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Review and adhd

Hilde de Kluiver, Jacobine E Buizer-Voskamp, Conor V Dolan, Dorret I Boomsma
We review the hypotheses concerning the association between the paternal age at childbearing and childhood psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum- and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder) and adult disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar-, obsessive-compulsive-, and major depressive disorder) based on epidemiological studies. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the paternal age effect. We discuss the four main-not mutually exclusive-hypotheses. These are the de novo mutation hypothesis, the hypothesis concerning epigenetic alterations, the selection into late fatherhood hypothesis, and the environmental resource hypothesis...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
S Bioulac, F Chalumeau, K Lode-Kolz
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder, often associated with sleep disorders. Patients with primary sleep disorders often present hyperactivity and/or attention deficit symptoms. Indeed, obstructive sleep disorder breathing (snoring, hypoventilation disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome) with poor sleep quality can mimic ADHD in children. In this case, inattention and hyperactivity behavior are induced by sleep disorders but do not constitute a clinical diagnosis of ADHD...
October 18, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Britta Wandschneider, Matthias J Koepp
Functional MRI studies have helped to elucidate underlying mechanisms in complex neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Disease processes often involve complex large-scale network interactions, extending beyond the presumed main disease focus. Given both the complexity of the clinical phenotype and the underlying dysfunctional brain circuits, so called pharmaco-fMRI (ph-MRI) studies probe pharmacological effects on functional neuro-anatomy, and can help to determine early treatment response, mechanisms of drug efficacy and side effects, and potentially advance CNS drug development...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Thiago Strahler Rivero, Lina Maria Herrera Núñez, Emmy Uehara Pires, Orlando Francisco Amodeo Bueno
[This corrects the article on p. 151 in vol. 6, PMID: 26557098.].
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Osman Sabuncuoglu, Mustafa Yasin Irmak
It has been more than 10 years since the proposal of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) model as an explanatory construct for traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in children. The aim of this review was to address developments in the study of the issue after 2005 to 2016. A systematic literature search covering the period from 2005 to 2016 was conducted on PubMed, the Cochrane library and Google Scholar using relevant keywords. Fourteen studies exploring the relationship between ADHD and TDIs from 2005 and onwards (including the proposal paper) were identified...
October 17, 2016: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
Melissa R Dvorsky, Joshua M Langberg
The vast majority of research on youth with ADHD has focused on risk factors and describing the types of impairment individuals with ADHD experience. However, functional outcomes associated with ADHD are heterogeneous, and although many youth with ADHD experience significant negative outcomes (e.g., school dropout), some are successful in multiple domains of functioning (e.g., pursue and graduate college). There is a growing body of literature supporting the existence of factors that protect youth with ADHD from experiencing negative outcomes, but there is no published synthesis of this literature...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
Margaret H Sibley, John T Mitchell, Stephen P Becker
Several studies have questioned the stability of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood. This systematic review illustrates how variability in diagnostic methods influences adult ADHD persistence estimates. Systematic database searches identified studies reporting adult ADHD persistence rates that were published in English between Jan 1, 1992, and May 31, 2016. Study inclusion criteria were systematic childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit disorder, ADHD, or a research diagnostic protocol that matched DSM-III, DSM-III-R, or DSM-IV standards; mean childhood age of younger than 12·0 years with no participants older than 18·0 years; and mean adult age of 18·0 years or older with no participants younger than 17·0 years...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
L Brandejsky, J-A Micoulaud Franchi, R Lopez, S Bioulac, D Da Fonseca, C Daudet, L Boyer, R Richieri, C Lançon
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to summarize the available data in the literature about the therapeutic applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: The scientific literature search of international articles was performed in February 2016 using the PubMed electronic database. The following MeSH terms were employed: "attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity" AND "transcranial magnetic stimulation", "attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity" AND "transcranial direct current stimulation"...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
M Kölch, P L Plener
Pharmacotherapeutic interventions are available for most psychiatric disorders in children. Evidence for these interventions varies, depending on the targeted disorders. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a sound database on efficacy and safety of medication exists. For other common disorders or psychopathological phenomena like disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or autism, data on efficacy and safety are much scarcer. This selective review aims to provide an overview about current psychopharmacological interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
Sara Mostafalou, Mohammad Abdollahi
Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Shari L Hutchison, Jaswinder K Ghuman, Harinder S Ghuman, Irina Karpov, James M Schuster
