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Andrew W Gorman, Kofi M Deh, Caspar M Schwiedrzik, Julie R White, Ernest Victor Groman, Clark A Fisher, Kelly M Gillen, Pascal Spincemaille, Skye Rasmussen, Martin R Prince, Henning U Voss, Winrich A Freiwald, Yi Wang
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of high cumulative doses of ultra-small paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) used in neuroimaging studies. We intravenously administered 8 mg/kg of 2 USPIO compounds daily for 4 wk to male Sprague-Dawley rats (Crl:SD). Multiecho gradient-echo MRI, serum iron levels, and histology were performed at the end of dosing and after a 7-d washout period. R2* maps and quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM) were generated from multiecho gradient-echo data. R2* maps and QSM showed iron accumulation in brain ventricles on MR images acquired at the 4- and 5-wk time points...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Philipp Wagner, Jiri Sonek, Katrin Eberle, Harald Abele, Markus Hoopmann, Natalia Prodan, Karl Oliver Kagan
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether in fetuses with trisomy 21 (T21), the ductus venosus (DV) flow differs in presence of a major cardiac defect (CHD) and whether this affects the risk distribution in first trimester screening for T21. METHODS: Retrospective study involving pregnant women who underwent first trimester screening. This involves an examination of the CRL, the NT, the DV flow, and the heart. 3 groups of fetuses were examined: euploid without CHD, T21 with and without CHD...
April 16, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
T A V Nguyen, Truong D Le, Hoa N Phan, Lam B Tran
Two types of lipase, Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) and porcine pancreas lipase (PPL), were used to hydrolyze virgin coconut oil (VCO). The hydrolysis process was carried out under four parameters, VCO to buffer ratio, lipase concentration, pH, and temperature, which have a significant effect on hydrolysis of lipase. CRL obtained the best hydrolysis condition at 1 : 5 of VCO to buffer ratio, 1.5% of CRL concentration, pH 7, and temperature of 40°C. Meanwhile, PPL gave different results at 1 : 4 of VCO to buffer ratio, 2% of lipase concentration, pH 7...
2018: Scientifica
Anam Akhtar, Scarlet Xiaoyan Wang, Lucy Ghali, Celia Bell, Xuesong Wen
Despite the success of arsenic trioxide (ATO) in treating haematological malignancies, its potential to treat solid tumours has not been fully exploited, owing to its dose-limiting toxicity and poor pharmacokinetics. In order to overcome this hurdle, liposomal encapsulation of the drug with different surface charges (neutral, negative, and positive) and sizes (100, 200 and 400 nm) were synthesised and tested on human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive HeLa and HPV-negative HT-3 cervical cancer cell lines. Two epithelial cell lines-human keratinocytes (HK) and human colon cells (CRL-1790)-were used as controls...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anita Mester, Zsuzsanna Magyar, Akos Molnar, Viktoria Somogyi, Bence Tanczos, Katalin Peto, Norbert Nemeth
BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a life-threatening clinical disorder. During I/R, the microrheological parameters of blood (red blood cell deformability and aggregation) worsen, which may contribute to microcirculatory deterioration. Age and gender also have a great influence on hemorheological parameters. We aimed to investigate the gender and age-related microrheological alterations during intestinal I/R. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After the cannulation of the left femoral artery, median laparotomy was performed in Crl:WI rats under general anesthesia...
May 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Tim D Nalder, Ivan Kurtovic, Colin J Barrow, Susan N Marshall
The aim of this work was to develop a simple and accurate protocol to measure the functional active site concentration of lipases immobilised on highly hydrophobic supports. We used the potent lipase inhibitor methyl 4-methylumbelliferyl hexylphosphonate to titrate the active sites of Candida rugosa lipase (CrL) bound to three highly hydrophobic supports: octadecyl methacrylate (C18), divinylbenzene crosslinked methacrylate (DVB) and styrene. The method uses correction curves to take into account the binding of the fluorophore (4-methylumbelliferone, 4-MU) by the support materials...
June 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Malte Heykants, Hagen Scherb, Geert Michel, Esther Mahabir
We determined the effect of monogamous or polygamous mating with 2 females on vaginal plug (VP) rate, embryo donors (ED), 2-cell embryo production, and male performance after superovulation of females aging 24d or 45-48d. C57BL/6NCrl (B6N), BALB/cAnCrl (BALB/cN), FVB/NCrl (FVB/N), and Crl:CD1(ICR) (CD-1) females received 5 IU eCG and 5 IU hCG (24d) or 7.5 IU eCG and 7.5 IU hCG (45-48d) 48 h apart. After the hCG injection, females were paired with males, which alternated weekly in monogamous or polygamous mating...
