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Review and adhd

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784236/a-review-associations-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-physical-activity-medication-use-eating-behaviors-and-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
REVIEW
Danielle Quesada, Nasar U Ahmed, Kristopher P Fennie, Erica L Gollub, Boubakari Ibrahimou
In the past few years we have become increasingly aware of strong associations between obesity and ADHD. Both conditions are major public health issues, affecting children, adolescents and adults alike. OBJECTIVE: This review seeks to (1) examine prior research on the association between ADHD and obesity in children and adolescents; (2) discuss mechanisms and consequent behavioral attributes to gain understanding of the path association between ADHD and obesity, (3) review studies examining the role of physical activity, medication, eating behavior and gender on the relationship between ADHD and obesity in children and adolescents...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780342/long-term-efficacy-of-psychosocial-treatments-for-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-meta-analytic-review
#2
Carlos López-Pinar, Sonia Martínez-Sanchís, Enrique Carbonell-Vayá, Javier Fenollar-Cortés, Julio Sánchez-Meca
Background: Recent evidence suggests that psychosocial treatments, particularly cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), are effective interventions for adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this review was to determine the long-term efficacy of psychosocial interventions in improving clinically relevant variables, including ADHD core symptoms, clinical global impression (CGI), and global functioning. Methods: In total, nine randomized controlled trials and three uncontrolled single-group pretest-posttest studies were included...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779801/docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-for-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Renata Ramalho, Ana Colaço Pereira, Filipa Vicente, Paula Pereira
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered the most common behavioural disorder in school-age children. ADHD is a complex and multifactorial disorder characterised by a variety of symptoms, including concentration problems, excessive motor activity and impulsivity which interferes with execution of simple school tasks. Diagnosis has been essentially subjective, since no specific laboratory tests are available. However, ADHD remains overdiagnosed, probably due to social pressures for children to be successful in school from an early age, which leads parents to seek medical support...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772309/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obesity-a-review-and-model-of-current-hypotheses-explaining-their-comorbidity
#4
REVIEW
Tomasz Hanć, Samuele Cortese
Available meta-analyses point to a significant association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. The possible mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Here, we overview the studies aimed at identifying the factors contributing to the comorbidity between ADHD and obesity, including genetic factors, fetal programming, executive dysfunctions, psychosocial stress, factors directly related to energy balance, and sleep patterns alterations. The bulk of current research has focused on reduced physical activity and abnormal eating patterns as possible causes of weight gain in individuals with ADHD...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771179/neuropsychological-performance-patterns-of-adult-adhd-subtypes
#5
Amy LeRoy, Claudia Jacova, Caedy Young
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychological performance patterns associated with adult ADHD subtypes are unknown. The aim of the current systematic review was to identify and synthesize available literature regarding neuropsychological performance associated with adult ADHD subtypes. METHOD: Searches were completed using the databases PsycINFO and PubMed for studies published before March 2017 addressing adult ADHD subtypes and neuropsychological performance. Data characterizing the neuropsychological tests utilized in each study were obtained and sorted into eight domains...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766479/-n-of-1-trials-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-a-closer-look-at-stimulants
#6
E Mordijck, M Danckaerts, P Onghena
BACKGROUND: An N-of-1 trial is a clinical trial studying the response of an individual to a particular intervention or different interventions in an objective, systematic way. AIM: To evaluate both the applications and the methodology of N-of-1 trials in child and adolescent psychiatry. METHOD: A systematic review using PubMed and Embase assessing N-of-1 trials published during the period 1986 - July 2016 with the following key-word: 'N-of-1'...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765117/risk-of-poisoning-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Maite Ruiz-Goikoetxea, Samuele Cortese, Sara Magallón, Maite Aznárez-Sanado, Noelia Álvarez Zallo, Elkin O Luis, Pilar de Castro-Manglano, Cesar Soutullo, Gonzalo Arrondo
Poisoning, a subtype of physical injury, is an important hazard in children and youth. Individuals with ADHD may be at higher risk of poisoning. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify this risk. Furthermore, since physical injuries, likely share causal mechanisms with those of poisoning, we compared the relative risk of poisoning and injuries pooling studies reporting both. As per our pre-registered protocol (PROSPERO ID CRD42017079911), we searched 114 databases through November 2017...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764710/a-systematic-review-to-explore-the-feasibility-of-a-behavioural-sleep-intervention-for-insomnia-in-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-transdiagnostic-approach
#8
REVIEW
Gabrielle Rigney, Nicole S Ali, Penny V Corkum, Cary A Brown, Evelyn Constantin, Roger Godbout, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Osman Ipsiroglu, Graham J Reid, Sarah Shea, Isabel M Smith, Hendrik F M Van der Loos, Shelly K Weiss
Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) are at high risk for sleep problems, especially insomnia. It is currently not known whether behavioural sleep interventions developed for typically developing (TD) children are effective for children with NDD, and if interventions need to be modified for each diagnostic group. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate commonalities, trends in outcomes, and the methodological quality of parent-delivered behavioural sleep interventions for children with NDD, specifically Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Cerebral Palsy, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder...
