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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334526/airborne-particulate-matter-human-exposure-health-effects
#1
Jonathan E Thompson
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is estimated to cause millions of premature deaths annually. This work conveys known routes of exposure to PM and resultant health effects. METHODS: Review of available literature. RESULTS: Estimates for daily PM exposure are provided. Known mechanisms by which insoluble particles are transported and removed from the body are discussed. Biological effects of PM, including immune response, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity are reported...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332605/antidepressant-use-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-systematic-review-of-observational-studies-and-methodological-considerations
#2
Daniel R Morales, Jim Slattery, Stephen Evans, Xavier Kurz
BACKGROUND: Antidepressant exposure during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in several observational studies. We performed a systematic review of these studies to highlight the effect that important methodological limitations have on such analyses and to consider approaches to the conduct, reporting and interpretation of future studies. METHODS: A review of MEDLINE and EMBASE identified case-control, cohort and sibling studies assessing the risk of ASD and ADHD with antidepressant use during pregnancy...
January 15, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325731/pharmacogenomic-testing-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-an-evidence-based-review
#3
Anna M Wehry, Laura Ramsey, Shane E Dulemba, Sarah A Mossman, Jeffrey R Strawn
Significant advances have been made in the application of pharmacogenomic testing for the treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders. Over the past decade, a number of studies have evaluated the utility of pharmacogenomic testing in pediatric patients with psychiatric disorders. The evidence base for pharmacogenomic testing in youth with depressive and anxiety disorders as well as attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reviewed in this article. General pharmacogenomic principles are summarized and functional polymorphisms in P450 enzymes (and associated metabolizer phenotypes), the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphisms, serotonin 2 A receptor genes (e...
January 8, 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325223/maternal-thyroid-hormone-insufficiency-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-offspring-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
William Thompson, Ginny Russell, Genevieve Baragwanath, Justin Matthews, Bijay Vaidya, Jo Thompson-Coon
BACKGROUND: In the last two decades, several studies have examined the association between maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and shown conflicting results. AIM: This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for an association between maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy and neurodevelopmental disorders in children. We also sought to assess whether levothyroxine treatment for maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency improves child neurodevelopment outcomes...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317844/a-survey-of-adult-referrals-to-specialist-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-clinics-in-canada
#5
Larry J Klassen, C Matthew Blackwood, Christopher J Reaume, Samuel Schaffer, James G Burns
Background: Canadian guidelines encourage family physicians to diagnose/manage adults with uncomplicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); specialist referral is recommended only for complex cases. This retrospective case review investigated adults referred to Canadian ADHD clinics. Methods: Adult ADHD specialists reviewed referral letters/charts of patients (aged ≥18 years and no family history/known/expressed childhood ADHD) from family physicians/psychiatrists over 2 years...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298278/the-impact-of-air-pollution-to-central-nervous-system-in-children-and-adults
#6
Radim J Sram, Milos Veleminsky, Milos Veleminsky, Jana Stejskalová
The aim of this paper was to review studies analyzing the associations between air pollution and neurodevelopment in children as well as the effect on adult population. Effect of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P) were already studied on cohorts from New York, Poland, China, and Spain. All results indicate changes of child behavior and neurodevelopment at the age of 3-9 years, decrease of IQ, increase of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), decrease of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), reduction of left hemisphere white matter...
December 4, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298167/newly-developed-skin-picking-after-methylphenidate-treatment-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-possible-mechanisms
#7
Tayfun Kara, İsmail Akaltun
Dermatillomania is characterized by excessive and repeated skin picking sufficient to damage cutaneous tissue, but with no underlying dermatological disease. The condition appears as an independent diagnosis in the Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. A psychiatric pathology is generally reported to accompany this symptom. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a potentially lifelong condition involving inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness...
