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Motility disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922676/combination-therapy-of-intravenous-steroids-and-orbital-irradiation-is-more-effective-than-intravenous-steroids-alone-in-patients-with-graves-orbitopathy
#1
Michael Oeverhaus, Tobias Witteler, Hildegard Lax, Joachim Esser, Dagmar Führer, Anja Eckstein
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of intravenous (iv) glucocorticoids (GCs) with and without orbital radiotherapy (ORT) in a retrospective analysis of patients with active, moderate-to-severe Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Since diplopia has the strongest impact on quality of life, a careful work up of motility and binocular single vision (BSV) has been performed. The Essen-EUGOGO-Center database (n=3655) was screened for patients with untreated moderate-to-severe, active GO, onset ≤12 months...
September 18, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918793/-workup-and-treatment-of-gastroparesis
#2
Mette Winther Klinge, Jan Bech Pedersen, Birgit Schelde, Sten Lund, Klaus Krogh
Gastroparesis is defined as impaired gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction and cardinal symptoms including vomiting, nausea, early satiety, and upper abdominal pain. Most cases of gastroparesis are diabetic, idiopathic or post-operative. The correlation between symptoms and objective measures of gastroparesis is poor. Basic treatment includes dietary advices and prokinetics. Selected patients not responding to basic treatment can be offered gastric electrical stimulation. In many cases, gastroparesis is present in combination with other motility disorders, especially constipation...
September 18, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913883/interactions-between-erythromycin-flunixin-meglumine-levamisole-and-plant-secondary-metabolites-towards-bovine-gastrointestinal-motility-in-vitro-study
#3
M Mendel, M Chłopecka, N Dziekan, W Karlik
Continued ingestion of plant secondary metabolites by ruminants can provoke pharmacological interactions with pharmaceutical agents used in animals. As some drugs and phytocompounds affect smooth muscle activity, the aim of this study was to verify the possible interaction between selected pharmaceutical agents and plant secondary metabolites towards bovine gastrointestinal motility. The interactions between phytocompounds-apigenin, quercetin, hederagenin, medicagenic acid-and medicines-erythromycin, flunixin meglumine and levamisole-were evaluated on bovine isolated abomasal and duodenal specimens obtained from routinely slaughtered cows...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913607/diabetes-and-the-esophagus
#4
REVIEW
Roberto Monreal-Robles, José M Remes-Troche
Chronic hyperglycemia is a well-known cause of gastrointestinal motility disorders extending from the esophagus to the anorectum. Even though little attention has been paid to esophageal disorders in the context of DM, its prevalence is higher compared to gastroparesis. Heartburn, as a typical symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is the most prevalent symptom and has been found in 25 to 41% of patients with DM. Furthermore, DM has recently been established as possible independent factor for the development of Barrett's esophagus...
September 15, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912251/neuro-immune-interaction-and-the-regulation-of-intestinal-immune-homeostasis
#5
Simon Verheijden, Guy E Boeckxstaens
Many essential gastrointestinal functions, including motility, secretion and blood flow are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), both through intrinsic enteric neurons and extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. Recently identified neuro-immune mechanisms, in particular the interplay between enteric neurons and muscularis macrophages, are now considered to be essential for fine-tuning peristalsis. These findings shed new light on how intestinal immune cells can support enteric nervous function...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906331/mandibular-surgical-navigation-an-innovative-guiding-method
#6
Vincenzo Abbate, Giovanni Dell' Aversana Orabona, Domenico Solari, Paola Bonavolontà, Giorgio Iaconetta, Luigi Califano
Mandibular osteotomies are usually required to treat craniomaxillofacial disorders. Losses of mandibular continuity result in esthetic and functional deficiency. During the past 30 years, the spread of the computer-assisted surgery techniques, rapid prototyping, and surgical navigation technique has improved the reliability and the outcomes of mandibular resections and reconstructions, by providing realtime feedback to surgeon. Recent studies reported the feasibility and the precision of surgical navigation applied to mandibular surgical resection and reconstruction with fibula flap but none of them describes a method to navigate the jaw allowing its full motility during the operation...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905237/-1-h-13-c-and-15-n-assignments-of-the-c-terminal-intrinsically-disordered-cytosolic-fragment-of-the-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-erbb2
#7
YingHui Wang, Louise Pinet, Nadine Assrir, Latifa Elantak, Françoise Guerlesquin, Ali Badache, Ewen Lescop, Carine van Heijenoort
ErbB2 (or HER2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is involved in signaling pathways controlling cell division, motility and apoptosis. Though important in development and cell growth homeostasis, this protein, when overexpressed, participates in triggering aggressive HER2+ breast cancers. It is composed of an extracellular part and a transmembrane domain, both important for activation by dimerization, and a cytosolic tyrosine kinase, which activates its intrinsically disordered C-terminal end (CtErbB2). Little is known about this C-terminal part of 268 residues, despite its crucial role in interacting with adaptor proteins involved in signaling...
