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Zachary M Laubach, Wei Perng, Dana C Dolinoy, Christopher D Faulk, Kay E Holekamp, Thomas Getty
Developmental plasticity, a phenomenon of importance in both evolutionary biology and human studies of the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD), enables organisms to respond to their environment based on previous experience without changes to the underlying nucleotide sequence. Although such phenotypic responses should theoretically improve an organism's fitness and performance in its future environment, this is not always the case. Herein, we first discuss epigenetics as an adaptive mechanism of developmental plasticity and use signaling theory to provide an evolutionary context for DOHaD phenomena within a generation...
January 21, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Fabian Obstals, Mariia Vorobii, Tomáš Riedel, Andres de Los Santos Pereira, Michael Bruns, Smriti Singh, Cesar Rodriguez-Emmenegger
Nonthrombogenic modifications of membranes for extracorporeal membrane oxygenators (ECMOs) are of key interest. The absence of hemocompatibility of these membranes and the need of anticoagulation of patients result in severe and potentially life-threatening complications during ECMO treatment. To address the lack of hemocompatibility of the membrane, surface modifications are developed, which act as barriers to protein adsorption on the membrane and, in this way, prevent activation of the coagulation cascade...
January 22, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Alla A Kicha, Dinh T Ha, Natalia V Ivanchina, Timofey V Malyarenko, Anatoly I Kalinovsky, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Svetlana P Ermakova, Olesya S Malyarenko, Nguyen A Hung, Tran T T Thuy, Pham Q Long
Six new polyhydroxysteroidal glycosides, anthenosides S1-S6 (1-6), along with a mixture of two previously known related glycosides, 7 and 8, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the starfish Anthenea sibogae. The structures of 1-6 were established by NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques as well as by chemical transformations. All new compounds have a 5α-cholest-8(14)-ene-3α,6β,7β,16α-tetrahydroxysteroidal nucleus and differ from majority of starfish glycosides in positions of carbohydrate moieties at C(7) and C(16) (1-4, 6) or only at C(16) (5)...
January 22, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Matthew James Abplanalp, Sándor Góbi, Alexandre Bergantini, Andrew M Turner, Ralf I Kaiser
Complex organic molecules are ubiquitous in star- and planet-forming regions as well as on comets such as on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, but their origins have remained largely unexplained until now. Here, we report the first laboratory detection of distinct C3H8O (propanol, methyl ethyl ether) and C4H8O (n-butanal, i-butanal) isomers formed within interstellar analog ices through interaction with ionizing radiation. This study reveals that complex organics with propyl (C3H7) and butyl (C4H9) groups can be synthesized easily in deep space and may act as key evolutionary tracers of a cosmic ray driven non-equilibrium chemistry in low temperature interstellar ices at 10 K...
January 22, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Jiyoung Lee, Ayumi Matsuzawa, Hirosuke Shiura, Akito Sutani, Fumitoshi Ishino
Epigenetic properties of cultured embryonic stem cells (ESCs), including DNA methylation imprinting, are important because they affect the developmental potential. Here, we tested a variety of culture media, including knockout serum replacement (KSR) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) with or without inhibitors of Gsk3β and Mek1/2 (2i) at various time points. In addition to the previously known passage-dependent global changes, unexpected dynamic DNA methylation changes occurred in both maternal and paternal differentially methylated regions: under the widely used condition of KSR with 2i, a highly hypomethylated state occurred at early passages (P1-7) as well as P10, but DNA methylation increased over further passages in most conditions, except under KSR with 2i at P25...
January 22, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Jessy Cartier, Chinthika Piyasena, Sarah A Sparrow, James P Boardman, Amanda J Drake
Preterm birth affects 5-18% of all babies and is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment and increased neuropsychiatric disease risk. Although preterm birth associates with differential DNA methylation at neurodevelopmental genes in buccal DNA, including Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1), it is not known whether these differences also occur in the brain, or if they persist. Thus, there is a need for animal models or in vitro systems in which to undertake longitudinal and mechanistic studies. We used a combination of in vivo rat studies and ex vivo experiments in rat cortical slices to explore their utility in modelling the human preterm brain...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Hong-Yu Li, Chong-Ran Sun, Min He, Li-Chun Yin, Hang-Gen Du, Jian-Min Zhang
BACKGROUND: Tumor location is a major prognostic factor in glioblastoma and may associate with clinical properties. The present study established and analyzed the correlation between tumor location and clinical properties of glioblastomas in frontal and temporal lobes. METHODS: This retrospective study determined the location of glioblastoma, frontal lobe(FL) or temporal lobe (TL), based on preoperative MR images. The glioblastomas in FL at clinical, radiological, and molecular levels were explored to define their clinical properties, including gender, age, sides, relationship to the ventricle, imaging subtypes, volumetrics, IDH mutation, promoter methylation of MGMT, PFS and OS as compared to glioblastomas in TL...
