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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035972/hyperammonemia-and-proteostasis-in-cirrhosis
#1
Srinivasan Dasarathy, Maria Hatzoglou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skeletal muscle loss or sarcopenia is a frequent complication of cirrhosis that adversely affects clinical outcomes. As skeletal muscle is the largest store of proteins in the body, proteostasis or protein homeostasis is required for maintenance of muscle mass. This review will focus on disordered skeletal muscle proteostasis in liver disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased skeletal muscle uptake of ammonia initiates responses that result in disordered proteostasis including impaired protein synthesis and increased autophagy...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033774/hemothorax-following-uncomplicated-endoscopic-variceal-sclerotherapy-and-ligation-for-esophageal-varices
#2
Tomoko Ochiai, Yukiomi Nakade, Rena Kitano, Shunsuke Kato, Kazumasa Sakamoto, Tadahisa Inoue, Yuji Kobayashi, Norimitsu Ishii, Tomohiko Ohashi, Yoshio Sumida, Kiyoaki Ito, Haruhisa Nakao, Chihiro Furuta, Motoki Yano, Masashi Yoneda
Endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy and ligation are standard treatment modalities used for the management of esophageal varices. Reportedly, sclerotherapy and ligation are associated with complications such as hematuria, pulmonary thrombus formation, pleural effusion, renal dysfunction, and esophageal stenosis. However, hemothorax following sclerotherapy and ligation has not yet been reported. We treated a patient who presented with liver cirrhosis and polycythemia vera and later developed hemothorax following the above-mentioned procedures...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025006/increased-risk-of-subdural-hematoma-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#3
Yi-Ting Lin, Yu-Kai Cheng, Cheng-Li Lin, I-Kuan Wang
Background: Subdural hematoma (SDH) is associated with a high mortality rate. The risk of SDH in cirrhotic patients has not been well studied. Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the risk of SDH in cirrhotic patients. Design: A retrospective study from a universal insurance claims database of Taiwan. Methods: A cohort of 9455 liver cirrhotic patients from 2000 to 2011 and an age-and sex-matched control cohort of 35992 subjects without cirrhosis were identified...
August 24, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024353/exercise-and-physical-activity-for-patients-with-esld-improving-functional-status-and-sarcopenia-while-on-the-transplant-waitlist
#4
REVIEW
Andrés Duarte-Rojo, Astrid Ruiz-Margáin, Aldo J Montaño-Loza, Ricardo Macías-Rodríguez, Arny Ferrando, W Ray Kim
Sarcopenia and physical deconditioning are frequent complications in patients with cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease (ESLD). They are the end result of impaired dietary intake, chronic inflammation, altered macro- and micronutrient metabolism, and low physical activity. Frailty is the end result of prolonged sarcopenia and physical deconditioning. It severely affects a patient's functional status, and presents in about 1 in 5 patients on the liver transplant (LT) waitlist. Sarcopenia, poor physical fitness/cardiopulmonary endurance, and frailty are all associated with increased mortality in ESLD...
October 11, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024228/de-novo-hepatocellular-carcinoma-post-multivisceral-transplantation-in-a-child
#5
P Tran, S Zhou, L Wang, M Finegold, L Mascarenas, S Alexopolous, Y Genyk, N Kerkar
De novo hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) post-transplantation in patients without viral hepatitis is extremely rare, with only three reported adult cases in the English literature. Here, we present a case of de novo HCC that developed in a 7-year-old female, who at 8 months of age received a liver, small bowel, spleen, and pancreas transplantation 6.5 years ago for gastroschisis and total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-related cirrhosis. The post-transplant course was complicated by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, and subsequent development of multifocal EBV-associated post-transplant smooth muscle tumors (EBV-PTSMT) in the small bowel 1 year and 10 months after transplantation, respectively...
