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Animal Behaviour

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330901/floral-contrivances-and-specialized-pollination-mechanism-confer-strong-influence-to-elicit-mixed-mating-in-wrightia-tomentosa-apocynaceae
#1
Chandan Barman, Vineet Kumar Singh, Sandip Das, Rajesh Tandon
• Reproductive success of a plant species is largely influenced by the outcomes of mating pattern in a population. It is believed that a significantly greater proportion of animal-pollinated plants have evolved a mixed-mating strategy, the extent of which may vary among species. It is thus pertinent to investigate the key contributors of mating success, especially to identify the reproductive constraints in depauperated populations of threatened plant species. • We looked into the contribution of floral architecture, pollination mechanism and breeding system on the extent of outcrossing rate in a near threatened tree species, W...
January 13, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330523/closed-loop-control-of-zebrafish-behaviour-in-three-dimensions-using-a-robotic-stimulus
#2
Changsu Kim, Tommaso Ruberto, Paul Phamduy, Maurizio Porfiri
Robotics is continuously being integrated in animal behaviour studies to create customizable, controllable, and repeatable stimuli. However, few systems have capitalized on recent breakthroughs in computer vision and real-time control to enable a two-way interaction between the animal and the robot. Here, we present a "closed-loop control" system to investigate the behaviour of zebrafish, a popular animal model in preclinical studies. The system allows for actuating a biologically-inspired 3D-printed replica in a 3D workspace, in response to the behaviour of a zebrafish...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330087/comparing-the-antipredator-behaviour-of-two-sympatric-but-not-syntopic-liolaemus-lizards
#3
Javiera Constanzo-Chávez, Mario Penna, Antonieta Labra
The microhabitat preferences of prey animals can modulate how they perceive predation risk, and therefore, their antipredator behaviour. We tested under standardized conditions how microhabitat preferences of two Liolaemus lizards affected their responses when confronted with two types of ambush predators (raptor vs. snake), under two levels of predation risk (low vs. high). These lizard species are sympatric, but not syntopic; L. chiliensis basks on bushes, a complex microhabitat that may provide protection against visual predators, while L...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330007/lost-connections-oxytocin-and-the-neural-physiological-and-behavioral-consequences-of-disrupted-relationships
#4
REVIEW
Tobias T Pohl, Larry J Young, Oliver J Bosch
In humans and rodent animal models, the brain oxytocin system is paramount for facilitating social bonds, from the formation and consequences of early-life parent-infant bonds to adult pair bond relationships. In social species, oxytocin also mediates the positive effects of healthy social bonds on the partners' well-being. However, new evidence suggests that the negative consequences of early neglect or partner loss may be mediated by disruptions in the oxytocin system as well. With a focus on oxytocin and its receptor, we review studies from humans and animal models, i...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329572/socio-demographic-and-lifestyle-determinants-of-dietary-patterns-in-french-speaking-switzerland-2009-2012
#5
Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider, Idris Guessous
BACKGROUND: Food intake is a complex behaviour which can be assessed using dietary patterns. Our aim was to characterize dietary patterns and associated factors in French-speaking Switzerland. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted between 2009 and 2012 in the city of Lausanne, Switzerland, including 4372 participants (54% women, 57.3 ± 10.3 years). Food consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were assessed by principal components analysis...
January 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326116/behavioural-responses-to-infrasonic-particle-acceleration-in-cuttlefish
#6
Maria Wilson, Jens Ådne Rekkedal Haga, Hans Erik Karlsen
Attacks by aquatic predators generate frontal water disturbances characterised by low-frequency gradients in pressure and particle motion. Low-frequency hearing is highly developed in cephalopods. Thus, we examined behavioural responses in juvenile cuttlefish to infrasonic accelerations mimicking main aspects of the hydrodynamic signals created by predators. In the experimental set-up, animals and their surrounding water moved as a unit to minimise lateral line activation and to allow examination of the contribution by the inner ear...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326057/antidepressant-effects-of-focused-ultrasound-induced-blood-brain-barrier-opening
#7
Skyler J Mooney, José N Nobrega, Anthony J Levitt, Kullervo Hynynen
In many cases, hippocampal neurogenesis appears to be a hallmark of antidepressant treatments. One novel technique for inducing this type of neurogenesis is using focused ultrasound waves, in conjunction with circulating microbubbles, to open the blood-brain-barrier. The present experiment aimed to test whether this technique has antidepressant effects in a rodent model. Rats were subjected to 1, 2 or 3 weekly treatments of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound in order to open the blood-brain-barrier in the hippocampal region...
