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Review and adhd

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334570/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-disordered-eating-behaviour-a-systematic-review-and-a-framework-for-future-research
#1
REVIEW
Panagiota Kaisari, Colin T Dourish, Suzanne Higgs
Preliminary findings suggest that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be associated with disordered eating behaviour, but whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and specific types of disordered eating behaviour is unclear. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether specific features associated with ADHD are differentially associated with disordered eating behaviour. A systematic review of seventy-five studies was conducted to evaluate the potential association between ADHD symptomatology and disordered eating behaviour and to provide an estimate of the strength of evidence for any association...
March 6, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334461/profile-of-children-diagnosed-with-a-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-a-retrospective-chart-review
#2
Natasha Reid, Doug Shelton, Judith Warner, Frances O'Callaghan, Sharon Dawe
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a significant public health concern, and growing recognition in Australia led to the establishment of a specialist service for young children. The aim of the current study was to report on the diagnostic profile of a group of children who attended the service, to document the extent to which there were comorbid diagnoses and to provide information on the neurocognitive functioning of the children. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a retrospective chart review conducted by the diagnostic service...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332146/physiological-substrates-of-executive-functioning-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#3
REVIEW
Bailey A Munro, Lisa L Weyandt, Lily E Hall, Danielle R Oster, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Benjamin G Kuhar
Executive function (EF) is a multifaceted construct that has been defined as a set of higher-order cognitive processes that allow for flexibility, self-regulation, strategic planning, and goal-directed behaviors. EFs have been studied in numerous clinical disorders using a variety of neuropsychological tasks and, more recently, neuroimaging techniques. The underlying physiological substrates of EF were historically attributed to the frontal lobes; however, recent studies suggest more widespread involvement of additional brain regions...
March 22, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314458/facilitating-transition-from-high-school-and-special-education-to-adult-life-focus-on-youth-with-learning-disorders-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-speech-language-impairments
#4
REVIEW
Lee I Ascherman, Julia Shaftel
Youth with learning disorders, speech/language disorders, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may experience significant struggles during the transition from high school to postsecondary education and employment. These disorders often occur in combination or concurrently with behavioral and emotional difficulties. Incomplete evaluation may not fully identify the factors underlying academic and personal challenges. This article reviews these disorders, the role of special education law for transitional age youth in public schools, and the Americans with Disabilities Act in postsecondary educational and employment settings...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289903/gut-microbiota-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-new-perspectives-for-a-challenging-condition
#5
REVIEW
María Carmen Cenit, Isabel Campillo Nuevo, Pilar Codoñer-Franch, Timothy G Dinan, Yolanda Sanz
A bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain (gut-brain axis) is well recognized with the gut microbiota viewed as a key regulator of this cross-talk. Currently, a body of preclinical and to a lesser extent epidemiological evidence supports the notion that host-microbe interactions play a key role in brain development and function and in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. Early life events and shifts away from traditional lifestyles are known to impact gut microbiota composition and function and, thereby, may increase the risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 13, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272733/-an-update-on-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-lisdexamphetamine-and-extended-release-guanfacine
#6
REVIEW
D Martin Fernandez-Mayoralas, A L Fernandez-Perrone, N Munoz-Jareno, A Fernandez-Jaen
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in the child population. Its treatment is complex and must include psychoeducational, environmental and pharmacological measures. In recent years, the main novelties as regards its pharmacological treatment have been the appearance of lisdexamphetamine and extended-release guanfacine. AIMS: The increase in the number of drugs available for the treatment of ADHD makes it possible to treat and cover a very wide range of different clinical situations...
March 13, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272130/pharmacological-treatment-of-adhd-in-addicted-patients-what-does-the-literature-tell-us
#7
Pieter-Jan Carpentier, Frances R Levin
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Evaluate pharmacologic treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with substance use disorder (SUD) • Assess the causes of the diminished efficacy of ADHD medication in patients with comorbid SUD OBJECTIVE: Substance use disorder (SUD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur, and the presence of ADHD complicates the treatment of the addiction...
