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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898588/the-gut-peptide-neuropeptide-y-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#1
Ann M Rasmusson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with which PTSD is highly comorbid. NPY is low in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of male combat veterans with PTSD and correlates negatively with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperreactivity, PTSD symptoms and time to recovery. NPY regulation has not yet been evaluated in women with PTSD...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890710/in-vivo-and-vitro-characterization-of-the-effects-of-kisspeptin-13-endogenous-ligands-for-gpr54-on-mouse-gastrointestinal-motility
#2
Jinhong Jiang, Weidong Jin, Yali Peng, Zhen He, Lijuan Wei, Shu Li, Xiaoli Wang, Min Chang, Rui Wang
Kisspeptin (KP), the endogenous ligand of GPR54, is a mammalian amidated neurohormone, which belongs to the RF-amide peptide family. However, in contrast with the related members of the RF-amide family, little information is available regarding its role in the gastrointestinal motility. With regard to the recent data suggesting KP play an important role in food intake, and while gastrointestinal motility are closely related to it. Thus, in the present work, effects of central administration of KP-13, one of the endogenous active isoforms, on gastrointestinal motility were investigated...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889929/twenty-eight-years-of-intestinal-transplantation-in-paris-experience-of-the-oldest-european-centre
#3
F Lacaille, S Irtan, L Dupic, C Talbotec, F Lesage, V Colomb, N Salvi, F Moulin, F Sauvat, Y Aigrain, Y Revillon, O Goulet, C Chardot
AIM: Our aim is to describe our achievements in pediatric intestinal transplantation (ITx) and define areas for improvement. METHODS: After a period (1987-90) of 9 isolated small bowel transplants (SBTx) where only one patient survived with her graft, 110 ITx were performed on 101 children from 1994 to 2014: 60 SBTx, 45 liver-small bowel, 4 multivisceral (3 with kidneys), 1 modified multivisceral. Indications were short bowel syndrome (36), motility disorders (30), congenital enteropathies (34) and others (1)...
November 27, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881403/irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-gut-microbiota-related-disorder
#4
Yogesh Bhattarai, David A Muniz Pedrogo, Purna C Kashyap
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of IBS is not well understood though multiple peripheral and central factors are implicated. Recent studies suggest a role for alterations in gut microbiota in IBS. Significant advances in next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics, and the declining cost has now allowed us to better investigate the role of gut microbiota in IBS. In the following review, we propose gut microbiota as a unifying factor in the pathophysiology of IBS...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869805/engineered-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestinal-tissues-with-a-functional-enteric-nervous-system
#5
Michael J Workman, Maxime M Mahe, Stephen Trisno, Holly M Poling, Carey L Watson, Nambirajan Sundaram, Ching-Fang Chang, Jacqueline Schiesser, Philippe Aubert, Edouard G Stanley, Andrew G Elefanty, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Mohammad A Mandegar, Bruce R Conklin, Michel Neunlist, Samantha A Brugmann, Michael A Helmrath, James M Wells
The enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract controls many diverse functions, including motility and epithelial permeability. Perturbations in ENS development or function are common, yet there is no human model for studying ENS-intestinal biology and disease. We used a tissue-engineering approach with embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to generate human intestinal tissue containing a functional ENS. We recapitulated normal intestinal ENS development by combining human-PSC-derived neural crest cells (NCCs) and developing human intestinal organoids (HIOs)...
November 21, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865545/anti-cgrp-antibodies-block-cgrp-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#6
Eric A Kaiser, Brandon J Rea, Adisa Kuburas, Brian R Kovacevich, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Ana Recober, Andrew F Russo
The multifunctional neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have shown that CGRP has roles in intestinal motility, water secretion, and inflammation. Furthermore, animal studies have demonstrated CGRP involvement in diarrhea secondary to C. difficile and food allergies. Diarrhea thus provides a convenient bioassay of CGRP activity in the GI system. In this proof of principle study, we report that prophylactic administration of an anti-CGRP antibody is able to block CGRP-induced diarrhea in mice...