September 13, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901462/role-of-ghrelin-in-small-intestinal-motility-following-pediatric-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#8
Jieyu Zan, Lei Song, Jiejie Wang, Rong Zou, Fei Hong, Jinhua Zhao, Yijun Cheng, Ming Xu
Small intestinal motility (SIM) disorder is a common complication following pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), leading to a poor prognosis in patients. Previous studies have shown that ghrelin is involved in SIM in various diseases; however, the role of ghrelin in pediatric ICH‑induced SIM disorder remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the association between ghrelin and SIM post‑ICH, and to examine the effect of exogenous ghrelin administration on SIM in vivo...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894245/an-extremely-simple-macroscale-electronic-skin-realized-by-deep-machine-learning
#9
Kee-Sun Sohn, Jiyong Chung, Min-Young Cho, Suman Timilsina, Woon Bae Park, Myungho Pyo, Namsoo Shin, Keemin Sohn, Ji Sik Kim
Complicated structures consisting of multi-layers with a multi-modal array of device components, i.e., so-called patterned multi-layers, and their corresponding circuit designs for signal readout and addressing are used to achieve a macroscale electronic skin (e-skin). In contrast to this common approach, we realized an extremely simple macroscale e-skin only by employing a single-layered piezoresistive MWCNT-PDMS composite film with neither nano-, micro-, nor macro-patterns. It is the deep machine learning that made it possible to let such a simple bulky material play the role of a smart sensory device...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893560/endoscopic-mucosal-resection-is-superior-to-rectal-suction-biopsy-for-analysis-of-enteric-ganglia-in-constipation-and-dysmotility
#10
Kenneth Barshop, Field F Willingham, William R Brugge, Lawrence R Zukerberg, Braden Kuo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with chronic constipation or motility disorders may be referred for rectal suction biopsy (RSB) to rule out Hirschsprung's disease (HD). RSB may not be successful beyond infancy due to the increased thickness of rectal mucosa. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) could improve the diagnostic yield for HD when compared with traditional RSB because of the larger and deeper samples acquired for analysis. METHODS: In this prospective, single-center study, patients referred for RSB were offered enrollment for concurrent EMR...
September 8, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888796/laparoscopic-treatment-of-gastroparesis-a-single-center-experience
#11
Kotaro Wakamatsu, Federico Perez Quirante, Lisandro Montorfano, Emanuele Lo Menzo, Yasuyuki Seto, Raul J Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis (GP) is a chronic disorder of gastric motility with delayed gastric emptying. Gastric electrical stimulator (GES) implantation and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are surgical options for medically refractory GP. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate operational outcomes and symptom improvement of patients with diabetic (DM) and idiopathic (IP) GP. SETTING: University Hospital, United States. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all patients who underwent surgical treatment of GP from February 2003 to December 2014...
July 29, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887755/prokinetics-in-the-management-of-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to review the current status of prokinetics and to place it in historical context. Impaired motility and thus propulsion have long been thought to play important roles in the pathogenesis of a number of gastrointestinal disorders including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastroparesis, chronic idiopathic pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. Historically, disordered motility was also thought to contribute to a number of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
September 8, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881880/trends-in-diagnoses-after-implementation-of-the-chicago-classification-for-esophageal-motility-disorders-v3-0-for-high-resolution-manometry-studies
#13
P Laing, A P Bress, J Fang, K Peterson, D G Adler, A J Gawron
To determine trends in the diagnostic distribution of esophageal motility disorders after implementation of the Chicago Classification Version 3.0 (CC V3.0) for interpretation of high-resolution manometry (HRM) studies compared to non-Chicago Classification criteria. Retrospective trends analysis of patients with an HRM study conducted at a single center from January 1, 2013 to September 30, 2015. The implementation of the CC V3.0 for manometry interpretation occurred in September 2014. Patient charts were manually reviewed for data collection including demographics and HRM diagnoses...
