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Motility disorders

N Kaji, S Nakayama, K Horiguchi, S Iino, H Ozaki, M Hori
BACKGROUND: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) serve as intestinal pacemakers. Postoperative ileus (POI) is a gastrointestinal motility disorder that occurs following abdominal surgery, which is caused by inflammation-induced dysfunction of smooth muscles and enteric neurons. However, the participation of ICC in POI is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the functional changes of ICC in a mouse model of POI. METHODS: Intestinal manipulation (IM) was performed to induce POI...
March 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Lucia Negri, Napoleone Ferrara
The mammalian prokineticins family comprises two conserved proteins, EG-VEGF/PROK1 and Bv8/PROK2, and their two highly related G protein-coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2. This signaling system has been linked to several important biological functions, including gastrointestinal tract motility, regulation of circadian rhythms, neurogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer progression, hematopoiesis, and nociception. Mutations in PKR2 or Bv8/PROK2 have been associated with Kallmann syndrome, a developmental disorder characterized by defective olfactory bulb neurogenesis, impaired development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons, and infertility...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
A Mostek, M Slowinska, S Judycka, H Karol, A Ciereszko, M A Dietrich
During semen cryopreservation, spermatozoa are exposed to physical and chemical stressors that result in their functional and structural damage. Growing evidence suggests that most cryoinjuries result from oxidative stress accompanying sperm cryopreservation. Elevated amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during cryopreservation can react with sperm macromolecules, including proteins. The goal of this study was to investigate the oxidative modifications (measured as carbonylation level changes) of carp spermatozoa proteins triggered by the cryopreservation process...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
V Ortiz, M García-Campos, E Sáez-González, P delPozo, V Garrigues
Opioids have become the most widely prescribed analgesics in Western countries. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction is a widely known adverse effect, with constipation the most common manifestation. Most of the opioid-related effects occur in the stomach, small intestine, and colon and have been widely studied. However, the effects related to esophageal motility are less known. Recently published retrospective studies have suggested that long-term use of opioids can cause esophageal motility dysfunction, reflecting symptoms similar to motility disorders, such as achalasia and functional esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction...
February 23, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
T H Taft, J R Triggs, D A Carlson, L Guadagnoli, K N Tomasino, L Keefer, J E Pandolfino
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety can drive symptom experience in chronic oesophageal conditions, including gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, achalasia and functional oesophageal disorders. To date, no validated self-report measure exists to evaluate oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety. AIMS: This study aims to develop a brief and reliable questionnaire assessing these constructs, the oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety scale (EHAS). METHODS: Questions for the EHAS were drawn from 4 existing validated measures that assessed hypervigilance and anxiety adapted for the oesophagus...
March 12, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
F Louwen, A Ritter, N N Kreis, J Yuan
Obesity is associated with a variety of disorders including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and cancer. Obesity changes the composition and structure of adipose tissue, linked to pro-inflammatory environment, endocrine/metabolic dysfunction, insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have multiple functions like cell renewal, spontaneous repair and homeostasis in adipose tissue. In this review article, we have summarized the recent data highlighting that ASCs in obesity are defective in various functionalities and properties including differentiation, angiogenesis, motility, multipotent state, metabolism and immunomodulation...
March 8, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Romano Schneider, Ioannis Lazaridis, Marko Kraljević, Christoph Beglinger, Bettina Wölnerhanssen, Ralph Peterli
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing use of bariatric surgery as the most effective treatment of morbid obesity, there is still no consensus on its preoperative diagnostic workup. The aim of this study was to identify the pathologies of the endoscopic and radiologic investigations before performing bariatric surgery and to evaluate their impact on the patient management. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of 1225 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 834) or sleeve gastrectomy (n = 391) at our institution...
January 12, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
François Cossais, Sebastian Leuschner, Martina Barrenschee, Christina Lange, Michael Ebsen, Ilka Vogel, Martina Böttner, Thilo Wedel
BACKGROUND: Diverticular disease (DD) is a common gastrointestinal inflammatory disorder associated with an enteric neuropathy. Although enteric glial cells (EGCs) are essential regulators of intestinal inflammation and motility functions, their contribution to the pathophysiology of DD remains unclear. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of specific EGC markers in patients with DD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of the glial markers S100β, GFAP, Sox10, and Connexin 43 was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR in colonic specimens of patients with DD and in that of controls...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Alejandro Oliva, Luc Multigner
Chronic epididymitis and varicocele are frequently observed genital disorders in men consulting for couple infertility, but their impact on semen characteristics at the time of infertility consultation is still a matter of debate. We investigated 652 male partners of couples who had their first infertility consultation between 1999 and 2015 in Argentina. Men with chronic epididymitis (n = 253), Grade III varicocele (n = 106), and both conditions (n = 125) were compared with a control group (n = 168) composed of men without these disorders or any other recognized causes of male infertility...
March 6, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Nancy B Schwartz, Miriam S Domowicz
Proteoglycans are diverse, complex extracellular/cell surface macromolecules composed of a central core protein with covalently-linked glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains; both of these components contribute to the growing list of important bio-active functions attributed to proteoglycans. Increasingly, attention has been paid to the roles of proteoglycans in nervous tissue development due to their highly regulated spatio/temporal expression patterns, whereby they promote/inhibit neurite outgrowth, participate in specification and maturation of various precursor cell types, and regulate cell behaviors like migration, axonal pathfinding, synaptogenesis, and plasticity...