November 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023881/review-article-the-role-of-the-microcirculation-in-liver-cirrhosis
#6
REVIEW
T Davies, S Wythe, J O'Beirne, D Martin, E Gilbert-Kawai
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic microvascular derangements and microcirculatory dysfunction are key in the development of liver cirrhosis and its associated complications. While much has been documented relating to cirrhosis and the dysfunction of the microcirculation in the liver parenchyma, far less is known about the state of the extrahepatic microcirculation and the role this may have in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure in end stage liver cirrhosis. AIM: To provide an update on the role of the microcirculation in the pathophysiology of cirrhosis and its associated complications and briefly discuss some of the imaging techniques which may be used to directly investigate the microcirculation...
November 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023811/placental-growth-factor-inhibition-targets-pulmonary-angiogenesis-and-represents-a-novel-therapy-for-hepatopulmonary-syndrome-in-mice
#7
Sarah Raevens, Anja Geerts, Annelies Paridaens, Sander Lefere, Xavier Verhelst, Anne Hoorens, Jo Van Dorpe, Tania Maes, Ken R Bracke, Christophe Casteleyn, Bart Jonckx, Thomas Horvatits, Valentin Fuhrmann, Hans Van Vlierberghe, Christophe Van Steenkiste, Lindsey Devisscher, Isabelle Colle
Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe complication of cirrhosis with increased risk of mortality. Pulmonary microvascular alterations are key features of HPS, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood, and studies on HPS are limited to rats. Placental growth factor (PlGF), a pro-angiogenic molecule that is selectively involved in pathological angiogenesis, may play an important role in HPS development, however, its role has never been investigated. In this study, we validated an HPS model by common bile duct ligation (CBDL) in mice, investigated the kinetic changes in pulmonary angiogenesis and inflammation during HPS development, and provide evidence for a novel therapeutic strategy by targeting pathological angiogenesis...
October 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994887/hepatic-hydrothorax-about-a-hospital-serie-of-63-cases
#8
Leila Mouelhi, Oussama Daboussi, Nadia Cheffi, Kaouther El Jery, Yosra Said, Sana Khedher, Mohamed Salem, Radhouane Dabbèche, Fatma Houissa, Taoufik Najjar
BACKGROUND: Hepatic hydrothorax is a less common complication of cirrhosis with an estimated prevalence of 10- 15%. In the vast majority of cases, ascites are also present but significant pleural effusion may develop in patients without ascites. Hepatic hydrothorax is associated with cirrhosis whatever its etiology. The prognosis of hepatic hydrothorax remains unclear and is closely related to available therapeutic options. The aim of our study is to determine the prevalence of hydrothorax in cirrhotic patients, detail its clinical and therapeutic characteristics, and study the evolutive profile of cirrhotic patients with hydrothorax by comparing it to those without hydrothorax...
December 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994870/predictive-scores-of-early-mortality-from-variceal-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-cirrhotic-patients
#9
Leila Mouelhi, Hend Ayadi, Yosra Zaimi, Oussama Daboussi, Mohamed Salem, Radhouane Debbech, Fatma Houissa, Taoufik Najjar
INTRODUCTION: The variceal bleeding, main complication of portal hypertension during cirrhosis, is associated with high early mortality riskestimated between 15 and 20%. This highlights the necessity of predictive models that allow identifying high-risk patients raising the issue of amore aggressive therapeutic care. OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of four scores for the prediction of cirrhotic patients' high early mortality risk due to digestive hemorrhageand to compare them to the Child-Pugh reference score...
November 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993401/diagnosis-and-management-of-noncardiac-complications-in-adults-with-congenital-heart-disease-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#10
REVIEW
George K Lui, Arwa Saidi, Ami B Bhatt, Luke J Burchill, Jason F Deen, Michael G Earing, Michael Gewitz, Jonathan Ginns, Joseph D Kay, Yuli Y Kim, Adrienne H Kovacs, Eric V Krieger, Fred M Wu, Shi-Joon Yoo
Life expectancy and quality of life for those born with congenital heart disease (CHD) have greatly improved over the past 3 decades. While representing a great advance for these patients, who have been able to move from childhood to successful adult lives in increasing numbers, this development has resulted in an epidemiological shift and a generation of patients who are at risk of developing chronic multisystem disease in adulthood. Noncardiac complications significantly contribute to the morbidity and mortality of adults with CHD...
