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Animal Behaviour

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150910/educating-youth-swine-exhibitors-on-influenza-a-virus-transmission-at-agricultural-fairs
#1
J M Nolting, J Midla, M S Whittington, S D Scheer, A S Bowman
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major zoonotic pathogen that threatens global public health. Novel strains of influenza A viruses pose a significant risk to public health due to their pandemic potential, and transmission of influenza A viruses from animals to humans is an important mechanism in the generation and introduction of IAVs that threaten human health. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to develop real-life training scenarios to better inform swine exhibitors of the risks they may encounter when influenza A viruses are present in swine...
November 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150901/expression-of-the-clock-gene-rev-erb%C3%AE-in-the-brain-controls-the-circadian-organization-of-food-intake-and-locomotor-activity-but-not-daily-variations-of-energy-metabolism
#2
Satish Sen, Stéphanie Dumont, Dominique Sage-Ciocca, Sophie Reibel, Paul de Goede, Andries Kalsbeek, Etienne Challet
The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is part of the molecular clock mechanism and thought to be involved in a variety of biological processes within metabolically active peripheral tissues as well. To investigate whether Rev-erbα (also known as Nr1d1) in the brain plays a role in the daily variations of energy metabolism, feeding behaviour and the sleep-wake cycle, we studied mice with global (GKO) or brain (BKO) deletion of Rev-erbα. Mice were studied both in a light-dark cycle and constant darkness, and 24-h variations of Respiratory quotient (RQ) and energy expenditure, as well as the temporal patterns of rest-activity and feeding behavior were recorded...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150827/implications-of-tourist-macaque-interactions-for-disease-transmission
#3
Charlotte Carne, Stuart Semple, Ann MacLarnon, Bonaventura Majolo, Laëtitia Maréchal
During wildlife tourism, proximity or actual contact between people and animals may lead to a significant risk of anthropozoonotic disease transmission. In this paper, we use social network analysis, disease simulation modelling and data on animal health and behaviour to investigate such risks at a site in Morocco, where tourists come to see wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Measures of individual macaques' network centrality-an index of the strength and distribution of their social relationships and thus potentially their ability to spread disease-did not show clear and consistent relationships with their time spent in close proximity to, or rate of interacting with, tourists...
November 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150813/a-social-cichlid-fish-failed-to-pass-the-mark-test
#4
Takashi Hotta, Shiho Komiyama, Masanori Kohda
Since the pioneering work in chimpanzees, mirror self-recognition (MSR), the ability to recognise oneself in a mirror, has been reported in great apes, Asian elephants, dolphins, and some social birds using the mark test, in which animals that possess MSR touch an imperceptible mark on their own bodies only when a mirror is present. However, giant pandas, which are solitary, failed to pass the mark test, suggesting that MSR evolved solely in highly social animals. In contrast to the increasing evidence of MSR in mammals and birds, little is known about MSR in fish...
November 17, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149245/high-dimensional-therapeutic-inference-in-the-focally-damaged-human-brain
#5
Tianbo Xu, Hans Rolf Jäger, Masud Husain, Geraint Rees, Parashkev Nachev
Though consistency across the population renders the extraordinarily complex functional anatomy of the human brain surveyable, the inverse inference-from common functional maps to individual behaviour-is constrained by marked individual deviation from the population mean. Such inference is fundamental to the evaluation of therapeutic interventions in focal brain injury, where the impact of an induced structural change in the brain is quantified by its behavioural consequences, inevitably refracted through the lens of lesion-outcome relations...
