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Motility disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816177/electrical-stimulation-of-gut-motility-guided-by-an-in-silico-model
#1
Bradley Brigham Barth, Craig S Henriquez, Warren M Grill, Xiling Shen
OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems is becoming increasingly important for treating a diverse set of diseases-ranging from Parkinson's Disease and epilepsy to chronic pain. However, neuromodulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has achieved relatively limited success in treating functional GI disorders, which affect a significant population, because the effects of stimulation on the enteric nervous system (ENS) and gut motility are not well understood...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815345/mosapride-stabilizes-intestinal-microbiota-to-reduce-bacterial-translocation-and-endotoxemia-in-ccl4-induced-cirrhotic-rats
#2
Hong Xu, Jingfang Xiong, Jianjun Xu, Shuiming Li, Yang Zhou, Dongya Chen, Xinjun Cai, Jian Ping, Min Deng, Jianyong Chen
BACKGROUND: Impaired intestinal motility may lead to the disruption of gut microbiota equilibrium, which in turn facilitates bacterial translocation (BT) and endotoxemia in cirrhosis. We evaluated the influence of mosapride, a prokinetic agent, on BT and DNA fingerprints of gut microbiota in cirrhotic rats. METHODS: A rat model of cirrhosis was set up via subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The portal pressure, liver and intestinal damage, plasma endotoxin, BT, and intestinal transit rate (ITR) of cirrhotic rats were determined...
August 16, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802231/phytochemical-properties-and-pharmacological-effects-of-quercus-ilex-l-aqueous-extract-on-gastrointestinal-physiological-parameters-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Kaïs Rtibi, Imen Hammami, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amri, Lamjed Marzouki
INTRODUCTION: Several research studies have reported on the pharmacological relevance of the medicinal plants used for treating various gastrointestinal disorders and controlling the dietary glucose uptake in the intestinal tract. METHODS: Male rats were used to investigate the pharmacological effects of green oak acorn aqueous extract (GOAE) on gastrointestinal physiological parameters in vivo and in vitro. In this respect, the gastro-intestinal motility and hypersecretion essays were evaluated using a simple test meal (10% charcoal in 5% gum arabic) and castor oil induced diarrhea...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790223/the-effect-of-psychological-stress-on-mucosal-il-6-and-helicobacter-pylori-activity-in-functional-dyspepsia
#4
Eryati Darwin, Arina Widya Murni, Adnil E Nurdin
BACKGROUND: pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia remains poorly understood. Many factors such as gastric motility disorder, visceral hypersensitivity, Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, psychological stress and excessive gastric acid secretion play roles in this symptom. Psychological stress may promote peptic ulcer and has an effect on ulcers-associated Hp. This study aimed to determine Helicobacter pylori activity and expression of mucosal IL-6 and their association with psychological stress...
April 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770126/anorectal-malformations-histomorphological-and-immunohistochemical-evaluation-of-neuronal-dysfunction
#5
Yashika Bhatia, Sunita Singh, Kamal Nain Rattan, Padam Parmar, Divya Sahni, Rajeev Sen
OBJECTIVE: The patients with anorectal malformations (ARM) have been identified with specific and non-specific pathological changes. The present study was conducted with the aim to study histomorphological changes and various immunohistochemical (IHC) markers (calretinin, S-100, CD117) in intestinal wall specimens to assess neuronal dysfunction in ARM patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty children having ARM were included in our study. In all the cases, a representative biopsy was received...
April 2017: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761904/iglon5-antibody-neurological-accompaniments-and-outcomes-in-20-patients
#6
Josephe A Honorat, Lars Komorowski, Keith A Josephs, Kai Fechner, Erik K St Louis, Shannon R Hinson, Sabine Lederer, Neeraj Kumar, Avi Gadoth, Vanda A Lennon, Sean J Pittock, Andrew McKeon
OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenotypes, treatment response, and outcome of IgLON5 autoimmunity. METHODS: Archived serum and CSF specimens from 367 patients known to harbor unclassified antibodies which stained neural synapses diffusely (mimicking amphiphysin-IgG) were reevaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using a composite of mouse tissues and recombinant IgLON5-transfected cell-based assay (CBA, Euroimmun). RESULTS: Available specimens (serum, 25; CSF, 9) from 26/367 patients (7%) had identical IFA appearance and robust IgLON5 CBA positivity...
