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Review and adhd

Robert Freedman, Sharon K Hunter, M Camille Hoffman
Genes, infection, malnutrition, and other factors affecting fetal brain development are a major component of risk for a child's emotional development and later mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. Prenatal interventions to ameliorate that risk have yet to be established for clinical use. A systematic review of prenatal nutrients and childhood emotional development and later mental illness was performed. Randomized trials of folic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements assess effects of doses beyond those adequate to remedy deficiencies to promote normal fetal development despite genetic and environmental risks...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jeffrey Braithwaite, Peter D Hibbert, Adam Jaffe, Les White, Christopher T Cowell, Mark F Harris, William B Runciman, Andrew R Hallahan, Gavin Wheaton, Helena M Williams, Elisabeth Murphy, Charlotte J Molloy, Louise K Wiles, Shanthi Ramanathan, Gaston Arnolda, Hsuen P Ting, Tamara D Hooper, Natalie Szabo, John G Wakefield, Clifford F Hughes, Annette Schmiede, Chris Dalton, Sarah Dalton, Joanna Holt, Liam Donaldson, Ed Kelley, Richard Lilford, Peter Lachman, Stephen Muething
Importance: The quality of routine care for children is rarely assessed, and then usually in single settings or for single clinical conditions. Objective: To estimate the quality of health care for children in Australia in inpatient and ambulatory health care settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multistage stratified sample with medical record review to assess adherence with quality indicators extracted from clinical practice guidelines for 17 common, high-burden clinical conditions (noncommunicable [n = 5], mental health [n = 4], acute infection [n = 7], and injury [n = 1]), such as asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tonsillitis, and head injury...
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Dong-Oh Seo, Laura E Motard, Michael R Bruchas
Great efforts in clinical and basic research have shown progress in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit hyperactive disorders. Literature on this field have suggested that these disorders are affected by the complex interaction of genetic, biological, psychosocial and environmental risk factors. However, this complexity of interplaying risk factors during neurodevelopment has prevented a complete understanding of the causes of those neuropsychiatric symptoms...
March 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Giancarlo Giupponi, Gloria Giordano, Ignazio Maniscalco, Denise Erbuto, Isabella Berardelli, Andreas Conca, David Lester, Paolo Girardi, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: ADHD (Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests itself during childhood with various combinations of symptoms, including inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Research has shown that psychiatric comorbidities play an important role in the development of suicidal behavior and, recently, there has been a growing interest in a possible association between ADHD and suicide during both childhood and adulthood. Furthermore, some authors have shown a relationship between pharmacological treatments and suicide in patients affected by ADHD...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
D Zoenen, V Delvenne
INTRODUCTION: The processing of information coming from the elementary sensory systems conditions the development and fulfilment of a child's abilities. A dysfunction in the sensory stimuli processing may generate behavioural patterns that might affect a child's learning capacities as well as his relational sphere. The DSM-5 recognizes the sensory abnormalities as part of the symptomatology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. However, similar features are observed in other neurodevelopmental disorders...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Johanna R Rochester, Ashley L Bolden, Carol F Kwiatkowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased in prevalence in the past decade. Studies attempting to identify a specific genetic component have not been able to account for much of the heritability of ADHD, indicating there may be gene-environment interactions underlying the disorder, including early exposure to environmental chemicals. Based on several relevant studies, we chose to examine bisphenol A (BPA) as a possible contributor to ADHD in humans. BPA is a widespread environmental chemical that has been shown to disrupt neurodevelopment in rodents and humans...
March 3, 2018: Environment International
Mary Alexis Iaccarino, Lisa Liang Philpotts, Ross Zafonte, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) often presents with cognitive complaints including difficulty with attention and concentration. As these symptoms resemble those of ADHD, stimulants may be a potential treatment for mTBI. This review evaluates the literature on the use of stimulants for the treatment of mTBI. METHOD: A systematic evaluation of the literature using six databases: Ovidmedline, Pubmed, psychINFO, CINAH, Embase, and Cochrane. Broad search terms were used and studies were included that evaluate the use of stimulant and stimulant-like medications in the mTBI population...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
A Fernandez-Jaen, D Martin Fernandez-Mayoralas, A L Fernandez-Perrone, A Jimenez, J Albert, S Lopez-Martin, B Calleja-Perez, P Tirado, S Lopez-Arribas
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders. Other neurodevelopmental disorders may appear as a comorbidity or mimicking ADHD itself. DEVELOPMENT: This study reviews the high prevalence of other neurodevelopmental disorders (specific learning difficulties, communication disorders, etc.) in patients with ADHD. Moreover, the possible differential diagnoses include the same neurodevelopmental disorders that can occur as a comorbidity...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
F Mulas, P Roca
INTRODUCTION: The current literature acknowledges an overlap of genetic, clinical and neuropsychological aspects between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggesting that there may be a common pattern that covers features ranging from the common genetic and structural aetiology to shared patterns of symptoms. AIM: To review the current advances in these common aspects. DEVELOPMENT: Several studies have pointed out preschool attentional difficulties as the basis of both disorders...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Yuncheng Zhu, Xixi Jiang, Weidong Ji
The neurocircuitries that constitute the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit provide a framework for bridging gaps between neuroscience and executive function in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has been difficult to identify the mechanisms for regulating emotional problems from the understanding of ADHD comorbidity with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Research based on "cool" and "hot" executive functional theory and the dual pathway models, which are thought of as applied response inhibition and delay aversion, respectively, within the neuropsychological view of ADHD, has shed light on emotional responding before and after decontextualized stimuli, while CSTC circuit-related domains have been suggested to explain the different emotional symptoms of ADHD with or without comorbid DBD...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Inés Velasco, Sarah C Bath, Margaret P Rayman
Iodine is an essential micronutrient incorporated into thyroid hormones. Although iodine deficiency can lead to a broad spectrum of disorders throughout life, it is most critical in the early stages of development, as the foetal brain is extremely dependent on iodine supply. During the last two decades, our understanding of thyroid physiology during gestation has substantially improved. Furthermore, thyroid hormone receptors have been identified and characterised in placental and embryonic tissues, allowing us to elucidate the maternal-foetal transfer of thyroid hormones...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
Arif Khan, Kaysee Fahl Mar, Joshua Schilling, Walter A Brown
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that placebo response has grown significantly over time in clinical trials for antidepressants, ADHD medications, antiepileptics, and antidiabetics. Contrary to expectations, trial outcome measures and success rates have not been impacted. This study aimed to see if this trend of increasing placebo response and stable efficacy outcome measures is unique to the conditions previously studied or if it occurs in trials for conditions with physiologically-measured symptoms, such as hypertension...
