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Transplant medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106829/advances-in-monitoring-cell-based-therapies-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging-future-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Ethel J Ngen, Dmitri Artemov
Cell-based therapies are currently being developed for applications in both regenerative medicine and in oncology. Preclinical, translational, and clinical research on cell-based therapies will benefit tremendously from novel imaging approaches that enable the effective monitoring of the delivery, survival, migration, biodistribution, and integration of transplanted cells. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers several advantages over other imaging modalities for elucidating the fate of transplanted cells both preclinically and clinically...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104841/human-tissues-in-a-dish-the-research-and-ethical-implications-of-organoid-technology
#2
REVIEW
Annelien L Bredenoord, Hans Clevers, Juergen A Knoblich
The ability to generate human tissues in vitro from stem cells has raised enormous expectations among the biomedical research community, patients, and the general public. These organoids enable studies of normal development and disease and allow the testing of compounds directly on human tissue. Organoids hold the promise to influence the entire innovation cycle in biomedical research. They affect fields that have been subjects of intense ethical debate, ranging from animal experiments and the use of embryonic or fetal human tissues to precision medicine, organoid transplantation, and gene therapy...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103751/3d-bioprinting-towards-the-era-of-manufacturing-human-organs-as-spare-parts-for-healthcare-and-medicine
#3
Tanveer Ahmad Mir, Makoto Nakamura
3D printing technology has been used in industrial worlds for decades. 3D bioprinting has recently received an increasing attention across the globe among researchers, academicians, students and even the ordinary people. This emerging technique has a great potential to engineer highly organized functional bioconstructs with complex geometries and tailored components for engineering bio-artificial tissues/organs for widespread applications, including transplantation, therapeutic investigation, drug development, bioassay and disease modelling...
January 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101351/pro-inflammatory-effect-of-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-formula-with-potent-anti-cancer-activity-in-vitro-impedes-tumor-inhibitory-potential-in-vivo
#4
Lei Xia, Maksym Plachynta, Tangjingjun Liu, Xiao Xiao, Jialei Song, Xiaogang Li, Mu Zhang, Yao Yao, Heng Luo, Xiaojiang Hao, Yaacov Ben-David
Medicinal formulas are a part of the complex discipline of traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for centuries in China and East Asia. These formulas predominantly consist of the extracts isolated from herbal plants, animal parts and medicinal minerals. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of 150 formulas, used as non-prescription drugs in China, on the treatment of cancer. A formula was identified, C54, commonly used to treat sore throats, which exhibited marked growth inhibition in vitro, associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis...
December 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096512/papers-of-note-in-science-translational-medicine-9-372
#5
Leslie K Ferrarelli
This week's papers describe new therapeutic avenues to kill tumor-initiating cells in breast, ovarian, and lung cancer patients; mitigate graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic cell transplants in leukemia patients; and stimulate bone healing in diabetic patients.
January 17, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096400/defining-recovery-neurobiology-of-injured-spinal-cord-by-synthetic-matrix-assisted-hmsc-implantation
#6
Alexander E Ropper, Devang K Thakor, InBo Han, Dou Yu, Xiang Zeng, Jamie E Anderson, Zaid Aljuboori, Soo-Woo Kim, Hongjun Wang, Richard L Sidman, Ross D Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues offer tangible potential for regenerative medicine, given their feasibility for autologous transplantation. MSC research shows encouraging results in experimental stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurotrauma models. However, further translational progress has been hampered by poor MSC graft survival, jeopardizing cellular and molecular bases for neural repair in vivo. We have devised an adult human bone marrow MSC (hMSC) delivery formula by investigating molecular events involving hMSCs incorporated in a uniquely designed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold, a clinically safe polymer, following inflammatory exposures in a dorsal root ganglion organotypic coculture system...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092685/precision-oncology-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia-using-a-knowledge-bank-approach
#7
Moritz Gerstung, Elli Papaemmanuil, Inigo Martincorena, Lars Bullinger, Verena I Gaidzik, Peter Paschka, Michael Heuser, Felicitas Thol, Niccolo Bolli, Peter Ganly, Arnold Ganser, Ultan McDermott, Konstanze Döhner, Richard F Schlenk, Hartmut Döhner, Peter J Campbell
Underpinning the vision of precision medicine is the concept that causative mutations in a patient's cancer drive its biology and, by extension, its clinical features and treatment response. However, considerable between-patient heterogeneity in driver mutations complicates evidence-based personalization of cancer care. Here, by reanalyzing data from 1,540 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we explore how large knowledge banks of matched genomic-clinical data can support clinical decision-making. Inclusive, multistage statistical models accurately predicted likelihoods of remission, relapse and mortality, which were validated using data from independent patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas...
