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Local anaesthesia adjuvant

Madhavi Unmesh Santpur, Govind Marutrao Kahalekar, Nowreen Saraf, Aparna Losari
BACKGROUND: Regional anesthesia is the preferred technique for most of lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries. For decades, lignocaine had been the local anesthetic of choice for spinal anesthesia. Recent studies show that intravenous clonidine and dexmedetomidine can prolong the duration of the spinal anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine is a more suitable adjuvant compared to clonidine due to its more selective α2A receptor agonist activity. AIM: The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine on spinal anesthesia with 0...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Ban Leong Sng, Fahad Javaid Siddiqui, Wan Ling Leong, Pryseley N Assam, Edwin Sy Chan, Kelvin H Tan, Alex T Sia
BACKGROUND: Bupivacaine is an amide local anaesthetic used in hyperbaric and isobaric forms. These are administered intrathecally into the spine to provide regional anaesthesia for caesarean section. Several trials have compared hyperbaric and isobaric bupivacaine but none have conclusively shown the benefit of either. This review was first published in 2013 and updated in 2016. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to:1. Determine the effectiveness of hyperbaric bupivacaine compared to isobaric bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia in women undergoing caesarean section;2...
September 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Francis Codero, Mung'ayi Vitalis, Sharif Thikra
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal adjuvants are added to local anaesthetics to improve the quality of neuraxial blockade and prolong the duration of analgesia during spinal anaesthesia. Used intrathecally, fentanyl improves the quality of spinal blockade as compared to plain bupivacaine and confers a short duration of post-operative analgesia. Intrathecal midazolam as an adjuvant has been used and shown to improve the quality of spinal anaesthesia and prolong the duration of post-operative analgesia...
March 2016: African Health Sciences
Pranjali Kurhekar, S Madan Kumar, D Sampath
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inrathecal opioids like morphine added to local anaesthetic agents have been found to be effective in achieving prolonged post-operative analgesia. Intrathecal dexmedetomidine may be devoid of undesirable side effects related to morphine and hence, this study was designed to evaluate analgesic efficacy, haemodynamic stability and adverse effects of both these adjuvants in patients undergoing gynaecological surgeries. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised, double blind study involving 25 patients in each group...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Ajay Wahi, Amanjot K Singh, Kartik Syal, Ajay Sood, Jyoti Pathania
INTRODUCTION: Clonidine is an α2 agonist agent that has been used as an adjuvant to local anaesthetics in regional anaesthesia. AIM: This study compared two combinations of bupivacaine and clonidine with bupivacaine alone for surgeries below the level of umbilicus in spinal anaesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a randomized double blind study on 90 patients of ASA I and ASA II aged 20-60 years, 30 in each group, undergoing surgery below the level of umbilicus in spinal anaesthesia...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
T Tedore
Cancer treatment is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Surgery is a mainstay of treatment for many tumours, and anaesthetists care for cancer patients on a daily basis. Surgery itself induces a stress response and inhibits the immune system, and cancer surgery is associated with the release of tumour cells systemically. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that the anaesthetics and adjuvants given in the perioperative period can affect cancer recurrence and survival, perhaps tipping the balance in some instances to determine whether cancer progresses or regresses...
December 2015: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Massimiliano Pino, Filippo Farri, Pietro Garofalo, Fausto Taranto, Andrea Toso, Paolo Aluffi
Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is a rare variant of plasma cell myeloma that affects soft tissues. The head and neck region are the most affected sites, although others have also been described. Herein we report an uncommon case of EMP of the larynx in a 65-year-old male who presented with a history of progressive dysphonia and hoarseness. Laryngeal fiberscopy evidenced a reddish pedicled voluminous mass in the left false cords and ventricle. Microscopic suspension laryngoscopy was performed under general anaesthesia and a 4 W Acublade CO2 Laser was used for transoral resection of the lesion...