November 14, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865244/tubercular-osteomyelitis-of-calcaneum-bone-a-rare-occurrence
#7
Rajendra Takhar, Motilal Bunkar, Savita Arya, Nitin Mirdha
In spite of the endemic nature of tuberculosis in India, skeletal tuberculosis is relatively infrequent. Involvement of foot bones is uncommon and isolated calcaneum is even rarer. Osteoarticular tuberculosis is a diagnostic enigma, as the characteristic signs and symptoms of this disease may be absent, or mimic other disorders, leading to emergence of complications and therapeutic delay, particularly when the disease affects unusual sites. Here, we are reporting the case of 20-year-old male, who presented with a rare localization of tubercular osteomyelitis involving the calcaneum without adjacent joint involvement to draw attention to this exceptional location in adults, managed with anti-tubercular treatment and gained excellent recovery...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864598/impact-of-fetal-counseling-on-outcome-of-antenatal-congenital-surgical-anomalies
#8
Shilpa Sharma, Ranjana Bhanot, Dipika Deka, Minu Bajpai, Devendra K Gupta
AIM: To analyze the impact of counseling on antenatal congenital surgical anomalies (ACSA). METHODS: Cases presenting with ACSA for fetal counseling and those presenting in post-natal period following diagnosis of ACSA (PACSA) for surgical opinion were analyzed for spectrum, presentation and outcome. RESULTS: 117 cases including ACSA(68);PACSA(49) were analyzed. Gestational age at diagnosis of ACSA;PACSA was 17-37;17-39 weeks (median 24;32 weeks)...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863968/periocular-periorbital-and-orbital-pathology-in-liver-disease
#9
REVIEW
William J Carroll, Travis Peck, Thomas L Jenkins, Zeynel A Karcioglu
Though the connection is not often apparent, hepatic pathology may be associated with ophthalmic disease . We review the literature concerning the periocular, periorbital, and orbital manifestations of various hepatic disorders. This includes periocular/periorbital jaundice, the impact of hepatitis B and C, eyelid changes in cirrhosis, orbital mass lesions in hepatocellular carcinoma, and cutaneous vascular malformations as they are related to liver disease. The motility disorders associated with Wilson's disease, the ophthalmic manifestations of Alagille syndrome, and the effects of liver transplantation are also discussed...
November 15, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860481/-ocular-motility-disorders-with-diplopia-like-the-first-symptoms-of-paranasal-tumours-with-orbital-invasion-a-case-report
#10
J Jordáková
: Presentation of two case reports about our experiences with diagnostics of paranasal tumours in patients with diplopia or ocular motility disorders which were the first symptoms of these tumours. Furthermore, the following diagnostic and therapeutic procedure which has been conducted in cooperation with other hospital departments is presented. The first case report is an example of primary paranasal tumour, the second case report represents secondary infiltration of maxillary sinus and orbital invasion...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860408/ionized-calcium-binding-adaptor-molecule-1-positive-macrophages-and-ho-1-up-regulation-in-intestinal-muscularis-resident-macrophages
#11
Hanne B Mikkelsen, Jan D Huizinga, Jytte O Larsen, Svend Kirkeby
: Small intestinal muscularis externa macrophages have been associated with interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). They have been proposed to play various roles in motility disorders and to take part in a microbiota-driven regulation of gastrointestinal motility. Our objective was to understand the reaction of resident macrophages of the musculature to a pro-inflammatory stimulator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were injected with LPS or saline and sacrificed after 6 hours. Whole mounts were stained with antibodies toward CD169, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1) (microglial/macrophage marker) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)...
November 16, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859258/motile-and-non-motile-cilia-in-human-pathology-from-function-to-phenotypes
#12
REVIEW
Hannah M Mitchison, Enza Maria Valente
Ciliopathies are inherited human disorders caused by both motile and non-motile cilia dysfunction that form an important and rapidly expanding disease category. Ciliopathies are complex conditions to diagnose, being multisystem disorders characterised by extensive genetic heterogeneity and clinical variability with high levels of lethality. There is marked phenotypic overlap among distinct ciliopathy syndromes that presents a major challenge for their recognition, diagnosis, clinical management, in addition to posing an on-going task to develop the most appropriate family counselling...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847465/the-many-faces-of-elongator-in-neurodevelopment-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Marija Kojic, Brandon Wainwright
Development of the nervous system requires a variety of cellular activities, such as proliferation, migration, axonal outgrowth and guidance and synapse formation during the differentiation of neural precursors into mature neurons. Malfunction of these highly regulated and coordinated events results in various neurological diseases. The Elongator complex is a multi-subunit complex highly conserved in eukaryotes whose function has been implicated in the majority of cellular activities underlying neurodevelopment...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837354/congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Anupam Singh, P K Pandey, Ajai Agrawal, Sanjeev Kumar Mittal, Kartik Maheshbhai Rana, Chirag Bahuguna
The European Neuromuscular Centre (ENMC) derived the term Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders in 2002 at an international workshop for a group of congenital neuromuscular diseases. CCDDs are congenital, non-progressive ophthalmoplegia with restriction of globe movement in one or more fields of gaze. This group of sporadic and familial strabismus syndromes was initially referred to as the 'congenital fibrosis syndromes' because it was assumed that the primary pathologic process starts in the muscles of eye motility...