January 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324700/predicting-lameness-in-sheep-activity-using-tri-axial-acceleration-signals
#8
Jamie Barwick, David Lamb, Robin Dobos, Derek Schneider, Mitchell Welch, Mark Trotter
Lameness is a clinical symptom associated with a number of sheep diseases around the world, having adverse effects on weight gain, fertility, and lamb birth weight, and increasing the risk of secondary diseases. Current methods to identify lame animals rely on labour intensive visual inspection. The aim of this current study was to determine the ability of a collar, leg, and ear attached tri-axial accelerometer to discriminate between sound and lame gait movement in sheep. Data were separated into 10 s mutually exclusive behaviour epochs and subjected to Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA)...
January 11, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324652/food-addiction-and-binge-eating-lessons-learned-from-animal-models
#9
REVIEW
Marta G Novelle, Carlos Diéguez
The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered "addictive" under normal circumstances, people can become "addicted" to this behaviour, similarly to how some people are addicted to drugs. The symptoms, cravings and causes of "eating addiction" are remarkably similar to those experienced by drug addicts, and both drug-seeking behaviour as eating addiction share the same neural pathways...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324323/multidisciplinary-characterization-of-u-vi-sequestration-by-acidovorax-facilis-for-bioremediation-purposes
#10
E Krawczyk-Bärsch, U Gerber, K Müller, H Moll, A Rossberg, R Steudtner, M L Merroun
The contamination of the environment by U may affect plant life and consequently may have an impact on animal and human health. The present work describes U(VI) sequestration by Acidovorax facilis using a multidisciplinary approach combining wet chemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and spectroscopy methods (e.g. cryo-time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and in-situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318377/the-number-of-neurons-in-specific-amygdala-regions-is-associated-with-boldness-in-mink-a-study-in-animal-personality
#11
Ann-Sophie Wiese, Esther Kjær Needham, Christina Lehmkuhl Noer, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg Balsby, Torben Dabelsteen, Bente Pakkenberg
Conspecifics vary consistently in their behavioural responses towards environment stimuli such as exposure to novel objects; ethologists often refer to this variability as animal personality. The neurological mechanisms underlying animal personality traits remain largely unknown, but linking the individual variation in emotional expression to brain structural and neurochemical factors is attracting renewed interest. While considerable research has focused on hormonal and neurotransmitter effects on behavioural responses, less is known about how individual variation in the number of specific neuron populations contributes to individual variation in behaviour...
January 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318021/linking-seasonal-home-range-size-with-habitat-selection-and-movement-in-a-mountain-ungulate
#12
Duarte S Viana, José Enrique Granados, Paulino Fandos, Jesús M Pérez, Francisco Javier Cano-Manuel, Daniel Burón, Guillermo Fandos, María Ángeles Párraga Aguado, Jordi Figuerola, Ramón C Soriguer
Background: Space use by animals is determined by the interplay between movement and the environment, and is thus mediated by habitat selection, biotic interactions and intrinsic factors of moving individuals. These processes ultimately determine home range size, but their relative contributions and dynamic nature remain less explored. We investigated the role of habitat selection, movement unrelated to habitat selection and intrinsic factors related to sex in driving space use and home range size in Iberian ibex, Capra pyrenaica...
2018: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317225/anatomical-recovery-of-the-gabaergic-system-after-a-complete-spinal-cord-injury-in-lampreys
#13
D Romaus-Sanjurjo, S M Valle-Maroto, A Barreiro-Iglesias, B Fernández-López, M C Rodicio
Lampreys recover locomotion spontaneously several weeks after a complete spinal cord injury. Dysfunction of the GABAergic system following SCI has been reported in mammalian models. So, it is of great interest to understand how the GABAergic system of lampreys adapts to the post-injury situation and how this relates to spontaneous recovery. The spinal cord of lampreys contains 3 populations of GABAergic neurons and most of the GABAergic innervation of the spinal cord comes from these local cells. GABAB receptors are expressed in the spinal cord of lampreys and they play important roles in the control of locomotion...
January 6, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316966/hiss-and-snort-call-types-of-wild-living-giraffes-giraffa-camelopardalis-acoustic-structure-and-context
#14
Elena V Volodina, Ilya A Volodin, Elena V Chelysheva, Roland Frey
OBJECTIVES: Vocalization as part of vigilance behaviour is widespread across animal taxa, including ruminants. Calls of wild-living giraffes have never been recorded and spectrographically investigated. This study reports the acoustic structure of vigilance-related hiss and snort calls of wild-living giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis. RESULTS: The hiss and snort calls were emitted during five recording sessions produced by nine individual giraffes (8 adults and 1 subadult) in their natural environment in Namibia (3 individuals) and Kenya (6 individuals)...