January 2, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280714/specific-sensory-techniques-and-sensory-environmental-modifications-for-children-and-youth-with-sensory-integration-difficulties-a-systematic-review
#8
Stefanie C Bodison, L Diane Parham
This systematic review examined the effectiveness of specific sensory techniques and sensory environmental modifications to improve participation of children with sensory integration (SI) difficulties. Abstracts of 11,436 articles published between January 2007 and May 2015 were examined. Studies were included if designs reflected high levels of evidence, participants demonstrated SI difficulties, and outcome measures addressed function or participation. Eight studies met inclusion criteria. Seven studies evaluated effects of specific sensory techniques for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Qigong massage, weighted vests, slow swinging, and incorporation of multisensory activities into preschool routines...
January 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280392/comorbidity-of-internet-use-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-two-adult-case-control-studies
#9
Martin Bielefeld, Marion Drews, Inken Putzig, Laura Bottel, Toni Steinbüchel, Jan Dieris-Hirche, Gregor R Szycik, Astrid Müller, Mandy Roy, Martin Ohlmeier, Bert Theodor Te Wildt
Objectives There is good scientific evidence that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is both a predictor and a comorbidity of addictive disorders in adulthood. These associations not only focus on substance-related addictions but also on behavioral addictions like gambling disorder and Internet use disorder (IUD). For IUD, systematic reviews have identified ADHD as one of the most prevalent comorbidities besides depressive and anxiety disorders. Yet, there is a need to further understand the connections between both disorders to derive implications for specific treatment and prevention...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275839/the-multifaceted-role-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-emotion-decision-making-social-cognition-and-psychopathology
#10
REVIEW
Jaryd Hiser, Michael Koenigs
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in a variety of social, cognitive, and affective functions that are commonly disrupted in mental illness. In this review, we summarize data from a diverse array of human and animal studies demonstrating that the vmPFC is a key node of cortical and subcortical networks that subserve at least three broad domains of psychological function linked to psychopathology. One track of research indicates that the vmPFC is critical for the representation of reward- and value-based decision making, through interactions with the ventral striatum and amygdala...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261228/overview-of-monoamine-transporters
#11
Shaili Aggarwal, Ole V Mortensen
The dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT), and norepinephrine (NET) transporters, which are collectively referred to as monoamine transporters (MATs), play significant roles in regulating the neuronal response to these neurotransmitters. MATs terminate the action of these neurotransmitters by translocating them from the synaptic space into the presynaptic neurons. These three transmitters are responsible for controlling a number of physiological, emotional, and behavioral functions, with their transporters being the site of action of drugs employed for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including depression, anxiety, ADHD, schizophrenia, and psychostimulant abuse...
December 20, 2017: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247762/prenatal-antidepressant-exposure-and-the-risk-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Kenneth K C Man, Esther W Chan, Patrick Ip, David Coghill, Emily Simonoff, Phyllis K L Chan, Wallis C Y Lau, Martijn J Schuemie, Miriam C J M Sturkenboom, Ian C K Wong
This systematic review assesses the association between prenatal antidepressant exposure and risk of ADHD in children. Electronic databases were searched up to 25 July 2017. Observational studies examining this association were included in the review and meta-analysis was conducted where appropriate. Eight relevant studies were identified. The seven studies included in the meta-analysis comprised a total of 2,886,502 children. The pooled estimates comparing prenatal exposure to non-exposure showed an adjusted rate ratio (aRR) of 1...
December 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244533/systematic-overview-of-neuroanatomical-differences-in-adhd-definitive-evidence
#13
Bruno Bastos Vieira de Melo, Maria João Trigueiro, Pedro Pereira Rodrigues
OBJECTIVES: This article seeks to identify neuroanatomical differences in ADHD through an overview of systematic reviews that report encephalic differences compared to a control group in volume, area, activation likelihood or chemical composition. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search using Cochrane guidelines and PRISMA criteria in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. RESULTS: Results revealed broad encephalic involvement that includes a functional frontal and cingulate hypoactivation and structural differences in corpus callosum, cerebellum and basal nuclei...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243299/antidepressant-use-during-pregnancy-and-the-risk-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-the-children-a-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#14
Hai-Yin Jiang, Chun-Ting Peng, Xue Zhang, Bing Ruan
BACKGROUND: Evidence for the relationship between antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the children is conflicting. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between fetal exposure to antidepressant drugs and the subsequent development of ADHD. SEARCH STRATEGY: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases to identify relevant cohort studies published from inception until October 2017...
