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Motility disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342262/preliminary-study-of-1940-nm-thulium-laser-usage-in-peroral-endoscopic-myotomy-for-achalasia
#1
J Liu, Y Jiao, Y Niu, L Yu, M Ji, S Zhang
Esophageal achalasia is a type of motility disorder characterized by incomplete relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and absence of esophageal peristalsis. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new treatment option for achalasia that is less invasive, more effective, and safe as compared to surgery. High-frequency electrotome is commonly used in POEM, but takes longer time to make the tunnel in the esophagus and causes many complications. The thulium laser decreases the risk of bleeding and perforation in endoscopy but has not been reported in digestive diseases, especially in POEM...
January 9, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340927/achalasia-cardia-in-a-young-infant
#2
V Poornachand, K Kumarasamy, S P Karamath, V Seenivasan, Sumathi Bavanandam, Nirmala Dheivamani
Achalasia cardia is an esophageal motility disorder rarely reported in children and more so in young infants. Common clinical presentations include vomiting, dysphagia, regurgitation, recurrent pulmonary aspiration and failure to thrive. Diagnosis is made by barium swallow study and esophageal manometry, which is the gold standard test. Pharmocological management and endotherapy often fails and results in recurrence of symptoms. Laparoscopic Hellers myotomy, with or without anti-reflux procedure is the standard treatment of choice for children...
January 17, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338493/challenges-of-peroral-endoscopic-myotomy-in-the-treatment-of-distal-esophageal-spasm
#3
Fraukje Anna-Marie Ponds, André J P M Smout, Paul Fockens, Albert J Bredenoord
OBJECTIVE: Distal esophageal spasm (DES) is a rare motility disorder characterized by premature and rapidly propagated contractions of the distal esophagus. Treatment options are limited and often poorly effective. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) seems an effective and attractive new treatment option for DES. In this case report we describe some of the difficulties that could arise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 84-year old man with therapy-refractory DES and complaints of severe dysphagia and chest pain underwent a POEM procedure under general anesthesia...
January 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332257/kynurenic-acid-and-its-derivatives-are-able-to-modulate-the-adhesion-and-locomotion-of-brain-endothelial-cells
#4
Eszter Lajkó, Bernadett Tuka, Ferenc Fülöp, István Krizbai, József Toldi, Kálmán Magyar, László Vécsei, László Kőhidai
The neuroprotective actions of kynurenic acid (KYNA) and its derivatives in several neurodegenerative disorders [characterized by damage to the cerebral endothelium and to the blood-brain barrier (BBB)] are well established. Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion is supposedly involved in recovery of impaired cerebral endothelium integrity (endothelial repair). The present work aimed to investigate the effects of KYNA and its synthetic derivatives on cellular behaviour (e.g. adhesion and locomotion) and on morphology of the GP8 rat brain endothelial cell line, modeling the BBB endothelium...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323774/obesity-impairs-oligopeptide-amino-acid-induced-ghrelin-release-and-smooth-muscle-contractions-in-the-human-proximal-stomach
#5
L Vancleef, T Thijs, F Baert, L J Ceulemans, E Canovai, Q Wang, S Steensels, A Segers, R Farré, J Pirenne, M Lannoo, J Tack, I Depoortere
SCOPE: The satiation properties of proteins involve effects on gut peptide release and gastrointestinal motility which may be altered during obesity. This study compared the in vitro response and role of amino acid (AA) taste receptors (TASR) in the effect of AAs and a casein hydrolysate on ghrelin release and smooth muscle (SM) contractions in the proximal gut of lean and obese patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Basal ghrelin release, measured from mucosal segments, was maximal in the fundus and decreased distally...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319022/thoracoscopic-oesophagectomy-for-end-stage-achalasia
#6
Vaibhav Kumar Varshney, Subhash Chandra Soni, Manju Kumari, Pawan Kumar Garg, Ashok Puranik
Achalasia cardia is an oesophageal motility disorder characterised by aperistalsis and failure of relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter. The management is predominantly palliative with focus on addressing the sphincter that involves either pneumatic dilatation or Heller myotomy which relieves dysphagia in the majority of the cases. End-stage achalasia (ESA) is characterised by failed myotomy, massively dilated and tortuous oesophagus with nutritional deterioration due to progressive dysphagia and vomiting...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318638/voltage-gated-sodium-channels-nav-igating-the-field-to-determine-their-contribution-to-visceral-nociception
#7
Andelain Erickson, Annemie Deiteren, Andrea M Harrington, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Joel Castro, Ashlee Caldwell, Luke Grundy, Stuart M Brierley