October 9, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993387/risk-and-adverse-outcomes-of-fractures-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-two-nationwide-retrospective-cohort-studies
#11
Ta-Liang Chen, Chao-Shun Lin, Chun-Chuan Shih, Yu-Feng Huang, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Chih-Hsing Wu, Yih-Giun Cherng, Chien-Chang Liao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate fracture risk and post-fracture outcomes in patients with and without liver cirrhosis (LC). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study and nested fracture cohort study. SETTING: This study was based on Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database that included information on: (1) 3941 patients aged 20 years and older newly diagnosed with LC between 2000 and 2003; (2) 688290 hospitalised fracture patients aged 20 years and older between 2006 and 2013...
October 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987478/clinical-impact-of-intrapulmonary-vascular-dilatation-in-liver-transplant-candidates
#12
Hilary M DuBrock, Michael J Krowka, Kimberly A Forde, Karen Krok, Mamta Patel, Tiffany Sharkoski, Michael Sprys, Grace Lin, Jae K Oh, Carl D Mottram, Paul D Scanlon, Michael B Fallon, Steven M Kawut
BACKGROUND: Intrapulmonary vascular dilatations (IPVD) are frequently detected in patients with liver disease by the delayed appearance of microbubbles on contrast-enhanced echocardiography. IPVD with an elevated alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient define hepatopulmonary syndrome, however the importance of IPVD in the absence of abnormal gas exchange is unknown. We aimed to determine the clinical impact of IPVD in patients with liver disease. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study within the Pulmonary Vascular Complications of Liver Disease (PVCLD2) Study, a multicenter prospective cohort study of patients being evaluated for liver transplantation...
October 5, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987258/an-update-on-the-treatment-and-follow-up-of-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#13
REVIEW
Blaire E Burman, Manan A Jhaveri, Kris V Kowdley
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by chronic granulomatous lymphocytic cholangitis of the small bile ducts. PBC was a leading indication for liver transplant in the United States; with early diagnosis and treatment, the majority of patients with PBC have a normal life expectancy. Pathogenesis involves inflammatory damage of bile duct epithelium secondary to innate and adaptive immune responses, and toxicity from accumulated bile acids. Cholestasis and disease progression can lead to cirrhosis...
November 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986027/cystic-fibrosis-related-cirrhosis
#14
Daniel H Leung, Michael R Narkewicz
While liver involvement is common in cystic fibrosis, the major liver disorder with impact on the clinical outcome of individuals with CF is the development of multilobular cirrhosis with progression to portal hypertension. Interestingly, this is a disorder primarily of children and adolescents. We review the proposed pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, medical and surgical management, and complications of CF cirrhosis.
September 16, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983725/liver-transplantation-for-biliary-atresia-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Mureo Kasahara, Koji Umeshita, Seisuke Sakamoto, Akinari Fukuda, Hiroyuki Furukawa, Shinji Uemoto
Biliary atresia (BA) is an idiopathic neonatal cholangiopathy characterized by progressive inflammatory obliteration of the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts. Although the Kasai operation has dramatically improved the outcomes in children with BA, most patients with BA eventually require liver transplantation (LT) even after undergoing a successful Kasai procedure. The Japanese LT Society (JLTS) was established in 1980 to characterize and follow trends in patient characteristics and the graft survival among all liver transplant patients in Japan...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983675/efficacy-and-safety-of-sofosbuvir-plus-ribavirin-for-treatment-of-cirrhotic-patients-with-genotype-4-hepatitis-c-virus-in-real-life-clinical-practice
#16
Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Mohamed Sharaf-Eldin, Shaimaa Soliman, Asem Elfert, Rehab Badawi, Youssef K Ahmad
Egypt has the highest hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in the world. Sofosbuvir is a new highly effective drug for treatment of HCV infection. Compared to previous treatments, sofosbuvir-based regimens provide a higher cure rate, fewer side effects, and a two- to fourfold reduced duration of therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral efficacy, safety, and tolerability of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin in Egyptian patients with liver cirrhosis due to chronic HCV infection. We studied 2400 cirrhotic Egyptian patients with chronic HCV infection who were treated with dual therapy with sofosbuvir and ribavirin for 24 weeks...