January 16, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087487/bioprinting-for-vascular-and-vascularized-tissue-biofabrication
#8
REVIEW
Pallab Datta, Bugra Ayan, Ibrahim T Ozbolat
: Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087312/immunisation-choice-of-host-adjuvants-and-boosting-schedules-with-emphasis-on-polyclonal-antibody-production
#9
REVIEW
Philippe Delahaut
Polyclonal antibodies are frequently used as immunodiagnostic tools in fundamental research. They are also used for routine diagnostic purposes in human and veterinary medicine and for quality control procedures in the food-processing industry. The antibody is a major component of the detection system. It binds with the molecule to be identified. This conjugate is subsequently revealed by means of binding the antibody with a radio-isotope, a fluorescent substance, an enzyme inducing a color change, or a biosensor based analytical system...
January 10, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081156/generation-of-a-stable-transgenic-swine-model-expressing-a-porcine-histone-2b-egfp-fusion-protein-for-cell-tracking-and-chromosome-dynamics-studies
#10
Renan B Sper, Sehwon Koh, Xia Zhang, Sean Simpson, Bruce Collins, Jeff Sommer, Robert M Petters, Ignacio Caballero, Jeff L Platt, Jorge A Piedrahita
Transgenic pigs have become an attractive research model in the field of translational research, regenerative medicine, and stem cell therapy due to their anatomic, genetic and physiological similarities with humans. The development of fluorescent proteins as molecular tags has allowed investigators to track cell migration and engraftment levels after transplantation. Here we describe the development of two transgenic pig models via SCNT expressing a fusion protein composed of eGFP and porcine Histone 2B (pH2B)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081128/radiation-exposure-from-diagnostic-imaging-in-a-cohort-of-pediatric-transplant-recipients
#11
Alexandra Seal, Michael Hawkes, Ravi Bhargava, Michelle Noga, Jutta Preiksaitis, Curtis Mabilangan, Joan Robinson
Recipients of solid organ transplants (SOT) have extensive diagnostic imaging (DI). The purpose of this study was to quantify this exposure. Children from northern Alberta with SOTs at Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta January 1, 2006, to July 31, 2012, were included. Effective doses of radiation were estimated using published norms for DI performed post-transplant up to October 16, 2014. The 54 eligible children had 6215 DI studies (5628 plain films, 293 computerized tomography (CT) scans, 149 positron emission topography (PET) -CT scans, 47 nuclear medicine scans and 98 cardiac catheterizations)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076798/neonatal-transplantation-confers-maturation-of-psc-derived-cardiomyocytes-conducive-to-modeling-cardiomyopathy
#12
Gun-Sik Cho, Dong I Lee, Emmanouil Tampakakis, Sean Murphy, Peter Andersen, Hideki Uosaki, Stephen Chelko, Khalid Chakir, Ingie Hong, Kinya Seo, Huei-Sheng Vincent Chen, Xiongwen Chen, Cristina Basso, Steven R Houser, Gordon F Tomaselli, Brian O'Rourke, Daniel P Judge, David A Kass, Chulan Kwon
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) offer unprecedented opportunities for disease modeling and personalized medicine. However, PSC-derived cells exhibit fetal-like characteristics and remain immature in a dish. This has emerged as a major obstacle for their application for late-onset diseases. We previously showed that there is a neonatal arrest of long-term cultured PSC-derived cardiomyocytes (PSC-CMs). Here, we demonstrate that PSC-CMs mature into adult CMs when transplanted into neonatal hearts. PSC-CMs became similar to adult CMs in morphology, structure, and function within a month of transplantation into rats...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070175/a-special-meeting-review-edition-advances-in-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-from-the-2016-easl-meeting-the-annual-meeting-of-the-european-association-for-the-study-of-the-liver-%C3%A2-april-13-17-2016-%C3%A2-barcelona-spainspecial-reporting-on-%C3%A2-six-weeks
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061966/new-treatments-for-hair-loss
#14
S Vañó-Galván, F Camacho
The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy...