Chronic visceral pain, altered motility and bladder dysfunction are common, yet poorly managed symptoms of functional and inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Recently, numerous human channelopathies of the voltage-gated sodium (NaV ) channel family have been identified, which induce either painful neuropathies, an insensitivity to pain, or alterations in smooth muscle function. The identification of these disorders, in addition to the recent utilisation of genetically modified NaV mice and specific NaV channel modulators, has shed new light on how NaV channels contribute to the function of neuronal and non-neuronal tissues within the gastrointestinal tract and bladder...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316973/kartagener-s-syndrome-a-case-report
#8
Abilo Tadesse, Hailemariam Alemu, Mezgebu Silamsaw, Yonathan Gebrewold
BACKGROUND: Kartagener's syndrome is a subset of primary ciliary dyskinesia, an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by the clinical triad of chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and situs inversus. Abnormal ciliary structure or function leading to impaired ciliary motility is the main pathophysiologic problem in Kartagener's syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old man from Gondar town, North-West Ethiopia, presented to University of Gondar Hospital with recurrent episodes of nasal congestion with itching and paranasal discomfort, and productive cough for more than a decade...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314441/alterations-in-the-gut-barrier-and-involvement-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-murine-postoperative-ileus
#9
S-S Lin, R-Q Zhang, L Shen, X-J Xu, K Li, A-V Bazhin, J Fichna, Y-Y Li
BACKGROUND: The changes in the gut barrier (GB) and associated mechanisms in postoperative ileus (POI) are still unclear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in inflammation, which may cause GB dysfunction and POI. Here, the roles of the GB in POI in relation to TLR4-dependent signaling pathways were explored. METHODS: POI was induced by small bowel manipulation in wild-type (WT) and TLR4-knockout (TLR4-/-) mice. Twenty-four hours after manipulation, indices of gastrointestinal (GI) transit, GB structure and function, inflammation, and related signaling pathways were analyzed...
January 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307732/promescent%C3%A2-has-a-cytotoxic-impact-on-fresh-human-sperm-in-vitro
#10
Melissa Sutton, Caitlin Hunn, Roxanne B Summers-Colquitt, Shu-Hung Chen, Shahryar K Kavoussi, Keikhosrow M Kavoussi, Parviz K Kavoussi
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of Promescent®, a commonly used topical medication for premature ejaculation (PE), on human sperm motility, forward progression (FP), viability, and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in vitro. METHODS: Aliquots from specimens for diagnostic semen analyses from patients (n=20) presenting to a couple's fertility center andrology laboratory for fertility testing were included after the full diagnostic semen analyses were performed. Samples which met the World Health Organization (WHO) 5th edition criteria as "normal" had Promescent® applied to an aliquot of the sample and motility, FP, viability, and SDF were compared to an aliquot which was not treated with Promescent®...
January 4, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306087/a-model-of-gallbladder-motility
#11
M Żulpo, J Balbus, P Kuropka, K Kubica
Impaired gallbladder motility leads to some clinical manifestations associated with its muscle contraction and/or the rate of filling with bile. To gain a better understanding of the possible reasons for different filling/emptying patterns we developed a mathematical model of the gallbladder that takes into account the kinetics of its filling and emptying and changes in the concentration of the accumulated bile. The model is based on four parameters responsible for the maximum speed of bile evacuation (Mg), pulsation of contractions (ω), the kinetic filling rate (kg) and the maximum bile mass accumulated in the gallbladder (mtotal)...
December 26, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300676/intracranial-hypotension-mimicking-chronic-progressive-external-ophthalmoplegia
#12
Kaveh Vahdani, Katherine McVeigh, Rhys Harrison, Mandy Williams, Helen Garrott
Intracranial hypotension (ICH) is characterized by low cerebrospinal fluid pressure, postural headaches, and diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A variety of ophthalmoparetic manifestations have been reported in the context of the ICH. The authors describe an unusual case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with rapid onset of headaches, bilateral upper-lid ptosis, and blurring of vision within 4 days after sustaining a trivial head injury. She was noted to have bilateral symmetrical ophthalmoplegia and ptosis-simulating chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia...
January 4, 2018: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299890/comparison-of-the-effects-of-clofibrate-and-silafibrate-on-sperm-parameters-quality-and-sex-hormones-in-male-rats
#13
Masoud Delashoub, Mojtaba Ziaee, Arash Khorrami, Seyed Mahdi Banan-Khojasteh
PURPOSE: Fibrates are drugs widely used for the treatment of hyperlipidemic disorders. Previous studies on a novel analogue of clofibrate, called silafibrate, have shown good lipid lowering effects. This study was designed to assess the role of silafibrate as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) agonist on sperm health and spermatogenesis in adult male rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 7 groups: Cl-10, Cl-20, and Cl-40 mg/kg/day (clofibrate); Si-10, Si-20, and Si-40 mg/kg/day (silafibrate); and C, control...