September 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761578/esophageal-motility-and-rikkunshito-treatment-for-proton-pump-inhibitor-refractory-nonerosive-reflux-disease-a-prospective-uncontrolled-open-label-pilot-study-trial
#7
Takeo Odaka, Shigeru Yamato, Osamu Yokosuka
BACKGROUND: Only a few reports focused on esophageal motility in patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and there has been no established strategy for treatment. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the characteristics of esophageal motility in patients with PPI-refractory NERD, we evaluated esophageal function using combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal manometry (MII-EM). In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of rikkunshito (RKT), which is a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756484/distal-esophageal-spasm-with-multiple-esophageal-diverticula-successfully-treated-by-peroral-endoscopic-myotomy
#8
Koji Otani, Shinwa Tanaka, Fumiaki Kawara, Junichi Fujikawa, Akinari Sawada, Risa Uemura, Tetsuya Tanigawa, Toshio Watanabe, Takeshi Azuma, Yasuhiro Fujiwara
Distal esophageal spasm (DES) is a primary esophageal motility disorder. We encountered a rare case of DES accompanied by multiple esophageal diverticula. A 72-year-old woman complained of prolonged dysphagia and chest pain. A barium esophagogram showed multiple esophageal diverticula and significant contraction of the lower esophagus just above the cardia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a corkscrew-like appearance, with spiral contractions and diverticula. High-resolution manometry revealed that the integrated relaxation pressure was normal; premature contractions were observed in ≥20% of the swallowing wave; the distal contractile integral was normal...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755521/antibiotic-induced-microbiota-dysbiosis-impairs-neuromuscular-function-in-juvenile-mice
#9
Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Viviana Filpa, Silvia Cerantola, Genny Orso, Michela Bistoletti, Nicola Paccagnella, Sara De Martin, Monica Montopoli, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Francesca Crema, Iole-Maria Di Gangi, Francesca Galuppini, Isabella Lante, Sara Bogialli, Massimo Rugge, Patrizia Debetto, Cristina Giaroni, Maria Cecilia Giron
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gut microbiota is essential for the development of the gastrointestinal system, including the enteric nervous system (ENS). Early life perturbations of gut microbiota can potentially impact neurodevelopment leading to functional bowel disorders later in life. We examined the hypothesis that gut dysbiosis impairs ENS structural and functional integrity leading to gut dysmotility in juvenile mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: To induce gut dysbiosis broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered by gavage to juvenile male C57Bl/6 mice for 14 days...
July 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752522/pentoxifylline-increases-the-level-of-nitric-oxide-produced-by-human-spermatozoa
#10
S A Banihani, R F Abu-Alhayjaa, Z O Amarin, K H Alzoubi
Pentoxifylline (PF) is a xanthine derivative drug primarily used to treat peripheral vascular disorders. It is currently used in assisted reproductive technologies to enhance human sperm motility. However, the mechanism by which this enhancement occurs is not fully understood. Given that nitric oxide has been identified as a trigger to sperm motion, we asked whether nitric oxide modulates the stimulatory effect of PF on sperm motility. A total of 41 semen samples from infertile males were studied. Nitric oxide production in the presence of 5 mm PF was tested using different bio-analytical methods (spectrophotometry, fluorometry and fluorescence microscopy)...
July 28, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751249/%C3%AE-protocadherins-organizers-of-neural-circuit-assembly
#11
REVIEW
Sarah E W Light, James D Jontes
The δ-protocadherins comprise a small family of homophilic cell adhesion molecules within the larger cadherin superfamily. They are essential for neural development as mutations in these molecules give rise to human neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia and epilepsy, and result in behavioral defects in animal models. Despite their importance to neural development, a detailed understanding of their mechanisms and the ways in which their loss leads to changes in neural function is lacking. However, recent results have begun to reveal roles for the δ-protocadherins in both regulation of neurogenesis and lineage-dependent circuit assembly, as well as in contact-dependent motility and selective axon fasciculation...
July 24, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747541/obesity-a-serious-etiologic-factor-for-male-subfertility-in-modern-society
#12
Yue Liu, Zhide Ding
Obesity, defined as excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue, is a metabolic disorder resulting from behavioral, environmental and heritable causes. Such malfunction increases the risk of developing hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory problems, osteoarthritis and cancer. Meanwhile, the negative impact of obesity on male reproduction is gradually being recognized. According to clinical investigations and animal experiments, obesity is correlated with reductions in sperm concentration and motility, increases in sperm DNA damage and changes in reproductive hormonal levels...
July 26, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746079/distribution-of-esophageal-motor-disorders-in-diabetic-patients-with-dysphagia
#13
Nina S George, Vikram Rangan, Zhuo Geng, Freeha Khan, Adam Kichler, Scott Gabbard, Stephen Ganocy, Ronnie Fass
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus can cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. Assessment of esophageal dysmotility in diabetic patients has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to determine the esophageal motor characteristics of diabetic versus nondiabetic patients who present with dysphagia. METHODS: High-resolution esophageal manometries (HREMs) of 83 diabetic patients and 83 age and gender-matched nondiabetic patients with dysphagia from 2 medical centers were included in this study...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744774/early-onset-of-efficacy-in-patients-with-functional-and-motility-related-gastrointestinal-disorders-a%C3%A2-noninterventional-study-with-iberogast%C3%A2
#14
Richard Raedsch, Bettina Vinson, Bertram Ottillinger, Gerald Holtmann
STW 5 (Iberogast®; Steigerwald Arzneimittelwerk GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany) contains nine plant extracts and possesses well-documented overall efficacy in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Little is known about the onset of symptom relief. Twenty-nine centers in Germany recruited 272 patients with established FGID. These patients were treated with STW 5 for approximately 3 weeks in this noninterventional study. Patients assessed the severity of their gastrointestinal complaints before and at defined times after the intake of STW 5 (10 cm visual analogue scale; VAS)...