November 15, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148564/differential-processing-in-modality-specific-mauthner-cell-dendrites
#6
V Medan, T Mäki-Marttunen, J Sztarker, T Preuss
Animals process multimodal information for adaptive behavioural decisions. In fish, evasion of a diving bird that breaks the water surface depends on integrating visual and auditory stimuli with very different characteristics. How do neurons process such differential sensory inputs at the dendritic level? For that we studied the Mauthner-cells (M-cells) in the goldfish startle circuit, which receive visual and auditory inputs via two separate dendrites, both accessible for in vivo recordings. We asked if electrophysiological membrane properties and dendrite morphology, studied in vivo, play a role in selective sensory processing in the M-cell...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146199/noise-can-affect-acoustic-communication-and-subsequent-spawning-success-in-fish
#7
Karen de Jong, M Clara P Amorim, Paulo J Fonseca, Clive J Fox, Katja U Heubel
There are substantial concerns that increasing levels of anthropogenic noise in the oceans may impact aquatic animals. Noise can affect animals physically, physiologically and behaviourally, but one of the most obvious effects is interference with acoustic communication. Acoustic communication often plays a crucial role in reproductive interactions and over 800 species of fish have been found to communicate acoustically. There is very little data on whether noise affects reproduction in aquatic animals, and none in relation to acoustic communication...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143931/antioxidant-enzyme-activities-of-folsomia-candida-and-avoidance-of-soil-metal-contamination
#8
Wencai Dai, Xin Ke, Zhu Li, Ming Gao, Longhua Wu, Peter Chiristie, Yongming Luo
Induction of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the avoidance of potentially toxic metals in soil by Folsomia candida were investigated. Both laboratory-spiked and field-polluted agricultural soils were used. Cadmium (Cd) concentrations in body tissues, animal avoidance behaviour and physico-chemical properties of the field soils were also determined. In laboratory Cd-spiked soils, the CAT and SOD activities in the Cd treatments were 71.1-94.7 and 1.31-4...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143461/do-animal-exhibitors-support-and-follow-recommendations-to-prevent-transmission-of-variant-influenza-at-agricultural-fairs-a-survey-of-animal-exhibitor-households-after-a-variant-influenza-virus-outbreak-in-michigan
#9
R J Stewart, J Rossow, J T Conover, E E Lobelo, S Eckel, K Signs, M G Stobierski, S C Trock, A M Fry, S J Olsen, M Biggerstaff
Influenza A viruses circulate in swine and can spread rapidly among swine when housed in close proximity, such as at agricultural fairs. Youth who have close and prolonged contact with influenza-infected swine at agricultural fairs may be at increased risk of acquiring influenza virus infection from swine. Animal and human health officials have issued written measures to minimize influenza transmission at agricultural exhibitions; however, there is little information on the knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of these measures among animal exhibitors...
November 16, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143443/multiscale-characterisation-of-cortical-bone-composition-microstructure-and-nanomechanical-properties-in-experimentally-induced-osteoporosis
#10
Furqan A Shah, Adrian Stoica, Carina Cardemil, Anders Palmquist
Cortical bone plays a vital role in determining overall bone strength. We investigate the structural, compositional, and nanomechanical properties of cortical bone following ovariectomy (OVX) of 12 week old Sprague Dawley rats, since this animal model is frequently employed to evaluate the performance of implantable biomaterials in compromised bone healing conditions. Morphological parameters and material properties of bone in the geometrical centre of the femoral cortex were investigated four and eight weeks post-OVX and in unoperated controls (Ctrl), using X-ray micro-computed tomography, backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142788/a-unified-approach-to-model-peripheral-nerves-across-different-animal-species
#11
Elisabetta Giannessi, Maria Rita Stornelli, Pier Nicola Sergi
Peripheral nerves are extremely complex biological structures. The knowledge of their response to stretch is crucial to better understand physiological and pathological states (e.g., due to overstretch). Since their mechanical response is deterministically related to the nature of the external stimuli, theoretical and computational tools were used to investigate their behaviour. In this work, a Yeoh-like polynomial strain energy function was used to reproduce the response of in vitro porcine nerve. Moreover, this approach was applied to different nervous structures coming from different animal species (rabbit, lobster, Aplysia) and tested for different amount of stretch (up to extreme ones)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142237/inner-ear-otolith-asymmetry-in-late-larval-cichlid-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus-perciformes-showing-kinetotic-behaviour-under-diminished-gravity
#12
Ralf Anken, Miriam Knie, Reinhard Hilbig
The inner ears of all vertebrates are designed to perceive auditory and vestibular inputs. Although a tremendous diversity in the inner ear can be found even among bony fishes, the morphologies of the utricle and of the semicircular canals are rather conservative among vertebrates. Fish show kinetoses under reduced gravity (spinning movements and looping responses) and are regarded model organisms concerning the performance of the otolithic organs. Otoliths can be analysed easily because they are compact, in contrast to the otoconial masses of other vertebrates...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142116/indirectly-connected-simple-social-differences-can-explain-the-causes-and-apparent-consequences-of-complex-social-network-positions
#13
Josh A Firth, Ben C Sheldon, Lauren J N Brent