December 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878674/sphingosine-kinases-and-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptors-signaling-and-actions-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#14
REVIEW
Alessandro Cannavo, Daniela Liccardo, Klara Komici, Graziamaria Corbi, Claudio de Lucia, Grazia D Femminella, Andrea Elia, Leonardo Bencivenga, Nicola Ferrara, Walter J Koch, Nazareno Paolocci, Giuseppe Rengo
The sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SphK1 and 2) catalyze the phosphorylation of the lipid, sphingosine, generating the signal transmitter, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). The activation of such kinases and the subsequent S1P generation and secretion in the blood serum of mammals represent a major checkpoint in many cellular signaling cascades. In fact, activating the SphK/S1P system is critical for cell motility and proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, cell growth, survival, and response to stress. In the cardiovascular system, the physiological effects of S1P intervene through the binding and activation of a family of five highly selective G protein-coupled receptors, called S1PR1-5...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871936/xanthoma-like-skin-changes-in-an-elderly-woman-with-a-normal-lipid-profile
#15
Piotr Nockowski, Zdzisław Woźniak, Adam Reich, Joanna Maj
Dear Editor, An 83-year-old woman developed yellow-brownish infiltrates, nodules, and tumors mimicking xanthomas, mostly involving the periorbital and chest area within three months (Figure 1). She had no abnormalities in serum cholesterol or triglycerides levels. A detailed laboratory analysis revealed the presence of mild monoclonal gammopathy with a presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) kappa light chains; however, according to hematologist consultation, it did not require medical intervention. Imaging assessment and ultrasound examination did not show any specific involvement of internal organs...
July 2017: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871143/dysbiosis-contributes-to-chronic-constipation-development-via-regulation-of-serotonin-transporter-in-the-intestine
#16
Hailong Cao, Xiang Liu, Yingying An, Guoqiong Zhou, Yanrong Liu, Mengque Xu, Wenxiao Dong, Sinan Wang, Fang Yan, Kui Jiang, Bangmao Wang
Chronic constipation is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder accompanied with intestinal dysbiosis. However, causal relationship between dysbiosis and constipation remains poorly understood. Serotonin transporter (SERT) is a transmembrane transport protein which re-uptakes excessive 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from effective location to terminate its physiological effects and involves in regulating gastrointestinal motility. In this study, fecal microbiota from patients with constipation and healthy controls were transplanted into the antibiotic depletion mice model...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867969/an-overview-of-achalasia-and-its-subtypes
#17
Dhyanesh A Patel, Brian M Lappas, Michael F Vaezi
Achalasia is one of the most studied esophageal motility disorders. However, the pathophysiology and reasons that patients develop achalasia are still unclear. Patients often present with dysphagia to solids and liquids, regurgitation, and varying degrees of weight loss. There is significant latency prior to diagnosis, which can have nutritional implications. The diagnosis is suspected based on clinical history and confirmed by esophageal high-resolution manometry testing. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is necessary to rule out potential malignancy that can mimic achalasia...
July 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866536/decision-graph-embedding-for-high-resolution-manometry-diagnosis
#18
Julian Kreiser, Alexander Hann, Eugen Zizer, Timo Ropinski
High-resolution manometry is an imaging modality which enables the categorization of esophageal motility disorders. Spatio-temporal pressure data along the esophagus is acquired using a tubular device and multiple test swallows are performed by the patient. Current approaches visualize these swallows as individual instances, despite the fact that aggregated metrics are relevant in the diagnostic process. Based on the current Chicago Classification, which serves as the gold standard in this area, we introduce a visualization supporting an efficient and correct diagnosis...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865234/impact-of-seminal-plasma-trace-elements-on-human-sperm-motility-parameters
#19
Mohammad Mostakhdem Hashemi, Nasser Behnampour, Mojgan Nejabat, Afsaneh Tabandeh, Behrouz Ghazi-Moghaddam, Hamid Reza Joshaghani
INTRODUCTION: Human seminal plasma contains a variety of macro and trace elements including magnesium(Mg), copper(Cu), zinc(Zn), and iron(Fe) that have essential roles in normal functioning of semen and its quality. The imbalance of these elements have been reported in several pathologic and male infertility disorders. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the levels of these elements in seminal plasma samples, their relationships with each other and their impact on sperm motility...
August 28, 2017: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859391/esophagogastric-junction-outflow-obstruction-is-often-associated-with-coexistent-abnormal-esophageal-body-motility-and-abnormal-bolus-transit
#20
E Zheng, R M Gideon, J Sloan, P O Katz
Currently, the diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders is in part based upon a hierarchical algorithm in which abnormalities of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is prioritized. An important metric in evaluating the EGJ is the integrated relaxation pressure (IRP). Patients who do not have achalasia but are found to have an elevated IRP are diagnosed with EGJ outflow obstruction. It has been our observation that a subset of these patients also has a second named motility disorder and may also have abnormal bolus transit...
October 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
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