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Animal Behaviour

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453563/reproductive-success-is-energetically-linked-to-foraging-efficiency-in-antarctic-fur-seals
#1
Tiphaine Jeanniard-du-Dot, Andrew W Trites, John P Y Arnould, Christophe Guinet
The efficiency with which individuals extract energy from their environment defines their survival and reproductive success, and thus their selective contribution to the population. Individuals that forage more efficiently (i.e., when energy gained exceeds energy expended) are likely to be more successful at raising viable offspring than individuals that forage less efficiently. Our goal was to test this prediction in large long-lived mammals under free-ranging conditions. To do so, we equipped 20 lactating Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) breeding on Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean with tags that recorded GPS locations, depth and tri-axial acceleration to determine at-sea behaviours and detailed time-activity budgets during their foraging trips...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447605/traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#2
REVIEW
Christopher S Ahuja, Jefferson R Wilson, Satoshi Nori, Mark R N Kotter, Claudia Druschel, Armin Curt, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has devastating consequences for the physical, social and vocational well-being of patients. The demographic of SCIs is shifting such that an increasing proportion of older individuals are being affected. Pathophysiologically, the initial mechanical trauma (the primary injury) permeabilizes neurons and glia and initiates a secondary injury cascade that leads to progressive cell death and spinal cord damage over the subsequent weeks. Over time, the lesion remodels and is composed of cystic cavitations and a glial scar, both of which potently inhibit regeneration...
April 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446619/candidate-genes-mediating-magnetoreception-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#3
Robert R Fitak, Benjamin R Wheeler, David A Ernst, Kenneth J Lohmann, Sönke Johnsen
Diverse animals use Earth's magnetic field in orientation and navigation, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie magnetoreception. Recent studies have focused on two possibilities: (i) magnetite-based receptors; and (ii) biochemical reactions involving radical pairs. We used RNA sequencing to examine gene expression in the brain of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after exposure to a magnetic pulse known to disrupt magnetic orientation behaviour. We identified 181 differentially expressed genes, including increased expression of six copies of the frim gene, which encodes a subunit of the universal iron-binding and trafficking protein ferritin...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446229/expanding-protection-motivation-theory-investigating-an-application-to-animal-owners-and-emergency-responders-in-bushfire-emergencies
#4
Rachel Westcott, Kevin Ronan, Hilary Bambrick, Melanie Taylor
BACKGROUND: Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was developed by Rogers in 1975, to describe how individuals are motivated to react in a self-protective way towards a perceived health threat. Rogers expected the use of PMT to diversify over time, which has proved true over four decades. The purpose of this paper is to explore how PMT can be used and expanded to inform and improve public safety strategies in natural hazards. As global climate change impacts on the Australian environment, natural hazards seem to be increasing in scale and frequency, and Emergency Services' public education campaigns have necessarily escalated to keep pace with perceived public threat...
April 26, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444848/biologically-meaningful-scents-a-framework-for-understanding-predator-prey-research-across-disciplines
#5
Michael H Parsons, Raimund Apfelbach, Peter B Banks, Elissa Z Cameron, Chris R Dickman, Anke S K Frank, Menna E Jones, Ian S McGregor, Stuart McLean, Dietland Müller-Schwarze, Elisa E Sparrow, Daniel T Blumstein
Fear of predation is a universal motivator. Because predators hunt using stealth and surprise, there is a widespread ability among prey to assess risk from chemical information - scents - in their environment. Consequently, scents often act as particularly strong modulators of memory and emotions. Recent advances in ecological research and analytical technology are leading to novel ways to use this chemical information to create effective attractants, repellents and anti-anxiolytic compounds for wildlife managers, conservation biologists and health practitioners...
April 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444138/the-evolution-of-neuropeptide-signalling-insights-from-echinoderms
#6
Dean C Semmens, Maurice R Elphick
Neuropeptides are evolutionarily ancient mediators of neuronal signalling that regulate a wide range of physiological processes and behaviours in animals. Neuropeptide signalling has been investigated extensively in vertebrates and protostomian invertebrates, which include the ecdysozoans Drosophila melanogaster (Phylum Arthropoda) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Phylum Nematoda). However, until recently, an understanding of evolutionary relationships between neuropeptide signalling systems in vertebrates and protostomes has been impaired by a lack of genome/transcriptome sequence data from non-ecdysozoan invertebrates...