January 3, 2018: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287783/effects-of-telmisartan-and-losartan-on-irradiated-testes
#14
Naira da Silva Mansano, Isabela Fernandes Jorge, Agnaldo Bruno Chies, Gustavo Arruda Viani, Maria Angélica Spadella
AIMS: To analyze the effects of radiation on the reproductive tissue of male Wistar rats and to evaluate whether treatment with the Ang II AT1 receptor antagonists telmisartan and losartan mitigate the dysfunctions resulting from this exposure. MAIN METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into groups: Control, Irradiated, Telmisartan, Losartan, Irradiated+Telmisartan, and Irradiated+Losartan. Single dose of 5Gy was administered directly into the scrotum, followed by treatment with telmisartan (12mg/kg/day) or losartan (34mg/kg/two times/day) for 60days...
December 26, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286206/high-resolution-vs-conventional-esophageal-manometry-in-the-assessment-of-esophageal-motor-disorders-in-patients-with-non-cardiac-chest-pain
#15
O Akinsiku, T Yamasaki, S Brunner, S Ganocy, R Fass
BACKGROUND: High-resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) has become a leading tool in the assessment of esophageal motor disorders, replacing conventional manometry. However, there is limited data about the contribution of HREM as compared with conventional manometry to the assessment of esophageal motor disorders in patients with non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). The aim of the study was to compare the distribution of esophageal motor disorders in patients with NCCP using HREM as compared with conventional manometry and to determine if HREM improved diagnosis of these disorders...
December 29, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285332/correlations-between-dental-malocclusions-ocular-motility-and-convergence-disorders-a-cross-sectional-study-in-growing-subjects
#16
P Bollero, M R Ricchiuti, G Laganà, G DI Fusco, R Lione, P Cozza
Objective: The purpose of the study was to analyze the association between dento-skeletal malocclusions, ocular motility, and convergence disorders in growing subjects. Materials and methods: 84 subjects (49 males, 35 females) with a mean age of 7.3±1.7 years were enrolled in a screening procedure for celiac disease at the Department of Gastroenterology of the University of Rome "Tor Vergata". Each child underwent an orthodontic, orthoptic, and ophtalmological examination...
July 2017: Oral & Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284965/immunohistochemical-expression-of-ezrin-in-oral-potentially-malignant-disorders-a-descriptive-study
#17
Raghini Mohanraj, Pratibha Ramani, Priya Premkumar, Anuja Natesan, Herald J Sherlin, Gheena Sukumaran
Introduction: Ezrin, also known as cytovillin, is a member of the ERM family of protein. Ezrin cross-links actin filament with the plasma membrane. They are involved in the formation of microvilli, cell-cell adhesion, maintenance of cell shape, cell motility, and membrane trafficking. Recent analysis reveals their involvement in signaling pathways. Ezrin is highly expressed in several types of human cancers, and correlation between its immunoreactivity and histopathological data as well as the patient outcome has previously been studied...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284389/efficacy-and-safety-of-serotonin-receptor-ligands-in-the-treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-review
#18
Agata Binienda, Martin Storr, Jakub Fichna, Maciej Salaga
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, recurrent bowel disorder with an unknown etiology, which is most likely multifactorial. Increased mucosal permeability, visceral hypersensitivity and activation status of intestinal mucosal immune cells cause changes in gastrointestinal (GI) motility, secretion and sensation observed in the course of IBS. Permanent, cumbersome symptoms, such as diarrhea, constipation and abdominal pain greatly lower quality of life of IBS patients. On this basis, according to the Rome IV criteria, different forms of IBS can be distinguished...
December 27, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283909/an-update-on-the-pathogenesis-of-cholesterol-gallstone-disease
#19
Agostino Di Ciaula, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gallstone disease is a major epidemiologic and economic burden worldwide, and the most frequent form is cholesterol gallstone disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Major pathogenetic factors for cholesterol gallstones include a genetic background, hepatic hypersecretion of cholesterol, and supersaturated bile which give life to precipitating cholesterol crystals that accumulate and grow in a sluggish gallbladder. Additional factors include mucin and inflammatory changes in the gallbladder, slow intestinal motility, increased intestinal absorption of cholesterol, and altered gut microbiota...
December 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277716/further-investigation-of-the-effects-of-5-hydroxytryptamine-8-oh-dpat-and-doi-to-mediate-contraction-and-relaxation-responses-in-the-intestine-and-emesis-in-suncus-murinus
#20
Farideh A Javid, Saeed Afshin-Javid, Charles C Horn
5-HT receptors are implicated in many gastrointestinal disorders. However, the precise role of 5-HT in mediating GI responses in Suncus murnius is still unclear. Therefore in this study, the effects of 5-HT and its agonists were investigated in Suncus. The involvement of 5-HT2C receptors in mediating emesis was also investigated. The ability of 5-HT and its agonists/antagonists at 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 to modify GI motility was investigated in vitro and in vivo. WAY100635 (a 5-HT1A antagonist) inhibited the contraction response to 5-HT in the proximal segments without affecting the maximum response; whilst enhancing the contraction to 5-HT (>30...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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