March 7, 2018: FEBS Letters
Heather J Tarbet, Lee Dolat, Timothy J Smith, Brett M Condon, E Timothy O'Brien, Raphael H Valdivia, Michael Boyce
Intermediate filaments (IF) are a major component of the metazoan cytoskeleton and are essential for normal cell morphology, motility, and signal transduction. Dysregulation of IFs causes a wide range of human diseases, including skin disorders, cardiomyopathies, lipodystrophy, and neuropathy. Despite this pathophysiological significance, how cells regulate IF structure, dynamics, and function remains poorly understood. Here, we show that site-specific modification of the prototypical IF protein vimentin with O-linked β- N -acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) mediates its homotypic protein-protein interactions and is required in human cells for IF morphology and cell migration...
March 7, 2018: ELife
Lv Liu, Hong Luo
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a clinical rare peculiar disorder, mainly featured by respiratory infection, tympanitis, nasosinusitis, and male infertility. Previous study demonstrated it is an autosomal recessive disease and by 2017 almost 40 pathologic genes have been identified. Among them are the leucine-rich repeat- (LRR-) containing 6 (LRRC6) codes for a 463-amino-acid cytoplasmic protein, expressed distinctively in motile cilia cells, including the testis cells and the respiratory epithelial cells...
2018: BioMed Research International
Atsukazu Kuwahara, Yuko Kuwahara, Toshio Inui, Yoshinori Marunaka
The diffuse chemosensory system (DCS) is well developed in the apparatuses of endodermal origin like gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary function of the GI tract is the extraction of nutrients from the diet. Therefore, the GI tract must possess an efficient surveillance system that continuously monitors the luminal contents for beneficial or harmful compounds. Recent studies have shown that specialized cells in the intestinal lining can sense changes in the luminal content. The chemosensory cells in the GI tract belong to the DCS which consists of enteroendocrine and related cells...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Cristina Gîndea, Adrian Constantin, Petre Hoară, Andrei Cărăgui, Abdullah AlKadour, Silviu Constantinoiu
Introduction: Thoracic esophageal diverticulum is a rare pathology frequently associated with esophageal motility disorders. Surgery is the only option in patients with severe symptoms. METHOD: This is a retrospective case series study of 10 patients who underwent diverticulectomy for thoracic (epiphrenic or mid-esophageal) diverticula. It was recorded: main preoperative symptoms, usual blood tests, barium swallow, upper endoscopy and esophageal manometry. We analyzed the postoperative complications, length of stay in hospital and intensive care unit...
January 2018: Chirurgia
Fiona J Rowe, Kerry Hanna, Jennifer R Evans, Carmel P Noonan, Marta Garcia-Finana, Caroline S Dodridge, Claire Howard, Kathryn A Jarvis, Sonia L MacDiarmid, Tallat Maan, Lorraine North, Helen Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injury can cause eye movement disorders which may include: strabismus, gaze deficits and nystagmus, causing visual symptoms of double, blurred or 'juddery' vision and reading difficulties. A wide range of interventions exist that have potential to alleviate or ameliorate these symptoms. There is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions and the timing of their implementation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of any intervention and determine the effect of timing of intervention in the treatment of strabismus, gaze deficits and nystagmus due to acquired brain injury...
March 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ayse Gulsah Atasever, Perihan Ergin Ozcan, Kamber Kasali, Taner Abdullah, Gunseli Orhun, Evren Senturk
Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders in intensive care patients remain relatively unexplored. Nowadays, the frequency, risk factors and complications of GI dysfunction during enteral nutrition (EN) become more questionable. Aim: To evaluate the frequency, risk factors and complications of GI dysfunction during EN in the first 2 weeks of the intensive care unit (ICU) stay and to identify precautions to prevent the development of GI dysfunction and avoid complications...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
T R Angeli, G O'Grady, R Vather, I P Bissett, L K Cheng
BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical slow waves are a coordinating mechanism of small intestine motility, but extracellular human studies have been restricted to a limited number of sparse electrode recordings. High-resolution (HR) mapping has offered substantial insights into spatiotemporal intestinal slow wave dynamics, but has been limited to animal studies to date. This study aimed to translate intra-operative HR mapping to define pacemaking and conduction profiles in the human small intestine...
March 1, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Shang Wang, Irina V Larina
Mammalian sperm evolutionarily acquired complex mechanisms regulating their behaviors, which are thought to be critical in navigating through the female reproductive tract toward fertilization. However, all current knowledge of this process is largely extrapolated from in vitro and ex vivo studies, because in vivo analysis of sperm in their native fertilization environment has not been possible. Here we report a functional optical coherence tomography approach that allows, for the first time, in vivo three-dimensional (3D) tracking of sperm behaviors in the mouse oviduct...
February 27, 2018: Development
JinHong Jiang, WeiDong Jin, YaLi Peng, XueYa Liang, Shu Li, LiJuan Wei, ZhiPing Lei, LongFei Li, Min Chang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the functional roles of Cortistatin-14 (CST-14) in the gastrointestinal (GI) motility. METHODS: For in vivo study, mice were randomly divided into control, ip injected CST-14 (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 mg/kg) + control group, icv injected CST-14 (5 μg) + control group, dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis group, CST-14 + colitis group, castor oil-induced diarrhea group, CST-14 + diarrhea group. We carried out these experiments by quantitative real-time PCR, GI transit, bead expulsion and fecal pellet output...
September 18, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Ana B Blázquez, Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Juan-Carlos Saiz
Flaviviruses are relevant animal and human pathogens that include West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, or Zika virus, among others. Currently, no licensed therapy is available to fight flaviviral infections. Protein kinases C (PKCs) constitute a family of multifunctional lipid-dependent isoenzymes that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes (apoptosis, differentiation, proliferation, cellular transformation, motility, adhesion, etc.) being currently considered at the front line of drug development for the treatment of diverse human disorders...
February 23, 2018: Viruses
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