April 21, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440814/depletion-of-adult-neurogenesis-using-the-chemotherapy-drug-temozolomide-in-mice-induces-behavioural-and-biological-changes-relevant-to-depression
#7
M Egeland, C Guinaudie, A Du Preez, K Musaelyan, P A Zunszain, C Fernandes, C M Pariante, S Thuret
Numerous studies have examined links between postnatal neurogenesis and depression using a range of experimental methods to deplete neurogenesis. The antimitotic drug temozolomide (TMZ) has previously been used successfully as an experimental tool in animals to deplete adult neurogenesis and is used regularly on human patients as a standard chemotherapy for brain cancer. In this study, we wanted to evaluate whether TMZ as a model for chemotherapy treatment could affect parameters related to depression in an animal model...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436735/risk-and-safety-perception-on-urban-and-rural-roads-effects-of-environmental-features-driver-age-and-risk-sensitivity
#8
Jolene A Cox, Vanessa Beanland, Ashleigh J Filtness
OBJECTIVE: The ability to detect changing visual information is a vital component of safe driving. In addition to detecting changing visual information, drivers must also interpret its relevance to safety. Environmental changes considered to have high safety relevance will likely demand greater attention and more timely responses than those considered to have lower safety relevance. The aim of the present study was to explore factors that are likely to influence perceptions of risk and safety regarding changing visual information in the driving environment...
February 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435048/morella-serrata-lam-killick-stabilizes-biomembrane-and-rejuvenates-sexual-competence-in-male-wistar-rats
#9
S Sabiu, Aot Ashafa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Morella serrata L. is an indigenous medicinal plant to South and southern Africa with folkloric applications as aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-hypertensive, antitussive and antidiabetic agent. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study evaluated the membrane stabilization and aphrodisiac potentials of its aqueous root extract in male Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: While the membrane stabilization of the extract was investigated against bovine erythrocytes (BE), the male rats for the aphrodisiac study were randomized into five groups with animals in group 1 given sterile placebo and served as control...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434108/emotional-eating-binge-eating-and-animal-models-of-binge-type-eating-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Robert Turton, Rayane Chami, Janet Treasure
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this paper is to review the role that hedonic factors, emotions and self-regulation systems have over eating behaviours from animal models to humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence has been found to suggest that for some high-risk individuals, obesity/binge eating may develop as an impulsive reaction to negative emotions that over time becomes a compulsive habit. Animal models highlight the neural mechanisms that might underlie this process and suggest similarities with substance use disorders...
April 22, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433652/ketamine-potentiates-oxidative-stress-and-influences-behaviour-and-inflammation-in-response-to-lipolysaccharide-lps-exposure-in-early-life
#11
Gislaine Z Réus, Lutiana R Simões, Gabriela D Colpo, Giselli Scaini, Jean P Oses, Jaqueline S Generoso, Alan R Prossin, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk, João Quevedo, Tatiana Barichello
Immune activation (IA) during the early neonatal period is a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injected in neonates lead to behavioral and brain changes that persist to adult life. We investigated oxidative stress, levels of cytokines, and the locomotor activity of IA in a schizophrenia animal model in which neonatal male Wistar rats were administered with an injection of LPS (50 μg/kg) on postnatal day 3 and different doses of ketamine (5, 15 and 25 mg/kg) for 7 days during adulthood...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432778/cross-species-studies-of-cognition-relevant-to-drug-discovery-a-translational-approach
#12
REVIEW
T W Robbins
This Review advances the case that bidirectional, cross-species translation of findings from experimental animals to and from humans is an important strategy for drug discovery. Animal models of mental disorders require appropriate behavioural or cognitive outcome variables that can be generalized cross-species. One example is the treatment of impulsive behaviour in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with stimulant drugs. Performance on the stop signal reaction task as an index of impulsivity is improved both in healthy human volunteers and in patients with adult ADHD by stimulant drugs and also by the selective noradrenergic reuptake blocker atomoxetine...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426128/hippocampal-electrical-stimulation-disrupts-associative-learning-when-targeted-at-dentate-spikes
#13
Miriam S Nokia, Irina Gureviciene, Tomi Waselius, Heikki Tanila, Markku Penttonen
