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Motility disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441829/-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-with-hydin-gene-mutations-in-a-child-and-literature-review
#1
L L Chen, Y G Yang, J Z Wu, X R Chen
Objective: To review children's primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in the pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment. Method: To summarize and analyze the clinical data of a patient who was admitted to the first affiliated hospital of Xiamen University with primary ciliary dyskinesia in April 2014 while referring to related literature. Result: An 11 years old boy, weighting about 22 kg, had a course of more than 10 years with repeated cough, stuffy and runny nose shortly after the birth. Examinations after admission to hospital showed that he presented with visible clubbing, bilateral paranasal sinus area tenderness, pharynx posterior wall with visible yellow pussy stuff drip and bilateral lung had scattered wet rales...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440477/synchronized-dual-pulse-gastric-electrical-stimulation-improves-gastric-emptying-and-activates-enteric-glial-cells-via-upregulation-of-gfap-and-s100b-with-different-courses-of-subdiaphragmatic-vagotomy-in-rats
#2
Nian Wang, Shuangning Song, Jie Chen
Previous research and clinical practice have indicated that damage to the vagal nerve may seriously affect gastrointestinal physiological movement behavior. The aim of the current study was to observe the change of gastric motility, as well as enteric glial cells (EGCs) in the stomach with different courses of vagal nerve transection in rats prior to and following synchronized dual pulse gastric electrical stimulation. The gastric emptying rates were measured to assess the gastric motility. The glial markers, containing calcium binding protein (S100B) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and double‑labeling immunofluorescence analysis...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439942/assessment-of-motion-of-colonic-contents-in-the-human-colon-using-mri-tagging
#3
S E Pritchard, J Paul, G Major, L Marciani, P A Gowland, R C Spiller, C L Hoad
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a non-invasive, semi-automated technique to assess motility of the wall of the ascending colon (AC) using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. This study investigated the feasibility of using a tagged MRI technique to visualize and assess the degree of flow within the human ascending colon in healthy subjects and those suffering from constipation. METHODS: An open-labeled study of 11 subjects with constipation and 11 subjects without bowel disorders was performed...
April 25, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429202/small-bowel-motility
#4
REVIEW
Carolina Malagelada, Juan R Malagelada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Small bowel motility disorders constitute a relatively small but important segment of clinical gastroenterology. Presenting features encompass a broad range of symptom manifestations and severity: from chronic functional-type complaints to life-threatening nutritional impairment. Diagnostic assessment of patients with suspected intestinal motility disorders is often hampered by the complexity of measuring intestinal contractile activity in humans. In this review, we describe and critically comment the main current and forthcoming methodologies...
June 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429200/achalasia-it-is-not-all-black-and-white
#5
REVIEW
Santosh Sanagapalli, Rami Sweis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to shed light on subtleties of achalasia diagnosis, including potential pitfalls that may lead to errors. Optimal methods for assessment of disease severity and the relationship between achalasia and other motility disorders will also be reviewed with an emphasis on recent findings from the literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Adjunctive testing with viscous substances or larger water volumes should be used routinely as it improves the accuracy of achalasia diagnosis...
June 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426462/high-resolution-esophageal-manometry-interpretation-in-clinical-practice
#6
Rena Yadlapati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) is the current state-of-the-art diagnostic tool to evaluate esophageal motility patterns and, as such, is widely adopted in clinical practice. This article will review the interpretation of esophageal HRM in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: HRM uses a high-resolution catheter to transmit intraluminal pressure data that are subsequently converted into dynamic esophageal pressure topography (EPT) plots...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424994/modulation-of-gastrointestinal-motility-beyond-metoclopramide-and-domperidone-pharmacological-and-clinical-evidence-for-phytotherapy-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#7
Ahmed Madisch, Bettina R Vinson, Heba Abdel-Aziz, Olaf Kelber, Karen Nieber, Karin Kraft, Martin Storr
The prokinetic cisapride, an important therapeutic option in functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, was withdrawn from the market 15 years ago due to rare severe side effects. Likewise in 2014, the use of metoclopramide (MCP) and domperidone in functional GI disorders (FGID) was restricted, consequently leaving a therapeutic gap in clinical practice. A systematic review revealed that the herbal medicinal product (HMP) STW 5 presents a therapeutic option equivalent to MCP and cisapride. STW 5 is the only HMP for which efficacy has been shown in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) in functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, based on its multitarget effect on numerous etiological factors...