2018: PloS One
Anthony G Phillips, Mark A Geyer, Trevor W Robbins
Athina Markou and others argue forcefully for the adoption of a "translational-back translational strategy" for central nervous system drug discovery involving novel application of drugs with established safety profiles in proof-of-principle studies in humans, which in turn encourage parallel studies using experimental animals to provide vital data on the neural systems and neuropharmacological mechanisms related to the actions of the candidate drugs. Encouraged by the increasing adoption of drug-development strategies involving reciprocal information exchange between preclinical animal studies and related clinical research programs, this review presents additional compelling examples related to the following: 1) the treatment of cognitive deficits that define attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; 2) the development of fast-acting antidepressants based on promising clinical effects with low doses of the anesthetic ketamine; and 3) new and effective medications for the treatment of substance misuse...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Amparo Díaz-Román, Raziya Mitchell, Samuele Cortese
Sleep alterations associated with adulthood ADHD are poorly understood. Here, we conducted the first meta-analysis of sleep studies in adults with ADHD. Based on a pre-registered protocol (PROSPERO-CRD42017065407), we searched Pubmed, Ovid and Web of Knowledge databases through August 3rd , 2017, with no language or publication type restrictions, and contacted study authors for unpublished data/information. From a pool of 8,812 references, we retained 13 studies. Random-effects models were performed and study quality was rated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale...
February 22, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Minha Hong, Duk Soo Moon, Hyejung Chang, Seung Yup Lee, Seong Woo Cho, Kyung-Sook Lee, Jin-Ah Park, Sang Min Lee, Geon Ho Bahn
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the current diagnostic incidence, and medical and psychiatric comorbidities of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) using the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) claims data. METHODS: To examine the diagnostic incidence, we selected patients who were under 10-year-old and who had at least one medical claim containing a 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) code for RAD (F94...
February 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Sufei He, Miao Wang, Jinhua Si, Tianyi Zhang, Hong Cui, Xiumei Gao
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated childhood psychiatric disorders. The analogous diagnosis adopted in Europe is hyperkinetic disorder, which is defined in the WHO's International Classification of Diseases 10th edition (ICD-10). Hyperkinetic disorder includes more severe conditions. Ginkgo preparations are used in the treatment of ADHD. The present study will assess the efficacy and safety of ginkgo preparations in the treatment of ADHD in the currently published literature...
February 20, 2018: BMJ Open
Khatereh Borhani, Vahid Nejati
This review focuses on facial emotion recognition (FER) in individuals with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Behavioral studies of FER in ADHD have resulted in inconsistent findings. Here, we discuss the factors that vary across studies and the way that they influence FER processes in ADHD. Across reviewed studies, fear was the most deficient facial expression to be recognized. Our review suggested that FER deficit in ADHD does not alleviate across development and is partially distinct from ADHD symptoms...
February 20, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Sarah C O S Padilha, Suzane Virtuoso, Fernanda S Tonin, Helena H L Borba, Roberto Pontarolo
The aim of this study is to gather evidence of head-to-head double-blind randomized-controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of available treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. A systematic review was conducted by two independent reviewers in ten electronic databases (PROSPERO register CRD42016043239). Methodological quality of included studies was evaluated according to the Jadad scale. Network meta-analyses were performed including double-blinded head-to-head trials comparing active allopathic drugs in patients (0-18 years old) diagnosed with ADHD...
February 19, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Laura Duncan, Jinette Comeau, Li Wang, Irene Vitoroulis, Michael H Boyle, Kathryn Bennett
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of factors contributing to the observed variability in estimates of test-retest reliability in published studies on standardized diagnostic interviews (SDI) is needed. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to estimate the pooled test-retest reliability for parent and youth assessments of seven common disorders, and to examine sources of between-study heterogeneity in reliability. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, multilevel random effects meta-analyses were used to analyse 202 reliability estimates (Cohen's kappa = ҡ) from 31 eligible studies and 5,369 assessments of 3,344 children and youth...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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