Animal societies are often structurally complex. How individuals are positioned within the wider social network (i.e. their indirect social connections) has been shown to be repeatable, heritable and related to key life-history variables. Yet, there remains a general lack of understanding surrounding how complex network positions arise, whether they indicate active multifaceted social decisions by individuals, and how natural selection could act on this variation. We use simulations to assess how variation in simple social association rules between individuals can determine their positions within emerging social networks...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141878/lack-of-behavioural-responses-of-humpback-whales-megaptera-novaeangliae-indicate-limited-effectiveness-of-sonar-mitigation
#14
Paul J Wensveen, Petter H Kvadsheim, Frans-Peter A Lam, Alexander M von Benda-Beckmann, Lise D Sivle, Fleur Visser, Charlotte Curé, Peter L Tyack, Patrick J O Miller
Exposure to underwater sound can cause permanent hearing loss and other physiological effects in marine animals. To reduce this risk, naval sonars are sometimes gradually increased in intensity at the start of transmission ('ramp-up'). Here, we conducted experiments in which tagged humpback whales were approached with a ship to test whether a sonar operation preceded by ramp-up reduced three risk indicators - maximum sound pressure level (SPLmax), cumulative sound exposure level (SELcum) and minimum source-whale range (Rmin) - compared with a sonar operation not preceded by ramp-up...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139145/pharmacokinetic-assessment-of-the-monepantel-plus-oxfendazole-combined-administration-in-dairy-cows
#15
M Ballent, P Viviani, F Imperiale, P Dominguez, S Halwachs, H Mahnke, W Honscha, C Lanusse, G Virkel, A Lifschitz
Monepantel (MNP) is a novel anthelmintic compound launched into the veterinary pharmaceutical market. MNP is not licenced for use in dairy animals due to the prolonged elimination of its metabolite monepantel sulphone (MNPSO2 ) into milk. The goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of potential in vivo drug-drug interactions affecting the pattern of milk excretion after the coadministration of the anthelmintics MNP and oxfendazole (OFZ) to lactating dairy cows. The concentrations of both parent drugs and their metabolites were measured in plasma and milk samples by HPLC...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138511/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-factors-drive-ontogeny-of-early-life-at-sea-behaviour-in-a-marine-top-predator
#16
Matt I D Carter, Deborah J F Russell, Clare B Embling, Clint J Blight, David Thompson, Philip J Hosegood, Kimberley A Bennett
Young animals must learn to forage effectively to survive the transition from parental provisioning to independent feeding. Rapid development of successful foraging strategies is particularly important for capital breeders that do not receive parental guidance after weaning. The intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of variation in ontogeny of foraging are poorly understood for many species. Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) are typical capital breeders; pups are abandoned on the natal site after a brief suckling phase, and must develop foraging skills without external input...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134984/evaluation-of-neuroprotective-effect-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-linn-aqueous-extract-against-ischaemic-reperfusion-insult-by-bilateral-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-in-adult-male-rats
#17
Olatunde Owoeye, Micheal Oluwatosin Gabriel
Ischaemic brain injury continues to be devastating, causing social, medical and relationship disruption. Oxidativedamage has been reported to be one of the mechanisms for brain damage following ischaemic stroke. The antioxidant activityof Hibiscus sabdariffa L. was investigated for a possible protective effect against ischaemia-induced brain damage in rats.Adult male Wistar rats (n=35) were divided into five groups of 7 rats per group. Group 1 served as control was given tapwater; Group 2: 500 mg/kg daily of Hibiscus sabdariffa L...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134246/does-high-peep-prevent-alveolar-cycling
#18
REVIEW
M Cressoni, C Chiurazzi, D Chiumello, L Gattinoni
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients need mechanical ventilation to sustain gas exchange. Animal experiments showed that mechanical ventilation with high volume/plateau pressure and no positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) damages healthy lungs, while low tidal volumes and the application of higher PEEP levels are protective. PEEP makes the lung homogeneous, reducing the pressure multiplication at the interface between lung units with different inflation statuses and keeps the lung open through the whole respiratory cycle, avoiding intratidal opening and closing...
November 13, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133851/the-effects-of-sociability-on-exploratory-tendency-and-innovation-repertoires-in-wild-sumatran-and-bornean-orangutans
#19
Caroline Schuppli, Sofia Forss, Ellen Meulman, Suci Utami Atmoko, Maria van Noordwijk, Carel van Schaik
It has been hypothesized that opportunities for social learning affect the size and complexity of the adult skill set of birds and mammals, their learning ability, and thus ultimately also their innovation frequency. To test these predictions we compared rates of social learning, rates of independent exploration (independent learning) and innovation repertoires between individuals of a highly sociable population of Pongo abelii at Suaq Balimbing and a less sociable population of Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii at Tuanan...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132915/human-recombinant-erythropoietin-reduces-sensorimotor-dysfunction-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rat-models-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
E E Reza-Zaldívar, S Sandoval-Avila, Y K Gutiérrez-Mercado, E Vázquez-Méndez, A A Canales-Aguirre, H Esquivel-Solís, U Gómez-Pinedo, A L Márquez-Aguirre
INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can cause anaemia and neurological disorders. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is used to manage anaemia in CKD. However, there is little evidence on the effects of rHuEPO on behaviour and cognitive function in CKD. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of rHuEPO in sensorimotor and cognitive functions in a CKD model. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control and CKD, with and without rHuEPO treatment (1050 IU per kg body weight, once weekly for 4 weeks)...
November 10, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
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