contacts with a specialized domain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), known as the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM). This association constitutes a key signaling hub to regulate several fundamental cellular processes. Alterations in ER-mitochondria signaling have pleiotropic effects on a variety of intracellular events resulting in mitochondrial damage, Ca2+ dyshomeostasis, ER stress and defects in lipid metabolism and autophagy. Intriguingly, many of these cellular processes are perturbed in neurodegenerative diseases...
March 1, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Mam Y Mboge, Brian P Mahon, Robert McKenna, Susan C Frost
The pH of the tumor microenvironment drives the metastatic phenotype and chemotherapeutic resistance of tumors. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this pH-dependent phenomenon will lead to improved drug delivery and allow the identification of new therapeutic targets. This includes an understanding of the role pH plays in primary tumor cells, and the regulatory factors that permit cancer cells to thrive. Over the last decade, carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have been shown to be important mediators of tumor cell pH by modulating the bicarbonate and proton concentrations for cell survival and proliferation...
February 28, 2018: Metabolites
Francesca Borgo, Stefania Garbossa, Alessandra Riva, Marco Severgnini, Carmelo Luigiano, Albero Benetti, Antonio E Pontiroli, Giulia Morace, Elisa Borghi
Gut microbiota is considered a separate organ with endocrine capabilities, actively contributing to tissue homeostasis. It consists of at least two separate microbial populations, the lumen-associated (LAM) and the mucosa-associated microbiota (MAM). In the present study, we compared LAM and MAM, by collecting stools and sigmoid brush samples of forty adults without large-bowel symptoms, and through a 16S rRNA gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. MAM sample analysis revealed enrichment in aerotolerant Proteobacteria , probably selected by a gradient of oxygen that decreases from tissue to lumen, and in Streptococcus and Clostridium spp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Martijn Kerkhofs, Mart Bittremieux, Giampaolo Morciano, Carlotta Giorgi, Paolo Pinton, Jan B Parys, Geert Bultynck
Inter-organellar communication often takes the form of Ca2+ signals. These Ca2+ signals originate from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and regulate different cellular processes like metabolism, fertilization, migration, and cell fate. A prime target for Ca2+ signals are the mitochondria. ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ transfer is possible through the existence of mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs), ER structures that are in the proximity of the mitochondria. This creates a micro-domain in which the Ca2+ concentrations are manifold higher than in the cytosol, allowing for rapid mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake...
February 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Ida Annunziata, Renata Sano, Alessandra d'Azzo
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) comprise a large group of disorders of catabolism, mostly due to deficiency of a single glycan-cleaving hydrolase. The consequent endo-lysosomal accumulation of undigested or partially digested substrates in cells of virtually all organs, including the nervous system, is diagnostic of these diseases and underlies pathogenesis. A subgroup of LSDs, the glycosphingolipidoses, are caused by deficiency of glycosidases that process/degrade sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids (GSLs)...
February 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Estela Area-Gomez, Ad de Groof, Eduardo Bonilla, Jorge Montesinos, Kurenai Tanji, Istvan Boldogh, Liza Pon, Eric A Schon
In the last few years, increased emphasis has been devoted to understanding the contribution of mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAM) to human pathology in general, and neurodegenerative diseases in particular. A major reason for this is the central role that this subdomain of the ER plays in metabolic regulation and in mitochondrial biology. As such, aberrant MAM function may help explain the seemingly unrelated metabolic abnormalities often seen in neurodegeneration. In the specific case of Alzheimer disease (AD), besides perturbations in calcium and lipid homeostasis, there are numerous documented alterations in mitochondrial behavior and function, including reduced respiratory chain activity and oxidative phosphorylation, increased free radical production, and altered organellar morphology, dynamics, and positioning (especially perinuclear mitochondria)...
February 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Sonia Missiroli, Simone Patergnani, Natascia Caroccia, Gaia Pedriali, Mariasole Perrone, Maurizio Previati, Mariusz R Wieckowski, Carlotta Giorgi
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria are tightly associated with very dynamic platforms termed mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). MAMs provide an excellent scaffold for crosstalk between the ER and mitochondria and play a pivotal role in different signaling pathways that allow rapid exchange of biological molecules to maintain cellular health. However, dysfunctions in the ER-mitochondria architecture are associated with pathological conditions and human diseases. Inflammation has emerged as one of the various pathways that MAMs control...
February 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Justyna Janikiewicz, Jędrzej Szymański, Dominika Malinska, Paulina Patalas-Krawczyk, Bernadeta Michalska, Jerzy Duszyński, Carlotta Giorgi, Massimo Bonora, Agnieszka Dobrzyn, Mariusz R Wieckowski
Sites of close contact between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM) or mitochondria-ER contacts (MERCs), and play an important role in both cell physiology and pathology. A growing body of evidence indicates that changes observed in the molecular composition of MAM and in the number of MERCs predisposes MAM to be considered a dynamic structure. Its involvement in processes such as lipid biosynthesis and trafficking, calcium homeostasis, reactive oxygen species production, and autophagy has been experimentally confirmed...
February 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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