Hippocampal electrophysiological oscillations, namely theta and ripples, have been implicated in encoding and consolidation of new memories, respectively. According to existing literature, hippocampal dentate spikes are prominent, short-duration (<30 ms), large-amplitude (∼2-4 mV) fluctuations in hilar local-field potentials that take place during awake immobility and sleep. Interestingly, previous studies indicate that during dentate spikes dentate gyrus granule cells increase their firing while firing of CA1 pyramidal cells are suppressed, thus resulting in momentary uncoupling of the two hippocampal subregions...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425439/activation-of-the-hypothalamic-feeding-centre-upon-visual-prey-detection
#14
Akira Muto, Pradeep Lal, Deepak Ailani, Gembu Abe, Mari Itoh, Koichi Kawakami
The visual system plays a major role in food/prey recognition in diurnal animals, and food intake is regulated by the hypothalamus. However, whether and how visual information about prey is conveyed to the hypothalamic feeding centre is largely unknown. Here we perform real-time imaging of neuronal activity in freely behaving or constrained zebrafish larvae and demonstrate that prey or prey-like visual stimuli activate the hypothalamic feeding centre. Furthermore, we identify prey detector neurons in the pretectal area that project to the hypothalamic feeding centre...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424522/animal-behaviour-how-to-build-a-better-dad
#15
Steven M Phelps
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424342/individual-variation-in-local-interaction-rules-can-explain-emergent-patterns-of-spatial-organization-in-wild-baboons
#16
D R Farine, A Strandburg-Peshkin, I D Couzin, T Y Berger-Wolf, M C Crofoot
Researchers have long noted that individuals occupy consistent spatial positions within animal groups. However, an individual's position depends not only on its own behaviour, but also on the behaviour of others. Theoretical models of collective motion suggest that global patterns of spatial assortment can arise from individual variation in local interaction rules. However, this prediction remains untested. Using high-resolution GPS tracking of members of a wild baboon troop, we identify consistent inter-individual differences in within-group spatial positioning...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423053/-she-s-a-dog-at-the-end-of-the-day-guide-dog-owners-perspectives-on-the-behaviour-of-their-guide-dog
#17
Peter J Craigon, Pru Hobson-West, Gary C W England, Chantelle Whelan, Emma Lethbridge, Lucy Asher
A guide dog is a domestic dog (Canis familiaris) that is specifically educated to provide mobility support to a blind or visually impaired owner. Current dog suitability assessments focus on behavioural traits, including: trainability, reactivity or attention to environmental stimuli, low aggressiveness, fearfulness and stress behaviour, energy levels, and attachment behaviour. The aim of this study was to find out which aspects of guide dog behaviour are of key importance to guide dog owners themselves. Sixty-three semi-structured interview surveys were carried out with guide dog owners...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422169/the-role-of-domestication-and-experience-in-looking-back-towards-humans-in-an-unsolvable-task
#18
Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Akshay Rao, Zsófia Virányi, Friederike Range
A key element thought to have changed during domestication is dogs' propensity to communicate with humans, particularly their inclination to gaze at them. A classic test to measure this is the 'unsolvable task', where after repeated successes in obtaining a reward by object-manipulation, the animal is confronted with an unsolvable version of the task. 'Looking back' at humans has been considered an expression of dogs seeking help. While it occurs more in dogs than in socialized wolves, the level of exposure to human communication also appears to play a role...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421529/suppression-of-methamphetamine-self-administration-by-ketamine-pre-treatment-is-absent-in-the-methylazoxymethanol-mam-rat-model-of-schizophrenia
#19
Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Zuzana Babinska, Tibor Stark, Vincenzo Micale
Ketamine may prove to be a potential candidate in treating the widespread drug addiction/substance abuse epidemic among patients with schizophrenia. Clinical studies have shown ketamine to reduce cocaine and heroin cravings. However, the use of ketamine remains controversial as it may exacerbate the symptoms of schizophrenia. Therefore, the aim of this study is to characterize the effects of ketamine on drug addiction in schizophrenia using the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate rat model on operant IV methamphetamine (METH) self-administration...
April 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417659/effects-of-nphe-1-arg-14-lys-15-n-ofq-nh2-ufp-101-a-potent-nop-receptor-antagonist-on-molecular-cellular-and-behavioural-alterations-associated-with-chronic-mild-stress
#20
Giovanni Vitale, Monica Filaferro, Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Valentina Ruggieri, Carlo Cifani, Remo Guerrini, Michele Simonato, Silvia Zucchini
The present study investigated the effect of [Nphe(1)] Arg(14), Lys(15)-N/OFQ-NH2 (UFP-101), a selective NOP receptor antagonist, in chronic mild stress (CMS) in male Wistar rats. NOP receptor antagonists were reported to elicit antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Our aim was to investigate UFP-101 effects on CMS-induced anhedonia and impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis. UFP-101 (10 nmol/rat intracerebroventricularly) did not influence sucrose intake in non-stressed animals, but reinstated basal sucrose consumption in stressed animals from the second week of treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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