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Review and adhd

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432778/cross-species-studies-of-cognition-relevant-to-drug-discovery-a-translational-approach
#1
REVIEW
T W Robbins
This Review advances the case that bidirectional, cross-species translation of findings from experimental animals to and from humans is an important strategy for drug discovery. Animal models of mental disorders require appropriate behavioural or cognitive outcome variables that can be generalized cross-species. One example is the treatment of impulsive behaviour in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with stimulant drugs. Performance on the stop signal reaction task as an index of impulsivity is improved both in healthy human volunteers and in patients with adult ADHD by stimulant drugs and also by the selective noradrenergic reuptake blocker atomoxetine...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429134/systematic-review-of-quality-of-life-and-functional-outcomes-in-randomized-placebo-controlled-studies-of-medications-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
REVIEW
David R Coghill, Tobias Banaschewski, César Soutullo, Matthew G Cottingham, Alessandro Zuddas
Children, adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience functional impairment and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in addition to symptoms of inattention/hyperactivity-impulsivity. To synthesize qualitatively the published evidence from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy on functional impairment or HRQoL in patients with ADHD, a systematic PubMed searching and screening strategy was designed to identify journal articles meeting pre-specified criteria...
April 20, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428763/adhd-lifestyles-and-comorbidities-a-call-for-an-holistic-perspective-from-medical-to-societal-intervening-factors
#3
REVIEW
Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Andreja Erman, Katerina Schonova, Jiri Raboch, Michal Goetz
The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424947/neurodevelopmental-effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs
#4
Marissa Kellogg, Kimford J Meador
Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during critical periods of development may induce transient or long-lasting neurodevelopmental deficits across cognitive, motor and behavioral domains. The developing nervous system may endure prolonged chronic exposure to AEDs during pregnancy (in utero) or during childhood, which can lead to neurodevelopmental defects such as congenital neural tube defects, lower IQ, language deficits, autism and ADHD. To date, valproate is the most widely recognized AED to significantly negatively affect neurodevelopment, and demonstrates greater adverse effects than any other AEDs that have been assessed...
April 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424381/-the-relationship-between-physical-activity-and-executive-functions-among-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Martina Miklós, Judit Futó, Judit Balázs
The connection between physical activity and executive functions has recently started to emerge as a new focus of research within the field of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD). In the present paper we summarise the major findings of these studies concentrating specifically on paediatric population. We present the results of six studies that focus on the connection between acute physical activity and executive functions and seven others that examine the relationship between chronic physical activity and executive functions in children with ADHD...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418789/transitions-and-motivations-for-substance-misuse-in-prison-inmates-with-adhd-and-conduct-disorder-validation-of-a-new-instrument
#6
Susan Young, Rafael A González, Kim Wolff, Laura Mutch, Isabella Malet-Lambert, Gisli H Gudjonsson
OBJECTIVE: There is a reasonable theoretical base for understanding the possible causes and motivations behind substance misuse and its dependency. There is a need for a reliable and valid measure that delineates the markers of substance use from its initiation and identifies different motivations for drug use transitioning, maintenance, and dependency. We addressed this gap in the United Kingdom by examining and validating the Substance Transitions in Addiction Rating Scale (STARS). METHODS: For this review, 390 male prisoners were screened for conduct disorder and assessed with a clinical diagnostic interview for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413936/processing-speed-can-monitor-stimulant-medication-effects-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-disorder-with-hyperactivity
#7
Niels Peter Nielsen, Elisabeth H Wiig, Svante Bäck, Jan Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Treatment responses to methylphenidate by adults with ADHD are generally monitored against DSM-IV/DSM-V symptomatology, rating scales or interviews during reviews. AIMS: To evaluate the use of single- and dual-dimension processing-speed and efficiency measures to monitor the effects of pharmacological treatment with methylphenidate after a short period off medication. METHODS: A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT) monitored the effects of immediate-release methylphenidate in 40 previously diagnosed and medicated adults with ADHD...