March 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271921/parent-based-diagnosis-of-adhd-is-as-accurate-as-a-teacher-based-diagnosis-of-adhd
#8
Adam Bied, Joseph Biederman, Stephen Faraone
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature evaluating the psychometric properties of parent and teacher informants relative to a gold-standard ADHD diagnosis in pediatric populations. METHOD: We included studies that included both a parent and teacher informant, a gold-standard diagnosis, and diagnostic accuracy metrics. Potential confounds were evaluated. We also assessed the 'OR' and the 'AND' rules for combining informant reports. RESULTS: Eight articles met inclusion criteria...
March 8, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265323/bladder-and-bowel-dysfunction-in-children-an-update-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-a-common-but-underdiagnosed-pediatric-problem
#9
REVIEW
Joana Dos Santos, Roberto I Lopes, Martin A Koyle
Bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) describes a spectrum of lower urinary symptoms (LUTS) accompanied by fecal elimination issues that manifest primarily by constipation and/or encopresis. This increasingly common entity is a potential cause of significant physical and psychosocial burden for children and families. BBD is commonly associated with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), which at its extreme may lead to renal scarring and kidney failure. Additionally, BBD is frequently seen in children diagnosed with behavioural and neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
January 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262140/additive-effects-of-neurofeedback-on-the-treatment-of-adhd-a-randomized-controlled-study
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Eun-Jeong Lee, Chul-Ho Jung
Neurofeedback (NF) has been identified as a "possibly efficacious" treatment in current evidence-based reviews; therefore, more research is needed to determine its effects. The current study examined the potential additive effect of NF for children diagnosed with ADHD beginning a medication trial first. Thirty-six children (6-12 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were randomly assigned to an NF with medication (NF condition) or a medication only condition. Children in the NF group attended 20 twice-weekly sessions...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262134/interventions-in-adhd-a-comparative-review-of-stimulant-medications-and-behavioral-therapies
#11
REVIEW
Adnan Rajeh, Shabbir Amanullah, K Shivakumar, Julie Cole
ADHD has a prevalence of approximately 10% in children with evidence supporting it's continuance into adulthood. This has a significant impact on how we address treatment at substance abuse facilities and also has implications for personal and occupational functioning. A lack of evidence to support the superiority of any one intervention over the other has created difficulties for both clinicians and parents. A recent review highlights long-term and short-term outcomes (Craig et al., 2015). This article reviews the benefits and pitfalls of both pharmacological interventions and behavioral therapies in the treatment of ADHD...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259864/-an-attempt-to-identify-22q11-2-microdeletions-in-samples-of-the-hungarian-schizophrenia-dna-bank-by-multiplex-ligation-based-probe-amplification-mlpa-literature-review-methodology-and-results
#12
Izabella Klein, Katalin Szocs, Katalin Vincze, Judit Benkovits, Szilvia Somogyi, Levente Herman, Janos M Rethelyi
Schizophrenia is a severe debilitating psychiatric disorder, with a typical onset in adolescence or early adulthood. This condition is characterized by heterogeneous symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, disorganized behaviour, affective flattening, and social isolation) and a life-time prevalence of 0.5-1.2%. In spite of the efforts to uncover the etiology of the disorder, its pathogenesis and neurobiological background are poorly understood. Given the high heritability in schizophrenia, genetic research remains an important area of focus...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258319/comparative-efficacy-and-safety-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-pharmacotherapies-including-guanfacine-extended-release-a-mixed-treatment-comparison
#13
REVIEW
Alain Joseph, Rajeev Ayyagari, Meng Xie, Sean Cai, Jipan Xie, Michael Huss, Vanja Sikirica
This study compared the clinical efficacy and safety of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pharmacotherapy in children and adolescents 6-17 years of age. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmacologic monotherapies among children and adolescents with ADHD. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted to compare change in symptoms using the ADHD Rating Scale Version IV (ADHD-RS-IV), Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) response, all-cause discontinuation, and adverse event-related discontinuation...
March 3, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256697/-discriminatory-power-of-executive-functions-and-of-theory-of-mind-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-rationale-for-intervention
#14
A Miranda-Casas, C Berenguer-Forner, B Rosello-Miranda, I Baixauli-Fortea, R Rosello-Miranda, C Colomer-Diago
INTRODUCTION: Executive functions and theory of mind (ToM) deficits are present in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying the magnitude of the association between executive functions and ToM is important for understanding the disorder. AIMS: This study adopts a naturalistic evaluation approach to analyze the executive functions versus ToM ability to discriminate between children with ADHD and typically developing children and to identify the degree of association between deficits in the components of executive functions (behavioral regulation and metacognitive) and ToM...