April 19, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423481/prevalence-of-gastric-motility-disorders-in-patients-with-functional-dyspepsia
#8
Haruki Asano, Toshihiko Tomita, Kumiko Nakamura, Takahisa Yamasaki, Takuya Okugawa, Takashi Kondo, Tomoaki Kono, Katsuyuki Tozawa, Yoshio Ohda, Tadayuki Oshima, Hirokazu Fukui, Kazuhito Fukushima, Shozo Hirota, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Background/Aims: Gastric motility abnormalities have been considered to be pathophysiological features of functional dyspepsia (FD) that are closely related to dyspepsia symptoms, especially postprandial distress syndrome (PDS). The aims of this study are to (1) investigate the prevalence of gastric motility disorders and (2) evaluate the association between gastric motility abnormalities and dyspeptic symptoms using gastric scintigraphy in the PDS type of FD. Methods: Forty healthy subjects and 94 PDS type FD patients were enrolled in the study...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422808/diagnosis-of-chronic-intestinal-pseudo-obstruction-megacystis-by-sequencing-the-actg2-gene
#9
Aubrey Milunsky, Clinton Baldwin, Xiaoying Zhang, Daniel Primack, Adrian Curnow, Jeff Milunsky
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) has depended on clinical features, manometry, and imaging. This report aimed to determine the efficacy of sequencing the ACTG2 gene for diagnosis. In addition, the goal was to determine how often a mutation would be found in our randomly collected cohort of probands and those probands published previously. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed in 4 probands with CIPO. Subsequently, only the ACTG2 gene was sequenced in another 24 probands (total 28)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421777/quality-control-of-enteral-nutrition-therapy-in-cancer-patients-at-nutritional-risk
#10
Ariana Lee, Ronaldo Sousa Oliveira Filho, Thais De Campos Cardenas, Gislaine Aparecida Ozório, Juliana Pereira Lima Gropp, Dan Linetzky Waitzberg
INTRODUCTION: Quality indicators in nutritional therapy (QINTs) allow for the practical assessment of quality in the management of enteral nutrition therapy (ENT) among hospitalized patients. OBJECTIVE: To control ENT quality in cancer patients at nutritional risk. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was performed with cancer patients over 19 years of age who had undergone exclusive ENT for at least 72 h. Nutritional Risk Screening was used to assess nutritional risk; in the presence of nutritional risk, the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) was used...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419527/the-rectosigmoid-brake-review-of-an-emerging-neuromodulation-target-for-colorectal-functional-disorders
#11
Anthony Y Lin, Phil G Dinning, Tony Milne, Ian P Bissett, Gregory O'Grady
The regulation of gastrointestinal motility encompasses several overlapping mechanisms including highly regulated and coordinated neurohormonal circuits. Various feedback mechanisms or 'brakes' have been proposed. While duodenal, jejunal, and ileal brakes are well described, a putative distal colonic brake is less well defined. Despite the high prevalence of colonic motility disorders, there is little knowledge of colonic motility owing to difficulties with organ access and technical difficulties in recording detailed motor patterns along its entire length...
April 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413456/role-of-stem-cell-growth-factor-c-kit-in-the-pathogenesis-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
Yuna Chai, Yusheng Huang, Hongmei Tang, Xing Tu, Jianbo He, Ting Wang, Qingye Zhang, Fen Xiong, Detang Li, Zhenwen Qiu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease with a complicated etiopathogenesis, often characterized by gastrointestinal motility disorder and high visceral sensitivity. IBS is a comprehensive multi-systemic disorder, with the interaction of multiple factors, such as mental stress, intestinal function and flora, heredity, resulting in the disease. The existence of a common mechanism underlying the aforementioned factors is currently unknown. The lack of therapies that comprehensively address the disease symptoms, including abdominal pain and diarrhea, is a limitation of current IBS management...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411215/the-effect-of-rho-drugs-on-mast-cell-activation-and-degranulation
#13
Avinash Sheshachalam, Alicia Baier, Gary Eitzen
Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that produce potent proinflammatory mediators, which are stored in cytoplasmic granules. Stimulation triggers degranulation, a process that mobilizes granules to dock and fuse to the plasma membrane, releasing mediators. Mast cell degranulation has an important role in immunity but can also intensify inflammation and contribute to allergic disorders. Hence, it is important to understand signaling pathways that regulate mast cell degranulation. Here, we examined the role of Rho proteins in regulating mast cell activation leading to degranulation...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410279/ocular-motor-manifestations-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Elodie Nerrant, Caroline Tilikete
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system leading to disability, especially in young patients. Acute or chronic lesions of MS within the brainstem and the cerebellum frequently result in ocular motor disorders. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: This review encompasses the spectrum of ocular motor disorders in patients with MS emphasizing prevalence, examination findings, diagnostic features, functional consequences, classification of MS course, and management of these disturbances of ocular motility...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403821/defining-the-transcriptomic-landscape-of-the-developing-enteric-nervous-system-and-its-cellular-environment
#15
Sweta Roy-Carson, Kevin Natukunda, Hsien-Chao Chou, Narinder Pal, Caitlin Farris, Stephan Q Schneider, Julie A Kuhlman
BACKGROUND: Motility and the coordination of moving food through the gastrointestinal tract rely on a complex network of neurons known as the enteric nervous system (ENS). Despite its critical function, many of the molecular mechanisms that direct the development of the ENS and the elaboration of neural network connections remain unknown. The goal of this study was to transcriptionally identify molecular pathways and candidate genes that drive specification, differentiation and the neural circuitry of specific neural progenitors, the phox2b expressing ENS cell lineage, during normal enteric nervous system development...