March 17, 2018: Theriogenology
Sang-Min Jang, Christophe E Redon, Mirit I Aladjem
Cullin-RING (Really Interesting New Gene) E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs), the largest family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, are functional multi-subunit complexes including substrate receptors, adaptors, cullin scaffolds, and RING-box proteins. CRLs are responsible for ubiquitination of ~20% of cellular proteins and are involved in diverse biological processes including cell cycle progression, genome stability, and oncogenesis. Not surprisingly, cullins are deregulated in many diseases and instances of cancer. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of CRL-mediated ubiquitination in the regulation of DNA replication/repair, including specific roles in chromatin assembly and disassembly of the replication machinery...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Parul Gupta, Manjri Singh, Rajiv Kumar, Jodi Belz, Rishi Shanker, Premendra D Dwivedi, Srinivas Sridhar, Surinder P Singh
Advances in nanotechnology have led to the design of multifunctional nanoparticles capable of cellular imaging, targeted drug delivery, and diagnostics for early cancer detection. We synthesized poly(lactic- co -glycolic acid) nanoparticles encapsulating a model radiosensitizing drug docetaxel accomplishing localized in situ delivery of the sensitizer to the tumor site. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized for their physicochemical properties. The in vitro cytotoxicity of drug-loaded nanoparticles has been studied on human tongue carcinoma cell line SCC-9 (ATCC-CRL-1629)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Nursyafiqah Elias, Sheela Chandren, Fazira Ilyana Abdul Razak, Joazaizulfazli Jamalis, Nashi Widodo, Roswanira Abdul Wahab
The contribution of chitosan/nanocellulose (CS-NC) to the enzymatic activity of Candida rugosa lipase covalently bound on the surface of CS-NC (CRL/CS-NC) was investigated. Cellulosic material from oil palm frond leaves (OPFL) were bleached, alkaline treated and acid hydrolyzed to obtain the purified NC and used as nano-fillers in CS. XRD, Raman spectroscopy and optical fluorescence microscopic analyses revealed existence of strong hydrogen bonds between CS and the NC nanofillers. The CRLs were successfully conjugated to the surface of the CS-NC supports via imine bonds that occurred through a Schiff's based mechanism...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chika Iwamoto, Kenoki Ohuchida, Miki Okumura, Yosuke Usumoto, Junji Kishimoto, Masaharu Murata, Noriaki Ikeda, Makoto Hashizume
It is important to estimate the postmortem interval in forensic autopsy. Many methods to estimate the postmortem interval have been reported, and are typically associated with internal examination. However, there are issues such as rejection of autopsy by the family and a lack of forensic doctor in internal examination. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new methods, such as autopsy imaging, that can substitute for internal examination. Here, we first evaluated whether gas volume in the body increased with postmortem interval...
December 20, 2017: Legal Medicine
Viktoria Somogyi, Katalin Peto, Adam Deak, Bence Tanczos, Norbert Nemeth
BACKGROUND: Age- and gender-related alterations of hemorheological parameters have not been completely elucidated to date. Experiments on older animals may give valuable information on this issue. However, the majority of rheological studies have been performed in young rodents. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the influence of aging and gender on hemorheological parameters in rats. METHODS: Coeval male (n=10) and female (n=10) Wistar (Crl:WI) rats were followed-up over 15 months...