February 24, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256695/-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-from-a-neurodevelopmental-perspective
#15
A Fernandez-Jaen, S Lopez-Martin, J Albert, D Martin Fernandez-Mayoralas, A L Fernandez-Perrone, B Calleja-Perez, S Lopez-Arribas
INTRODUCTION: Neurodevelopmental disorders cover a heterogeneous group of disorders such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders or specific learning difficulties, among others. The neurobiological and clinical variables seem to clearly justify the recent inclusion of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a neurodevelopmental disorder in the international classifications. DEVELOPMENT: Neurodevelopmental disorders are characterised by their dimensional nature and the distribution of the different symptoms in the population...
February 24, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256689/-neuropsychology-of-tourette-s-disorder-cognition-neuroimaging-and-creativity
#16
R Espert, M Gadea, M Alino, J Oltra-Cucarella
INTRODUCTION: Tourette's disorder is the result of fronto-striatal brain dysfunction affecting people of all ages, with a debut in early childhood and continuing into adolescence and adulthood. DEVELOPMENT: This article reviews the main cognitive, functional neuroimaging and creativity-related studies in a disorder characterized by an excess of dopamine in the brain. CONCLUSIONS: Given the special cerebral configuration of these patients, neuropsychological alterations, especially in executive functions, should be expected...
February 24, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236285/cardiovascular-effects-of-stimulant-and-non-stimulant-medication-for-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-trials-of-methylphenidate-amphetamines-and-atomoxetine
#17
REVIEW
Leonie Hennissen, Mireille J Bakker, Tobias Banaschewski, Sara Carucci, David Coghill, Marina Danckaerts, Ralf W Dittmann, Chris Hollis, Hanna Kovshoff, Suzanne McCarthy, Peter Nagy, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Ian C K Wong, Alessandro Zuddas, Eric Rosenthal, Jan K Buitelaar
BACKGROUND: Many children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are treated with stimulant and non-stimulant medication. ADHD medication may be associated with cardiovascular effects. It is important to identify whether mean group effects translate into clinically relevant increases for some individual patients, and/or increase the risk for serious cardiovascular adverse events such as stroke or sudden death. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate potential cardiovascular effects of these treatments, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamines (AMP), and atomoxetine (ATX) on diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP, SBP) and heart rate (HR) in children and adolescents with ADHD...
March 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229395/transcranial-magnetic-and-direct-current-stimulation-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Mustafa Q Hameed, Sameer C Dhamne, Roman Gersner, Harper L Kaye, Lindsay M Oberman, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alexander Rotenberg
Promising results in adult neurologic and psychiatric disorders are driving active research into transcranial brain stimulation techniques, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in childhood and adolescent syndromes. TMS has realistic utility as an experimental tool tested in a range of pediatric neuropathologies such as perinatal stroke, depression, Tourette syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). tDCS has also been tested as a treatment for a number of pediatric neurologic conditions, including ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223809/a-review-of-the-efficacy-of-atomoxetine-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adult-patients-with-common-comorbidities
#19
REVIEW
David B Clemow, Chris Bushe, Michele Mancini, Michael H Ossipov, Himanshu Upadhyaya
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that is often diagnosed during childhood, but has also increasingly been recognized to occur in adults. Importantly, up to 52% of children (including adolescents) and 87% of adults with ADHD also have a comorbid psychiatric disorder. The presence of a comorbid disorder has the potential to impact diagnosis and could affect treatment outcomes. Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant treatment for ADHD. Despite numerous published studies regarding efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD in patients with comorbid disorders, there is limited information about the impact of individual common comorbid disorders on the efficacy of atomoxetine for ADHD, especially with regard to adults...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220059/disturbance-in-maternal-environment-leads-to-abnormal-synaptic-instability-during-neuronal-circuitry-development
#20
REVIEW
Yusuke Hatanaka, Tomohiro Kabuta, Keiji Wada
Adverse maternal environment during gestation and lactation can have negative effects on the developing brain that persist into adulthood and result in behavioral impairment. Recent studies of human and animal models suggest epidemiological and experimental association between disturbances in maternal environments during brain development and the occurrence of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, and neurodegenerative diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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