January 3, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061365/primer-design-for-snp-genotyping-based-on-allele-specific-amplification-application-to-organ-transplantation-pharmacogenomics
#15
Luis A Tortajada-Genaro, Rosa Puchades, Ángel Maquieira
Diagnostic methods based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) biomarkers are essential for the real adoption of personalized medicine. Allele specific amplification in a homogeneous format or combined to microarray hybridization are powerful approaches for SNP genotyping. However, primers must be properly selected to minimize cross-reactivity, dimer formation and nonspecific hybridization. This study presents a design workflow diagram for the selection of required oligonucleotides for multiplex assays. Based on thermodynamic restrictions, the oligonucleotide sets are chosen for a specific amplification of wild- and mutant-type templates...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060118/cytomegalovirus-treatment-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#16
Bethany A Wattles, Abby J Kim, Alexandra C Cheerva, Kenneth G Lucas, Joshua J Elder
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a frequent complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplant in pediatric patients, with significant morbidity and mortality. Antiviral drugs are used as prophylactic, preemptive or therapeutic medicines; however, no uniform guidelines exist for the best strategy to prevent CMV disease. Resistance to standard antiviral therapies can lead to further difficulty in managing CMV disease. Studies for investigational therapies are underway and could provide options for treatment of resistant CMV, while limiting toxicities associated with currently used antiviral therapies...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059612/fecal-microbial-transplantation-as-a-therapeutic-option-in-patients-colonized-with-antibiotic-resistant-organisms
#17
Michael Laffin, Braden Millan, Karen L Madsen
Despite increasing interest in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), its full therapeutic potential has yet to be determined. Since its increase in popularity, FMT has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of both Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and its recurrent form. Interest in FMT now expands well beyond the treatment of CDI to other processes with known associations to the microbiota such as antibiotic resistant infections, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), hepatic encephalopathy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and metabolic disease...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056830/development-of-aspergillosis-in-a-cohort-of-non-neutropenic-non-transplant-patients-colonised-by-aspergillus-spp
#18
José Barberán, Francisco-Javier García-Pérez, Victoria Villena, Alberto Fernández-Villar, Eduardo Malmierca, Cristina Salas, María-José Giménez, Juan-José Granizo, Lorenzo Aguilar
BACKGROUND: A previous study explored factors discriminating colonization and true infection among non-transplant, non-neutropenic patients with repeated Aspergillus spp. isolation from lower respiratory samples. The present study explored the evolution of patients with Aspergillus colonization in that study to determine the percentage of cases progressing to aspergillosis and time to development. METHODS: Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed (for each patient from his end date in the past study) and data from all respiratory processes suffered by patients up to April 2015 were recorded...
January 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049891/development-of-cellular-and-tissue-based-products-for-retinal-regenerative-medicine
#19
Fumitaka Osakada
 Since the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generation, much progress has been made in the fields of medical and pharmaceutical research, such as cell transplantation therapy. We have generated retinal cells and tissues, including retinal pigment epithelia (RPE), from human iPSCs. The ability to produce iPSCs from patients allows for autologous transplantation without causing immune rejection. The autologous transplantation of iPSC-derived retinal pigment epithelial sheets to a patient with age-related macular degeneration was carried out in Japan in 2014 as a first-in-human clinical study...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045024/therapeutic-microparticles-functionalized-with-biomimetic-cardiac-stem-cell-membranes-and-secretome
#20
Junnan Tang, Deliang Shen, Thomas George Caranasos, Zegen Wang, Adam C Vandergriff, Tyler A Allen, Michael Taylor Hensley, Phuong-Uyen Dinh, Jhon Cores, Tao-Sheng Li, Jinying Zhang, Quancheng Kan, Ke Cheng
Stem cell therapy represents a promising strategy in regenerative medicine. However, cells need to be carefully preserved and processed before usage. In addition, cell transplantation carries immunogenicity and/or tumourigenicity risks. Mounting lines of evidence indicate that stem cells exert their beneficial effects mainly through secretion (of regenerative factors) and membrane-based cell-cell interaction with the injured cells. Here, we fabricate a synthetic cell-mimicking microparticle (CMMP) that recapitulates stem cell functions in tissue repair...
January 3, 2017: Nature Communications
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