July 25, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743003/patterned-disordered-cell-motion-ensures-vertebral-column-symmetry
#15
Dipjyoti Das, Veena Chatti, Thierry Emonet, Scott A Holley
The biomechanics of posterior embryonic growth must be dynamically regulated to ensure bilateral symmetry of the spinal column. Throughout vertebrate trunk elongation, motile mesodermal progenitors undergo an order-to-disorder transition via an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and sort symmetrically into the left and right paraxial mesoderm. We combine theoretical modeling of cell migration in a tail-bud-like geometry with experimental data analysis to assess the importance of ordered and disordered cell motion...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734992/endoscopic-muscle-biopsy-emb-of-the-duodenum-and-rectum-a-pilot-survival-study-in-a-porcine-model-to-detect-myenteric-neurons
#16
E Rajan, B Al-Bawardy, C J Gostout, L M Wong Kee Song, J L Deters, M A Knipschield, C E Bernard, G Farrugia
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Small bowel and colorectal muscle biopsies require a surgical approach. Advancing our understanding of the pathophysiology of motility disorders, such as functional bowel disorders, intestinal pseudo-obstruction and slow transit constipation, is hindered by our inability to non-invasively obtain muscularis propria (MP) for evaluation of multiple cell types, including myenteric neurons. The aims of this study were to determine (1) technical feasibility, reproducibility and safety of performing duodenal endoscopic muscle biopsy (dEMB) and rectal endoscopic muscle biopsy (rEMB) using a clip-assist technique; and (2) presence of myenteric neurons in tissue samples...
July 19, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730503/chicago-classification-of-esophageal-motility-disorders-lessons-learned
#17
REVIEW
W O A Rohof, A J Bredenoord
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-resolution manometry (HRM) is increasingly performed worldwide, to study esophageal motility. The Chicago classification is subsequently applied to interpret the manometric findings and facilitate a diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders. This review will discuss new insights regarding the diagnosis and management using the Chicago classification. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have demonstrated that high-resolution manometry is superior to conventional manometry, and has a higher sensitivity to diagnose achalasia...
August 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727474/a-primer-on-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-fat-malabsorption-and-fatty-acid-abnormalities
#18
Samer Alkaade, Ashley A Vareedayah
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is characterized by a deficiency of exocrine pancreatic enzymes, resulting in deficits in digestion of all macronutrients, with deficiencies in digestion of fats being the most clinically relevant. The leading cause of EPI is chronic pancreatitis. However, many other causes and conditions may be implicated, including cystic fibrosis, pancreatic duct obstruction, gastric and pancreatic surgery, diabetes mellitus and other conditions. Physical and biochemical causes of EPI include decreased production and secretion of lipase, increased lipase destruction, pancreatic duct obstruction, decreased lipase stimulation and degradation, as well as gastrointestinal motility disorders...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725303/evaluation-of-esophageal-functions-by-manometry-in-iron-deficiency-anemia-patients
#19
Pinar Kubilay, Beyza Doganay, Mehmet Bektas
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether any esophageal motor dysfunction exists in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). METHODS: The study included 39 patients (34 women, mean age: 44.17 ± 14.21 years) who met WHO diagnostic criteria for IDA. An additional 30 functional dyspepsia patients were also included as a control group. Esophageal motility testing was performed; esophagus contraction amplitude, peak velocity, contraction time, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) resting pressure, LES relaxation, and LES relaxation duration were assessed...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724307/per-oral-endoscopic-myotomy-poem-a-new-endoscopic-treatment-for-achalasia
#20
Pablo Miranda García, Fernando Casals Seoane, Jean-Michel Gonzalez, Marc Barthet, Cecilio Santander Vaquero
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new minimally invasive technique to treat achalasia. METHODS: We performed a review of the literature of POEM with a special focus on technical details and the results obtained with this technique in patients with achalasia and other esophageal motility disorders. RESULTS: Thousands of POEM procedures have been performed worldwide since its introduction in 2008. The procedure is based on the creation of a mucosal entry point in the proximal esophagus to reach the cardia through a submucosal tunnel and then perform a myotomy of the muscular layers of the cardia, esophagogastric junction and distal esophagus, as performed in a Heller myotomy...
July 14, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
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