March 31, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749278/demographic-and-clinical-predictors-of-hospitalization-in-preschoolers-with-adhd
#9
Miriam Peskin, Ann Rotem, Pavel Golubchik, Abraham Weizman, Iris Manor
OBJECTIVE: This chart review study characterized demographic and clinical indicators of the need for hospitalization in preschoolers with ADHD. METHOD: Medical records of preschoolers with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) ADHD during 2009-2012 were systematically reviewed. The cohort included 111 children (aged 5.13 ± 0.55 years, 77.47% boys). The demographic and clinical variables of hospitalized at a day-care unit ( n = 30) and nonhospitalized ( n = 81) preschoolers were compared...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744873/methylphenidate-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-children-and-adolescents-assessment-of-adverse-events-in-non-randomised-studies
#10
REVIEW
Ole Jakob Storebø, Nadia Pedersen, Erica Ramstad, Maja Lærke Kielsholm, Signe Sofie Nielsen, Helle B Krogh, Carlos R Moreira-Maia, Frederik L Magnusson, Mathilde Holmskov, Trine Gerner, Maria Skoog, Susanne Rosendal, Camilla Groth, Donna Gillies, Kirsten Buch Rasmussen, Dorothy Gauci, Morris Zwi, Richard Kirubakaran, Sasja J Håkonsen, Lise Aagaard, Erik Simonsen, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. The psychostimulant methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication to treat it. Several studies have investigated the benefits of methylphenidate, showing possible favourable effects on ADHD symptoms, but the true magnitude of the effect is unknown. Concerning adverse events associated with the treatment, our systematic review of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) demonstrated no increase in serious adverse events, but a high proportion of participants suffered a range of non-serious adverse events...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744363/peer-inclusion-in-interventions-for-children-with-adhd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Reinie Cordier, Brandon Vilaysack, Kenji Doma, Sarah Wilkes-Gillan, Renée Speyer
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of peer inclusion in interventions to improve the social functioning of children with ADHD. Methods: We searched four electronic databases for randomized controlled trials and controlled quasi-experimental studies that investigated peer inclusion interventions alone or combined with pharmacological treatment. Data were collected from the included studies and methodologically assessed. Meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722101/recent-developments-in-the-genetics-of-adhd
#12
Oliver Grimm, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Andreas Reif
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental psychiatric disorder which affects children and adults. ADHD is one of the psychiatric disorders with the strongest genetic basis according to familial, twin and SNP-based epidemiological studies. In this review, we provide an update of recent insights in the genetic basis of ADHD. We discuss recent progress from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) looking at common variants as well as rare copy number variations (CNVs). New analysis of gene groups, so-called functional ontologies, provide some insight into the gene networks afflicted, pointing to the role of neurodevelopmentally expressed gene-networks...
May 2, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714151/the-molecular-mechanism-of-vitamin-d-action-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-review-of-current-evidences
#13
Ahmad Saedisomeolia, Mahsa Samadi, Fatemeh Gholami, Marzieh Seyedi, Mohammad Effatpanah, Rezvan Hashemi, Siamand Anvari, Mina Abdolahi, Mahmoud Djalali, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh Honarvar
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Children with ADHD have challenges with learning, behavior and psychosocial adjustments retaining into adulthood. The exact etiology of ADHD is unknown and the pathophysiology of this disease is complex. Multifactorial hypotheses such as catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems disorders, neurotropic factors, some biological impairment with inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways are considered for ADHD...