April 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398617/citalopram-induces-reproductive-toxicity-in-male-rats
#16
Sinem Ilgin, Gozde Kilic, Merve Baysal, Volkan Kilic, Busra Korkut, Seyda Ucarcan, Ozlem Atli
BACKGROUND: Citalopram hydrobromide (CTL) has been shown to cause sexual dysfunction; however, its reproductive toxicity potential has not been sufficiently elucidated in men. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the toxic effects of CTL on the reproductive system of male rats. METHODS: For this purpose, CTL was administered at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day to rats orally for 28 days. Sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were investigated using a computer-assisted sperm analysis system, and sperm DNA damage was detected using a Comet assay...
April 17, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398233/therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-the-ghrelin-pathway
#17
REVIEW
Gustav Colldén, Matthias H Tschöp, Timo D Müller
Ghrelin was discovered in 1999 as the endogenous ligand of the growth-hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a). Since then, ghrelin has been found to exert a plethora of physiological effects that go far beyond its initial characterization as a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue. Among the numerous well-established effects of ghrelin are the stimulation of appetite and lipid accumulation, the modulation of immunity and inflammation, the stimulation of gastric motility, the improvement of cardiac performance, the modulation of stress, anxiety, taste sensation and reward-seeking behavior, as well as the regulation of glucose metabolism and thermogenesis...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395323/defining-the-human-sperm-microtubulome-an-integrated-genomics-approach%C3%A2
#18
Fanny Jumeau, Frédéric Chalmel, Francisco-Jose Fernandez-Gomez, Céline Carpentier, Hélène Obriot, Meryem Tardivel, Marie-Laure Caillet-Boudin, Jean-Marc Rigot, Nathalie Rives, Luc Buée, Nicolas Sergeant, Valérie Mitchell
Sperm motility notably depends on the structural integrity of the flagellum and the regulation of microtubule dynamics. Although researchers have started to use "omics" techniques to characterize the human sperm's molecular landscape, the constituents responsible for the assembly, organization, and dynamics of the flagellum microtubule have yet to be fully defined. In this study, we defined a core set of 116 gene products associated with the human sperm microtubulome (including products potentially involved in abnormal ciliary phenotypes and male infertility disorders)...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395277/exploratory-research-on-latent-esophageal-motility-disorders-in-dysphagia-patients
#19
Shinpei Kawaguchi, Toshihisa Takeuchi, Yousuke Inoue, Yoshiaki Takahashi, Haruhiko Ozaki, Kazuhiro Ota, Satoshi Harada, Shoko Edogawa, Yuichi Kojima, Hiroshi Yamashita, Takumi Fukuchi, Kiyoshi Ashida, Kazuhide Higuchi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: High-resolution manometry (HRM) has been applied to assess esophageal motility disorders. However, the frequency and types of motility disorders in patients with dysphagia, which are frequently seen in clinical practice, are not clear. We evaluated latent esophageal motility disorders associated with dysphagia. METHODS: The study included patients without erosive esophageal mucosal damage and with dysphagia symptoms refractory to at least 8 weeks of standard-dose proton pump inhibitors...
April 11, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393873/crystal-structure-of-zen4-in-the-apo-state-reveals-a-missing-conformation-of-kinesin
#20
Ruifang Guan, Lei Zhang, Qian Peter Su, Keith J Mickolajczyk, Geng-Yuan Chen, William O Hancock, Yujie Sun, Yongfang Zhao, Zhucheng Chen
Kinesins hydrolyse ATP to transport intracellular cargoes along microtubules. Kinesin neck linker (NL) functions as the central mechano-chemical coupling element by changing its conformation through the ATPase cycle. Here we report the crystal structure of kinesin-6 Zen4 in a nucleotide-free, apo state, with the NL initial segment (NIS) adopting a backward-docked conformation and the preceding α6 helix partially melted. Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) analyses indicate the NIS of kinesin-1 undergoes similar conformational changes under tension in the two-head bound (2HB) state, whereas it is largely disordered without tension...
April 10, 2017: Nature Communications
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