January 9, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315742/depression-and-anxiety-like-behaviour-is-related-to-bdnf-trkb-signalling-in-a-mouse-model-of-psoriasis
#15
W JiaWen, S Hong, X ShengXiang, L Jing
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of anxiety and depression is significantly higher in individuals with psoriasis than in the general population. Clinical data also show that anti-anxiety and antidepression drugs can reduce skin lesions in patients with psoriasis, but the actual mechanism is still poorly understood. AIM: To investigate whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrKB) signalling plays a role in the mechanism underlying psoriasis with depression and anxiety behaviours...
January 8, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314469/beneficial-changes-in-rumen-bacterial-community-profile-in-sheep-and-dairy-calves-as-a-result-of-feeding-the-probiotic-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-h57
#16
Benjamin J Schofield, Nancy Lachner, Oanh T Le, David M McNeill, Peter Dart, Diane Ouwerkerk, Philip Hugenholtz, Athol V Klieve
AIMS: The probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H57 increased weight gain, increased nitrogen retention and increased feed intake in ruminants when administered to the diet. This study aims to develop a better understanding of this probiotic effect by analysing changes in the rumen prokaryotic community. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sequencing the 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons of the rumen microbiome, revealed that ewes fed H57 had a significantly different rumen microbial community structure to Control sheep...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310738/genetically-predicted-complement-component-4a-expression-effects-on-memory-function-and-middle-temporal-lobe-activation
#17
G Donohoe, J Holland, D Mothersill, S McCarthy-Jones, D Cosgrove, D Harold, A Richards, K Mantripragada, M J Owen, M C O'Donovan, M Gill, A Corvin, D W Morris
BACKGROUND: The longstanding association between the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus and schizophrenia (SZ) risk has recently been accounted for, partially, by structural variation at the complement component 4 (C4) gene. This structural variation generates varying levels of C4 RNA expression, and genetic information from the MHC region can now be used to predict C4 RNA expression in the brain. Increased predicted C4A RNA expression is associated with the risk of SZ, and C4 is reported to influence synaptic pruning in animal models...
January 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306052/celecoxib-prevents-cognitive-impairment-and-neuroinflammation-in-soluble-amyloid-%C3%AE-treated-rats
#18
Emanuela Mhillaj, Maria Grazia Morgese, Paolo Tucci, Anna Furiano, Livio Luongo, Maria Bove, Sabatino Maione, Vincenzo Cuomo, Stefania Schiavone, Luigia Trabace
Recent findings suggest that soluble forms of amyloid-β (sAß) peptide contribute to synaptic and cognitive dysfunctions in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the other hand, neuroinflammation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme have gained increased interest as key factors involved early in AD, although the signaling pathways and pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying a link between sAß-induced neurotoxicity and inflammation are still unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of selective COX-2 enzyme inhibition on neuropathological alterations induced by sAβ administration in rats...
January 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305196/periconceptional-folate-deficiency-leads-to-autism-like-traits-in-wistar-rat-offspring
#19
Stéphanie Degroote, Darel Hunting, Larissa Takser
BACKGROUND: Folates in their role as key one carbon donors, are essential for two major pathways: the synthesis of DNA and RNA precursors and DNA methylation. A growing body of evidence from epidemiological studies indicates a possible association between nutritional and functional deficiency in folates and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, there are no available behavioral animal studies on periconceptional one‑carbon donor deficiency during gestation and the autistic phenotype...
January 2, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303477/a-gonad-expressed-opsin-mediates-light-induced-spawning-in-the-jellyfish-clytia
#20
Gonzalo Quiroga Artigas, Pascal Lapébie, Lucas Leclère, Noriyo Takeda, Ryusaku Deguchi, Gáspár Jékely, Tsuyoshi Momose, Evelyn Houliston
Across the animal kingdom, environmental light cues are widely involved in regulating gamete release, but the molecular and cellular bases of the photoresponsive mechanisms are poorly understood. In hydrozoan jellyfish, spawning is triggered by dark-light or light-dark transitions acting on the gonad, and is mediated by oocyte maturation-inducing neuropeptide hormones (MIHs) released from the ectoderm. We determined in Clytia hemisphaerica that blue-cyan light triggers spawning in isolated gonads. A candidate opsin (Opsin9) was found co-expressed with MIH within specialised ectodermal cells...
January 5, 2018: ELife
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