May 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412445/methylphenidate-effects-in-the-young-brain-friend-or-foe
#8
REVIEW
Sara Loureiro-Vieira, Vera Marisa Costa, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho, João Paulo Soares Capela
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatry disorders in children and adolescents, and methylphenidate (MPH) is a first-line stimulant drug available worldwide for its treatment. Despite the proven therapeutic efficacy, concerns have been raised regarding the possible consequences of chronic MPH exposure during childhood and adolescence. Disturbances in the neurodevelopment at these crucial stages are major concerns given the unknown future life consequences...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401487/perception-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Philippa Hüpen, Stefanie M De Vries, Morgana Müller, Francien M Kok, Janneke Koerts, Joost Heutink, Lara Tucha, Manfred Gerlach, Oliver Tucha
A large body of research demonstrated that individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from various neuropsychological deficits. In contrast, less is known and only divergent evidence exists on perceptual functions of individuals with ADHD. This is problematic as neuropsychological and perceptual functions are closely interrelated and are often difficult to disentangle in behavioral assessments. This study presents the conduct and results of a systematic literature review on perceptual functions in children and adults with ADHD...
April 11, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401048/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-suicide-a-systematic-review
#10
Judit Balazs, Agnes Kereszteny
AIM: To investigate suicidality and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this paper aims to systematically review the literature as an extension of previous reviews. METHODS: We searched five databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Psychinfo, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) with two categories of search terms: (1) suicide; suicidal; suicide behavior; suicide attempt; suicidal thought; and (2) ADHD. RESULTS: The search resulted 26 articles. There is a positive association between ADHD and suicidality in both sexes and in all age groups...
March 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398986/living-with-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-adulthood-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#11
Merete B Bjerrum, Preben U Pedersen, Palle Larsen
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD, people diagnosed with ADHD do not necessarily regard themselves as being impaired. However, it is unclear how adults with ADHD experience and manage their symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on how adults experience living with ADHD...
April 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393639/the-safety-of-extended-release-drug-formulations-for-the-treatment-of-adhd
#12
Ann Childress
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder affecting millions of patients worldwide. Effective treatments have been available for more than 60 years in the form of immediate-release (IR) stimulants However, stimulants have a high risk for abuse and are associated with adverse effects Including elevated blood pressure and heart rate, insomnia and decreased appetite. IR formulations also require multiple daily dosing. The search for improved safety, tolerability and convenience has led to the development of multiple extended-release (ER) stimulant and non-stimulant formulations...
April 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393063/neuropsychological-and-psychiatric-outcomes-in-dextro-transposition-of-the-great-arteries-across-the-lifespan-a-state-of-the-art-review
#13
REVIEW
Leila Kasmi, Damien Bonnet, Michèle Montreuil, David Kalfa, Nikoletta Geronikola, David C Bellinger, Johanna Calderon
Advances in prenatal diagnosis, perioperative management, and postoperative care have dramatically increased the population of survivors of neonatal and infant heart surgery. The high survival rate of these patients into adulthood has exposed the alarming prevalence of long-term neuropsychological and psychiatric morbidities. Dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) is one of the most extensively studied cyanotic congenital heart defect (CHD) with regard to neurodevelopmental outcomes. Landmark studies have described a common neurodevelopmental and behavioral phenotype associated with d-TGA...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391425/safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-drugs-for-treating-behavioural-insomnia-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review-with-methodological-quality-assessment
#14
REVIEW
Shweta Anand, Henry Tong, Frank M C Besag, Esther W Chan, Samuele Cortese, Ian C K Wong
OBJECTIVE: A large proportion of paediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have associated sleep problems which not only affect the child's wellbeing but also impact family functioning. Management of sleep problems is consequently an important aspect of overall ADHD management in paediatric patients. Although some drugs are being used off-label for the management of paediatric insomnia, there is scant clinical evidence supporting their use. Our aim was to identify and assess the quality of published studies reporting the safety, tolerability and efficacy of drugs used for treating behavioural insomnia in children with ADHD...