October 5, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981243/-treatments-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#17
T Gustot
Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases are highly prevalent in Western countries and associated with insulin resitance and metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by lobular inflammation and hepatocellular ballooning, and may be associated with liver fibrosis leading to cirrhosis and its complications as hepatocarcinoma. The presence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus or increased liver enzymes in patients with metabolic syndrome should prompt non-invasive screening (liver ultrasound, serum markers and/or transient elastography) to predict steatosis, NASH and fibrosis...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981166/terlipressin-current-and-emerging-indications-in-chronic-liver-disease
#18
REVIEW
Timothy Papaluca, Paul Gow
Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin that has potent vasoactive properties and has been available for use in most countries for nearly two decades. It has both established roles and emerging indications in the management of complications of decompensated chronic liver disease. We explore historic and emerging literature regarding the use of terlipressin for a range of indications including hepatorenal syndrome, portal hypertensive bleeding and disruptions in sodium homeostasis. Novel methods of infusion based terlipressin administration including the beneficial effect in reduction of adverse events are explored, in addition to new indications for the use of terlipressin in decompensated cirrhosis in an outpatient setting...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979154/risks-of-peg-tube-placement-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-associated-ascites
#19
Yasir Al-Abboodi, Ali Ridha, Matthew Fasullo, Tarek H Naguib
This study examined the safety of placing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube in people with liver cirrhosis. The target population was further subdivided into people with ascites (case group) and people without ascites (control). We compare the morbidity and the mortality difference of PEG placement in cirrhotic patients with ascites vs cirrhotic patients without ascites. We then examined multiple factors including sex, race, chronic illness including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and others and their influence on the inpatient mortality of all cirrhotic patients who had PEG placement...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977040/incidence-of-daa-failure-and-the-clinical-impact-of-retreatment-in-real-life-patients-treated-in-the-advanced-stage-of-liver-disease-interim-evaluations-from-the-piter-network
#20
Loreta A Kondili, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Maurizia Rossana Brunetto, Alfredo Di Leo, Andrea Iannone, Teresa Antonia Santantonio, Adele Giammario, Giovanni Raimondo, Roberto Filomia, Carmine Coppola, Daniela Caterina Amoruso, Pierluigi Blanc, Barbara Del Pin, Liliana Chemello, Luisa Cavalletto, Filomena Morisco, Laura Donnarumma, Maria Grazia Rumi, Antonio Gasbarrini, Massimo Siciliano, Marco Massari, Romina Corsini, Barbara Coco, Salvatore Madonia, Marco Cannizzaro, Anna Linda Zignego, Monica Monti, Francesco Paolo Russo, Alberto Zanetto, Marcello Persico, Mario Masarone, Erica Villa, Veronica Bernabucci, Gloria Taliani, Elisa Biliotti, Luchino Chessa, Maria Cristina Pasetto, Pietro Andreone, Marzia Margotti, Giuseppina Brancaccio, Donatella Ieluzzi, Guglielmo Borgia, Emanuela Zappulo, Vincenza Calvaruso, Salvatore Petta, Loredana Falzano, Maria Giovanna Quaranta, Liliana Elena Weimer, Stefano Rosato, Stefano Vella, Edoardo Giovanni Giannini
BACKGROUND: Few data are available on the virological and clinical outcomes of advanced liver disease patients retreated after first-line DAA failure. AIM: To evaluate DAA failure incidence and the retreatment clinical impact in patients treated in the advanced liver disease stage. METHODS: Data on HCV genotype, liver disease severity, and first and second line DAA regimens were prospectively collected in consecutive patients who reached the 12-week post-treatment and retreatment evaluations from January 2015 to December 2016 in 23 of the PITER network centers...
2017: PloS One
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