January 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Zhe Qu, William G Bendena, Stephen S Tobe, Jerome H L Hui
Arthropod molting and reproduction are precisely controlled by the levels of sesquiterpenoids, a class of C15 hormones derived from three isoprene units. The two major functional arthropod sesquiterpenoids are juvenile hormone (JH) and methyl farnesoate (MF). In hemimetabolous insects (such as the aphids, bugs, and cockroaches) and holometabolous insects (such as beetles, bees, butterflies, and flies), dramatic decrease in the titers of JH and/or MF promote metamorphosis from larvae to adults either directly or through an intermediate pupal stage, respectively...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yulong Li, Xinyu Lei, Wei Guo, Shengru Wu, Yulan Duan, Xin Yang, Xiaojun Yang
To learn the nutri-epigenetics role of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), we designed and studied the transgenerational effect of paternal dietary APS supplementation in chickens. 160 Avein breeder cocks were randomly allocated into 5 groups and fed with 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 g/kg APS supplement, respectively. Sperm of breeder cocks was collected and used for hatching experiment to get broiler chickens when the cocks at 40-weeks-old. It showed that the paternal dietary 10 g/kg APS could transgenerational promote growth performance and jejunal tissue morphology of chickens...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Satoshi Hasegawa, Toru Jojima, Masayuki Inui
An efficient method to construct xenogeneic genomic libraries with low errors and bias by circumventing restriction-modification systems that restrict methylated DNA was developed. Un-methylated genomic DNA of Escherichia coli prepared by ϕ29 DNA polymerase was introduced to Corynebacterium glutamicum R after ligation with un-methylated vector plasmids.
January 17, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Zhaohui Lan, Jinling Xu, Youji Wang, Weiqun Lu
A neuromodulatory role for glutamate has been reported for magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in mammalian hypothalamus. We examined the potential role of glutamate as a local intercellular messenger in the neuroendocrine Dahlgren cell population of the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) in the euryhaline flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. In pharmacological experiments in vitro, glutamate (Glu) caused an increase in electrical activity of Dahlgren cells, recruitment of previously silent cells, together with a greater proportion of cells showing phasic (irregular) activity...
January 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Dimitrios Andreou, Michael G Kallitsakis, Edward Loukopoulos, Catherine Gabriel, George E Kostakis, Ioannis N Lykakis
The facile Copper-catalyzed synthesis of polysubstituted pyrroles from aldehydes, amines and β-nitroalkenesis reported. Remarkably, the use of α-methyl substituted aldehydes provide efficient access to a series of tetra- and pentasubstituted pyrroles via an overwhelming 1,2-phenyl/alkyl migration. The present methodology is also accessible to non α-substituted aldehydes yielding the corresponding trisubstituted pyrroles. On the contrary, the use of ketones, in place of aldehydes, does not promote the organic transformation signifying the necessity of α-substituted aldehydes...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Nicole Grenon, Thomas Baumgartner
The synthesis of a series of conjugated organophosphorus materials with intramolecular Lewis acid/base interactions and the exploration of the electronic nature of the bonding around the resulting hypervalent phosphorus centers are reported. To further establish the influence of increasing the size of the π-conjugated backbone, two scaffolds, thiazolyl-thiophene and benzothiazolyl-thiophene, were included in this study. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography of several of the compounds supports the hypervalent nature of the phosphorus center in the new species...
January 22, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Mei Cheng, Xin Zhang, Jieyu Zhu, Lu Cheng, Jinxuan Cao, Zufang Wu, Peifang Weng, Xiaojie Zheng
To investigate the modulatory effect of oolong tea polyphenols (OTP) on intestinal microbiota, OTP was prepared by column chromatography and its influence on the gut flora structure was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing with a human flora-associated high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity mouse model. We observed a robust increase in bacterial biodiversity and the abundance of genera known to be butyrate- and acetate-producing bacteria. A large increase in Bacteroidetes with a decrease in Firmicutes was observed after the administration of OTP for 4 weeks, and the corresponding decrease in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio reflected the positive modulatory effect of OTP on the intestinal microbiota...