April 30, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704525/opportunities-and-challenges-for-using-the-zebrafish-to-study-neuronal-connectivity-as-an-endpoint-of-developmental-neurotoxicity
#14
REVIEW
Galen W Miller, Vidya Chandrasekaran, Bianca Yaghoobi, Pamela J Lein
Chemical exposures have been implicated as environmental risk factors that interact with genetic susceptibilities to influence individual risk for complex neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disabilities. Altered patterns of neuronal connectivity represent a convergent mechanism of pathogenesis for these and other neurodevelopmental disorders, and growing evidence suggests that chemicals can interfere with specific signaling pathways that regulate the development of neuronal connections...
April 25, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703679/a-network-neuroscience-approach-to-typical-and-atypical-brain-development
#15
REVIEW
Sarah E Morgan, Simon R White, Edward T Bullmore, Petra E Vértes
Human brain networks based on neuroimaging data have already proven useful in characterizing both normal and abnormal brain structure and function. However, many brain disorders are neurodevelopmental in origin, highlighting the need to go beyond characterizing brain organization in terms of static networks. Here, we review the fast-growing literature shedding light on developmental changes in network phenotypes. We begin with an overview of recent large-scale efforts to map healthy brain development, and we describe the key role played by longitudinal data including repeated measurements over a long period of follow-up...
March 14, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698132/dental-age-difference-in-children-with-adhd
#16
Puneet Wadhwa, Qingzhao Yu, Han Zhu, Janice A Townsend
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in dental development are associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or ADHD medications. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective chart review evaluated the dental age of 128 patients between 6 and 16 years of age using the Demirjian method from the following two groups a) children with ADHD b) unaffected children. The ADHD group was further stratified into four groups according to the medication type...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693461/an-update-on-pharmacotherapy-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents
#17
Ritu Goel, Ji Su Hong, Robert L Findling, Na Young Ji
To date, no medication is proven to be effective in treating core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Psychotropic medications are widely used to target emotional and behavioural symptoms in ASD. This article reviewed evidence for pharmacotherapy, novel therapeutic agents, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in children and adolescents with ASD. Currently, only risperidone and aripiprazole have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of irritability associated with ASD in children and adolescents...
April 25, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689282/impulsive-aggression-and-response-inhibition-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-disruptive-behavioral-disorders-findings-from-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Andrei A Puiu, Olga Wudarczyk, Katharina S Goerlich, Mikhail Votinov, Kerstin Konrad, Bruce Turetsky, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
BACKGROUND: Although impulsive aggression (IA) and dysfunctional response inhibition (RI) are hallmarks of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disrupted behavioral disorders (DBDs), little is known about their shared and distinct deviant neural mechanisms. AIMS AND METHODS: Here, we selectively reviewed s/fMRI ADHD and DBD studies to identify disorder-specific and shared IA and RI aberrant neural mechanisms. RESULTS: In ADHD, deviant prefrontal and cingulate functional activity was associated with increased IA...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688261/prenatal-exposure-to-acetaminophen-and-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autistic-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#19
Reem Masarwa, Hagai Levine, Einat Gorelik, Shimon Reif, Amichai Perlman, Ilan Matok
Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic during pregnancy. Evidence of neuro-disruptive properties is accumulating. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring of women exposed to acetaminophen during pregnancy. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane up to January 2017. Data were independently extracted and assessed by two researchers. Seven eligible retrospective cohorts included 132,738 mother and child pairs and with a follow-up period of 3-11 years...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686490/autonomic-instability-in-a-dehydrated-child-on-guanfacine-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Elizabeth Roach-Fox, Eva Welisch, Amrita Sarpal
An 8-year-old girl on guanfacine extended-release (GXR) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder presented with somnolence, bradycardia and hypotension during a heat wave. No overdose was suspected. She was admitted to the intensive care unit for monitoring and ongoing fluid resuscitation for hypotension. Electrocardiogram showed intermittent atrioventricular dissociation. Upon restarting the drug post-discharge, blood pressures were normal, and follow-up electrocardiograms documented asymptomatic bradycardia but no dissociation...
April 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
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