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders and is associated with higher incidence of comorbid oppositional or conduct, mood, anxiety, pervasive developmental, and substance-use disorders. Comorbid mental health conditions may alter the presence of symptoms and treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD, may be prescribed for individuals with ADHD and comorbid conditions despite some risk for certain undesirable side effects and lower effectiveness for the treatment of ADHD than stimulants...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
F Xavier Castellanos, Yuta Aoki
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) without an explicit task, i.e., resting state fMRI, of individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is growing rapidly. Early studies were unaware of the vulnerability of this method to even minor degrees of head motion, a major concern in the field. Recent efforts are implementing various strategies to address this source of artifact along with a growing set of analytical tools. Availability of the ADHD-200 Consortium dataset, a large-scale multi-site repository, is facilitating increasingly sophisticated approaches...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Ulf Jonsson, Iman Alaie, Anna Löfgren Wilteus, Eric Zander, Peter B Marschik, David Coghill, Sven Bölte
BACKGROUND: An individual's subjective perception of well-being is increasingly recognized as an essential complement to clinical symptomatology and functional impairment in children's mental health. Measurement of quality of life (QoL) has the potential to give due weight to the child's perspective. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY: Our aim was to critically review the current evidence on how childhood mental disorders affect QoL. First, the major challenges in this research field are outlined...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Morgane Besson, Benoît Forget
Although smoking prevalence has declined in recent years, certain subpopulations continue to smoke at disproportionately high rates and show resistance to cessation treatments. Individuals showing cognitive and affective impairments, including emotional distress and deficits in attention, memory, and inhibitory control, particularly in the context of psychiatric conditions, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and mood disorders, are at higher risk for tobacco addiction. Nicotine has been shown to improve cognitive and emotional processing in some conditions, including during tobacco abstinence...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Alison S Poulton
OBJECTIVES: This paper reviews the importance of transition to adult services for young people with ADHD. METHOD: Different models are described and evidence sought for their effectiveness in clinical practice. RESULTS: Models of care for children with ADHD include specialised mental health services, individual paediatricians and child and adolescent psychiatrists. Although it might be expected that transition would be to equivalent adult teams or specialists, studies have shown that transition may not run smoothly, and the adult services are frequently inadequate...
September 30, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Rivka L Levin, Jennine S Rawana
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders are common and concerning mental health disorders. There is both empirical and theoretical support for an association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. This systematic review aims to summarize the extant literature on the comorbidity of ADHD and eating disorders across the lifespan, including the influences of sex, age, eating disorder diagnosis, and potential mediators. A total of 37 peer-reviewed studies on diagnosed ADHD and eating disturbances were identified through key research databases...
September 22, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Emma S Rathkey, Alison McCallum
Prescription stimulants, including methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) and amphetamine compounds (e.g., dextroamphetamine; Adderall), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are classified by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as Schedule II medications because of their high potential for abuse and dependence (Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Despite the potential health and judicial consequences, misuse of prescription stimulants, typically defined as taking stimulants without a valid prescription, or use of stimulants other than as prescribed, has become a serious problem in the United States and abroad, especially on college campuses...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Yuncheng Zhu, Daoliang Yang, Weidong Ji, Tianming Huang, Lianxue Xue, Xixi Jiang, Liangliang Chen, Fang Wang
The prefrontal cortex is the superlative structure of brain that needs the longest developmental and maturational duration that highlights the region of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in neuroimaging studies. Prefrontal cortex functions generate enormously complex and its abundant feedback neurocircuitries with subcortical structures such as striatum and thalamus established through dual neural fibers. These microneurocircuitries are called corticostriatothalamocortical (CSTC) circuits. The CSTC circuits paly an essential role in flexible behaviors...
2016: BioMed Research International
Charles E Gaudet, Lisa L Weyandt
OBJECTIVE: Computerized neuropsychological assessment of concussion has rapidly expanded and Immediate Post-Concussion and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is among the most commonly used measures in this domain. ImPACT was primarily developed for use with athletic populations but continues to expand beyond athletics to settings such as the workplace and schools where motivational dispositions may vary. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of existing research investigating the prevalence of invalid baseline results and the effectiveness of ImPACT's embedded invalidity indicators in detecting suspect effort...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Andrea G Edlow
There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring...
September 29, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
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