March 12, 2018: Biorheology
Sumee Khanal, Priyanka Singh, Svetlana L Avlasevich, Dorothea K Torous, Jeffrey C Bemis, Stephen D Dertinger
Regulatory guidance documents stress the value of assessing multiple tissues and the most appropriate endpoints when evaluating chemicals for in vivo genotoxic potential. However, conducting several independent studies to consider multiple endpoints and/or tissue compartments is resource intensive. Furthermore, conventional approaches for scoring genotoxicity endpoints are slow, tedious, and less objective than what would be considered ideal. In an effort to address these issues with current practices, we attempted to i) employ flow cytometry-based methods to score liver micronuclei, blood micronuclei, and blood Pig-a gene mutation, and ii) integrate the endpoints into a common general toxicology study design-the rat 28-day repeat dose study...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Varun Jayeshkumar Shah, Subbareddy Maddika
Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) control broad range of biological processes by ubiquitinating numerous cellular substrates. However, role of CRL E3 ligases in chromatid cohesion is unknown. In this study, we identified a new CRL type E3 ligase (designated as CRL7SMU1 complex) that has an essential role in maintenance of chromatid cohesion. We demonstrate that SMU1, DDB1, CUL7 and RNF40 as integral components of this complex. SMU1 by acting as a substrate recognition module, binds to H2B and mediates monoubiquitination at K120 site through CRL7SMU1 E3 ligase complex...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Chunyu Zhang, Xiaoyan Dong, Zheng Guo, Yan Sun
Enzymes are promising biocatalysts for the production or degradation of chemical compounds, but low stabilities of free enzymes restrict their industrial applications. Therefore, development of effective immobilization methods to maintain or increase enzyme activity and stability remains a challenge. In this work, a novel support made of zwitterionic polymer-grafted silica nanoparticles (p-SNPs) was fabricated and Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) was covalently attached onto the p-SNPs. The zwitterionic polymer was a product of the reaction between poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) and N,N-dimethylenediamine and contained a cetane side chain...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Egle Strainiene, Mindaugas Binkis, Silvija Urnikyte, Vaidotas Stankevicius, Ausra Sasnauskiene, Gabrielis Kundrotas, Andrius Kazlauskas, Kestutis Suziedelis
BACKGROUND: Since the first evidence suggesting existence of stem-like cancer cells, the process of cells reprogramming to the stem cell state remains as an attractive tool for cancer stemness research. Current knowledge in the field of cancer stemness, indicates that the microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of cell behavior. With regard to this, we investigated the changes of genome wide gene expression in reprogrammed human colon normal epithelial CRL-1831 and colon carcinoma DLD1 cell lines grown under more physiologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture microenvironment compared to 2D monolayer...
February 27, 2018: BMC Cancer
Susan Patalano, José Rodríguez-Nieves, Cory Colaneri, Justin Cotellessa, Diego Almanza, Alisa Zhilin-Roth, Todd Riley, Jill Macoska
Tissue fibrosis is mediated by the actions of multiple pro-fibrotic proteins that can induce myofibroblast phenoconversion through diverse signaling pathways coupled predominantly to Smads or MEK/Erk proteins. The TGFβ/TGFβR and CXCL12/CXCR4 axes induce myofibroblast phenoconversion independently through Smads and MEK/Erk proteins, respectively. To investigate these mechanisms at the genetic level, we have now elucidated the TGFβ/TGFβR and CXCL12/CXCR4 transcriptomes in human fibroblasts. These transcriptomes are largely convergent, and up-regulate transcripts encoding proteins known to promote myofibroblast phenoconversion...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Suzanne Demers, Amelie Boutin, Regina Dembickaja, Mercedes Campanero, Kypros Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is associated with placental vascularization disorders. Ultrasonographic sphere biopsy (USSB) of the placenta can estimate the vascularization of the placenta and potentially the risk of preeclampsia. We aimed to explore the factors related to placental vascularization measured with USSB in the first trimester. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort was conducted in women recruited at 11 to 14 weeks. Three-dimensional acquisition of the placenta with power Doppler was undertaken along with crown-rump length (CRL)...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Annie I Chen, Mark Goulian
The ability to survive conditions of low water activity is critical for the survival of many bacteria in the environment and facilitates disease transmission through food and contaminated surfaces. However, the molecular mechanisms that enable bacteria to withstand this condition remain poorly understood. Here we describe a network of regulators in Escherichia coli that are important for this bacterium to survive dehydration. We found that the transcriptional regulator DksA and the general stress response regulator RpoS play a critical role...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Bridget Knight, Aaron Brereton, Roy J Powell, Helen Liversedge
Introduction: In the UK an accurate gestational age is confirmed by ultrasound measured foetal crown rump length (CRL) at 11 + 2-14 + 1 weeks of gestation. The currently recommended Robinson and Fleming crown rump length reference chart was develop in 1975. Advances in ultrasound technology and standardized crown rump length measurement training could mean this is now out of date. Our study aimed to assess its accuracy in current routine antenatal care. Methods: Retrospective data from 178 IVF pregnancies seen for routine antenatal care at a UK Regional Maternity Unit between 1 January 2006 and 1 January 2016 was retrieved...
February 2018: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
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