December 15, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240924/effect-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-cognition-an-updated-systematic-review-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#15
Oscar D Rangel-Huerta, Angel Gil
Context: The increasing number of studies on the effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) on health, particularly cognition, in the last 5 years reflects the growing interest in this area of research. Objective: The aim for this systematic review was to evaluate the scientific evidence published in the last 5 years (2012-2017) on the effects of n-3 LC-PUFA intake on cognition, cognitive development, and cognitive decline to determine whether n-3 LC-PUFAs support cognitive development and prevent cognitive decline...
December 12, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237331/autism-spectrum-disorder-consensus-guidelines-on-assessment-treatment-and-research-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#16
Oliver D Howes, Maria Rogdaki, James L Findon, Robert H Wichers, Tony Charman, Bryan H King, Eva Loth, Gráinne M McAlonan, James T McCracken, Jeremy R Parr, Carol Povey, Paramala Santosh, Simon Wallace, Emily Simonoff, Declan G Murphy
An expert review of the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of autism spectrum disorder, and recommendations for diagnosis, management and service provision was coordinated by the British Association for Psychopharmacology, and evidence graded. The aetiology of autism spectrum disorder involves genetic and environmental contributions, and implicates a number of brain systems, in particular the gamma-aminobutyric acid, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems. The presentation of autism spectrum disorder varies widely and co-occurring health problems (in particular epilepsy, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and irritability) are common...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234356/the-opportunities-of-virtual-reality-in-the-rehabilitation-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-literature-review
#17
REVIEW
Azadeh Bashiri, Marjan Ghazisaeedi, Leila Shahmoradi
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. This disorder, in addition to its main symptoms, creates significant difficulties in education, social performance, and personal relationships. Given the importance of rehabilitation for these patients to combat the above issues, the use of virtual reality (VR) technology is helpful. The aim of this study was to highlight the opportunities for VR in the rehabilitation of children with ADHD. This narrative review was conducted by searching for articles in scientific databases and e-Journals, using keywords including VR, children, and ADHD...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233804/end-user-and-implementer-experiences-of-mhealth-technologies-for-noncommunicable-chronic-disease-management-in-young-adults-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Helen Slater, Jared M Campbell, Jennifer N Stinson, Megan M Burley, Andrew M Briggs
BACKGROUND: Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as asthma, diabetes, cancer, and persistent musculoskeletal pain impose an escalating and unsustainable burden on young people, their families, and society. Exploring how mobile health (mHealth) technologies can support management for young people with NCDs is imperative. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify, appraise, and synthesize available qualitative evidence on users' experiences of mHealth technologies for NCD management in young people...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225671/tourette-syndrome-and-other-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-comprehensive-review
#19
REVIEW
Elena Cravedi, Emmanuelle Deniau, Marianna Giannitelli, Jean Xavier, Andreas Hartmann, David Cohen
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex developmental neuropsychiatric condition in which motor manifestations are often accompanied by comorbid conditions that impact the patient's quality of life. In the DSM-5, TS belongs to the "neurodevelopmental disorders" group, together with other neurodevelopmental conditions, frequently co-occurring. In this study, we searched the PubMed database using a combination of keywords associating TS and all neurodevelopmental diagnoses. From 1009 original reports, we identified 36 studies addressing TS and neurodevelopmental comorbidities...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222741/exploratory-study-of-barriers-to-successful-office-contacts-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Jayde T Hooven, Benjamin N Fogel, James G Waxmonsky, Deepa L Sekhar
The American Academy of Pediatrics published attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) guidelines, but significant variability exists in care. This exploratory study aimed to understand barriers to compliance with primary care office contacts for ADHD medication management. The study was conducted at a single academic medical center via retrospective chart review between 6/1/15 and 5/31/16 in combination with telephone interviews. Participants included 306 children 6-12 years old with an ADHD-related ICD-9/ICD-10 diagnosis...
December 8, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
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