April 8, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387067/clinical-and-genetic-aspects-of-the-15q11-2-bp1-bp2-microdeletion-disorder
#15
M G Butler
BACKGROUND: The 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 microdeletion (Burnside-Butler susceptibility locus) is an emerging condition with over 200 individuals reported in the literature. TUBGCP5, CFYIP1, NIPA1 and NIPA2 genes are located in this chromosome 15 region and when disturbed individually are known to cause neurological, cognitive or behavioural problems as well as playing a role in both Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. These syndromes were the first examples in humans of genomic imprinting and typically caused by a deletion but involving the distal chromosome 15q11-q13 breakpoint BP3 and proximally placed breakpoints BP1 or BP2 of different parental origin...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383998/effectiveness-and-side-effect-profile-of-stimulant-medication-for-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-youth-with-epilepsy
#16
Mary C Kral, Michelle D Lally, Andrea D Boan
OBJECTIVES: This clinical case series examined the effectiveness and potential side effects associated with stimulant medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 20 youth with epilepsy. METHODS: Response to stimulant medication was examined through symptom reduction on the Conners-Third Edition: Parent Rating Scale, Short Form [Conner 3-P(S)], which was administered to caregivers before initiation of treatment and following dosage titration to achieve therapeutic efficacy...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382197/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-medication-use-factors-involved-in-prescribing-safety-aspects-and-outcomes
#17
REVIEW
Jose Martinez-Raga, Amparo Ferreros, Carlos Knecht, Raquel de Alvaro, Eloisa Carabal
While treatment of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on a multimodal approach that combines medication with specific psychological interventions, pharmacotherapy alone is generally considered an essential and cost-effective element. This paper aims to comprehensively and critically review factors involved in prescribing and medication use in individuals diagnosed with ADHD, focusing on the difficulties facing patients with ADHD seeking treatment, as well as the safety and tolerability aspects of ADHD pharmacotherapies, with particular attention on the cardiovascular adverse events and the potential risk of misuse or diversion of ADHD medications...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375718/trait-impulsivity-and-the-externalizing-spectrum
#18
Theodore P Beauchaine, Aimee R Zisner, Colin L Sauder
This article reviews evidence that trait impulsivity-expressed early in life as the hyperactive-impulsive and combined presentations of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-is a bottom-up, subcortically mediated vulnerability to all externalizing disorders. This vulnerability arises from deficient mesolimbic dopamine responding, which imbues psychological states (irritability, discontentment) that motivate excessive approach behavior (hyperactivity, impulsivity). Through complex interactions with (a) aversive motivational states that arise from largely independent subcortical systems, (b) emotion regulatory mechanisms that arise from top-down, cortical modulation of subcortical neural function, and (c) environmental risk factors that shape and maintain emotion dysregulation, trait impulsivity confers vulnerability to increasingly severe externalizing behaviors across development...
March 30, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373848/the-current-status-of-the-ketogenic-diet-in-psychiatry
#19
REVIEW
Emmanuelle C S Bostock, Kenneth C Kirkby, Bruce V M Taylor
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) has been used in treatment-resistant epilepsy since the 1920s. It has been researched in a variety of neurological conditions in both animal models and human trials. The aim of this review is to clarify the potential role of KD in psychiatry. METHODS: Narrative review of electronic databases PubMED, PsychINFO, and Scopus. RESULTS: The search yielded 15 studies that related the use of KD in mental disorders including anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372995/targeting-aggression-in-severe-mental-illness-the-predictive-role-of-genetic-epigenetic-and-metabolomic-markers
#20
REVIEW
Mirko Manchia, Vassilios Fanos
Human aggression is a complex and widespread social behavior that is overrepresented in individuals affected by severe mental illness (SMI), such as schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A substantial proportion of the liability threshold for aggressive behavior is determined by genetic factors, and environmental moderators might precipitate the manifestation of this behavioral phenotype through modification of gene expression via the epigenetic machinery...
April 2, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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