January 22, 2018: Food & Function
Clementine A Lemaire, Sean Z Liu, Charles L Wilkerson, Vishnu C Ramani, Nasim A Barzanian, Kuo-Wei Huang, James Che, Michael W Chiu, Meghah Vuppalapaty, Adam M Dimmick, Dino Di Carlo, Michael L Kochersperger, Steve C Crouse, Stefanie S Jeffrey, Robert F Englert, Stephan Hengstler, Corinne Renier, Elodie Sollier-Christen
Tumor tissue biopsies are invasive, costly, and collect a limited cell population not completely reflective of patient cancer cell diversity. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be isolated from a simple blood draw and may be representative of the diverse biology from multiple tumor sites. The VTX-1 Liquid Biopsy System was designed to automate the isolation of clinically relevant CTC populations, making the CTCs available for easy analysis. We present here the transition from a cutting-edge microfluidic innovation in the lab to a commercial, automated system for isolating CTCs directly from whole blood...
February 2018: SLAS Technology
Xiangwei Cheng, Biao Zhou, Huazhang Liu, Chao Huo, Wanjing Ding
One new indolocarbazole alkaloid, 12-N-methyl-k252c, together with eight known indolocarbazoles were isolated from the rice solid fermentation of the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. A22. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESITOF MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR). All of these compounds were evaluated for bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitory activities and cytotoxic activity assay, respectively. Compounds 4 and 5 showed moderate cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 3...
January 22, 2018: Natural Product Research
Fei Qiao, Xue-Fei Jiang, Han-Qing Cong, Hua-Peng Sun, Li Li, Peter Nick
It is the first time that formononetin produced by cell culture and its accumulation was shown to be triggered by specific stress signalling linked jasmonate pathway. Callerya speciosa, an endangered traditional Chinese medicine plant, is intensively used in traditional folk medicine. To develop sustainable alternatives for the overexploitation of natural resources, a suspension cell line was created from C. speciosa. Ingredients of C. speciosa, for instance the isoflavone formononetin, are formed during a peculiar swelling response of the root, which is considered as a quality trait for commercial application...
January 22, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Prit Benny Malgulwar, Aruna Nambirajan, Pankaj Pathak, Mohammed Faruq, Madhu Rajeshwari, Manmohan Singh, Vaishali Suri, Chitra Sarkar, Mehar Chand Sharma
Ependymomas (EPN) show site specific genetic alterations and a recent DNA methylation profiling study identified nine molecular subgroups. C11orf95-RELA and YAP1 fusions characterise the RELA and YAP1 molecular subgroups, respectively, of supratentorial (ST)-EPNs. Current guidelines recommend molecular subgrouping over histological grade for accurate prognostication. Clinicopathological features of ST-EPNs in correlation with C11orf95-RELA and YAP1 fusions have been assessed in only few studies. We aimed to study these fusions in EPNs, and identify diagnostic and prognostic markers...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Yanli Niu, Tiantian Guo, Xiaoyan Yuan, Yunhui Zhao, Lixia Ren
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show long-lasting and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Herein, PEGylated AgNPs were prepared in situ by complexing AgNO3 with the random copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) and polyacrylic acid via electrostatic interaction followed by in situ reduction. AgNP hybrid supramolecular hydrogels were thus prepared through host-guest inclusion between PEGMA side chains and α-cyclodextrins in aqueous solution. The hydrogels were physically cross-linked by both pseudopolyrotaxane crystallization and AgNPs, which showed temperature responsiveness and self-healing properties...
January 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Yun Jin, Danyi Guo, Bo Li, Shouping Xu, Jiang Cheng, Li Li, Xiufang Wen, Pihui Pi
A polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-based hybrid triblock copolymer - methyl methacrylate-b-perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate-b-methacrylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (PMMA-b-PFMA-b-PMAPOSS) was synthesized via an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. The self-assembly behavior of triblock copolymers in selective solvents of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and trichlorotrifluoroethane (F113) was studied using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation. The effects of the block sequence and volume ratio of F113/THF were discussed...
January 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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