November 11, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836263/a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-induces-histomorphological-and-protein-expression-changes-in-the-liver-of-the-female-guppy-poecilia-reticulata
#15
Ana Paula Rezende Dos Santos, Thiago Lopes Rocha, Clayton Luiz Borges, Alexandre Melo Bailão, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares, Simone Maria Teixeira de Sabóia-Morais
Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are among the most common herbicides found in aquatic systems, but limited data are available about their mode of action and hepatotoxicity in fish. This study investigated the hepatotoxicity induced by GBH in the guppy Poecilia reticulata using a histopathological assessment associated with a proteomic approach. Guppies were exposed to GBH for 24 h at 1.8 mg of glyphosate L(-1), corresponding to 50% of the LC50, 96 h. The results indicate that the GBH at 1.8 mg of glyphosate L(-1) induce the development of hepatic damage in P...
November 8, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833769/first-case-report-of-a-late-onset-knee-periprosthetic-joint-infection-caused-by-lactococcus-garvieae
#16
V-I Neagoe, S Zytoun, H-J Neuhaus
Lactococcus garvieae is known as a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, and facultatively anaerobic fish pathogen. The association between Lactococcus spp. and human infectious diseases is described as being mainly associated with lumbar osteomyelitis, hepatic abscess, and infective endocarditis. In the literature of orthopedic post-prosthetic infections, L. garvieae was associated with a case of hip prosthetic infection in a fishmonger woman. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient with multiple comorbidities, who is admitted to our center with a 5-day history of pain, swelling, and motility disorder of the right knee by the presence of a bicondylar knee replacement surgery, which was performed due to gonarthrosis 17 years ago...
2016: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833517/clinical-utility-of-esophageal-manometry-in-the-patients-with-dysphagia-experience-from-sudan
#17
Amin M Abbas, Sami Medani, Tajeldin M Abdallah, Gasim I Gasim
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of esophageal manometry among Sudanese patients presenting to the National Centre for Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, Ibn Sina Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. METHODOLOGY: Consecutive patients referred for esophageal manometry at the aforementioned center from July 2008 through January 2011 were included in the study. Manometric studies were done after stopping medicines with a known effect on esophageal motility and an overnight fast...
October 2016: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829122/opposite-effects-of-central-oxytocin-and-arginine-vasopressin-on-changes-in-gastric-motor-function-induced-by-chronic-stress
#18
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, Burcu Gemici, V Nimet İzgüt-Uysal
Hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are known to act oppositely on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, stress response and gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In rodents, exposure to restraint stress (RS) delays gastric emptying (GE), however, repeated exposure to the same stressor (chronic homotypic stress (CHS)), the delayed GE is restored to basal level, while hypothalamic OXT is upregulated. In contrast, when rats are exposed to chronic heterotypic stress (CHeS), these adaptive changes are not observed...
November 6, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825164/effect-of-neutrophils-on-gallbladder-interstitial-cajal-like-cells-in-guinea-pig-model-of-acute-cholecystitis
#19
Zhen-Peng Huang, Hu Qiu, Yan Yang, Bao-Ping Yu
BACKGROUND: Acute cholecystitis is a common condition in gallbladder motility disorder. Interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLCs) in the gallbladder are known as one of the players in the complex motility mechanisms affecting gallbladder motility. AIM: This study explored morphological symptoms and molecular mechanisms underlying gallbladder ICLC changes induced by acute cholecystitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen adult guinea pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operated group (healthy controls) and 2 experimental groups wherein these guinea pigs were subjected to common bile duct ligation to induce acute cholecystitis...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824643/clinical-psychological-and-physiological-correlates-of-patients-who-defecate-after-meal
#20
Michel Bouchoucha, Ghislain Devroede, Florence Mary, Cyriaque Bon, Gheorges Airinei, Bakhtiar Bejou, Robert Benamouzig
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Food is the most important synchronizer of gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Many patients with functional bowel or anorectal disorders complain of fecal urge and stool output after eating. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 408 consecutive outpatients with functional bowel and/or anorectal disorders (74% female, 50.2±15.6 years, 24.8±5.0 kg/m²) filled Rome III questionnaires. Depression and anxiety scores, a physiological evaluation (total and segmental colonic transit time, colonic transit response to eating using a standard 1000 kcal test meal, and anorectal manometry), were measured...
November 7, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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