2015: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
M Desmet, B Vanneste, M Reynvoet, J Van Cauwelaert, L Verhelst, H Pottel, C Missant, M Van de Velde
We recruited patients scheduled for shoulder rotator cuff repair or subacromial decompression under general anaesthesia and interscalene brachial plexus blockade (30 ml ropivacaine 0.5%). We allocated 240 participants into four groups of 60 that were given pre-operative saline 0.9% or dexamethasone 1.25 mg, 2.5 mg or 10 mg, intravenously. We recorded outcomes for 48 h. The median (IQR [range]) time to first postoperative analgesic request after saline was 12.2 (11.0-14.1 [1.8-48]) h, which was extended by intravenous dexamethasone 2...
October 2015: Anaesthesia
Hinnerk Wulf, Karl Hampl, Thorsten Steinfeldt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spinal anesthesia (SPA) has not been popular for day-case surgery because of prolonged neurologic blockade with long-acting local anesthetics such as bupivacaine, thereby delaying discharge. Although the intermediate duration of action of lidocaine and mepivacaine appears to be more suitable for day-case surgery, their use is not deemed appropriate by many because of a high incidence of transient neurologic symptoms (TNSs). The present review summarizes recent clinical data on the intrathecal use of alternative local anesthetics and adjuvants that may offer valuable alternatives to general anesthesia in day-case surgery...
October 2013: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Tarlika P Doctor, Divyang B Dalwadi, Lissa Abraham, Namrata Shah, Indu A Chadha, Bharat J Shah
CONTEXT: Ropivacaine, s-enantiomer of amide local anaesthetic produces differential neural blockade with less motor blockade, cardiovascular and neurological toxicity makes it suitable for day case surgery in children. AIMS: To compare the effectiveness of Inj. Ropivacaine (0.2 or 0.25%) or Inj. Bupivacaine (0.25%) with fentanyl in caudal block for intra and postoperative analgesia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Double blind retrospective randomized study...
May 2013: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
S S Nethra, M Sathesha, Aanchal Dixit, Pradeep A Dongare, S S Harsoor, D Devikarani
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The newer trend in regional anaesthesia for ambulatory anorectal surgeries advocate use of lower dose of local anaesthetic, providing segmental block with adjuvants such as opioids and α2 agonists to prolong analgesia. The current study investigated effects of addition of 5 μg of dexmedetomidine to 6 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine on duration of analgesia, sensory and motor block characteristics for perianal ambulatory surgeries. METHODS: This study is a prospective randomised controlled double blind study...
March 2015: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Ashok Jadon, Shreya Dixit, Sunil Kr Kedia, Swastika Chakraborty, Amit Agrawal, Neelam Sinha
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Various adjuvants have been used to prolong the duration of local anaesthetic action after peripheral and regional nerve blocks. We evaluated the effect of dexamethasone on the duration of pain relief in shoulder arthroscopic surgeries performed under interscalene brachial plexus using ropivacaine as local anaesthetic. METHODS: After Ethical Committee approval and informed consent from patients we performed a prospective, randomised, comparative study on patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery under interscalene block (ISB)...
March 2015: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Aloka Samantaray, Natham Hemanth, Karunakar Gunnampati, Hemalatha Pasupuleti, Madhusudan Mukkara, Mangu Hanumantha Rao
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine and midazolam both modulate spinal analgesia by different mechanisms, and yet, no human studies are available to compare them for postoperative analgesia after neuraxial administration. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the addition of dexmedetomidine or midazolam to intrathecal bupivacaine on the duration of effective analgesia and clinical safety profile. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study...
January 2015: Pain Physician
W U Koh, H G Min, H S Park, M H Karm, K K Lee, H S Yang, Y J Ro
When considering brachial plexus block as a practical alternative to general anaesthesia for upper limb surgery, the time to achieve complete sensory block is a clinically important variable. In this prospective randomised double-blind controlled trial, we investigated the hypothesis that addition of hyaluronidase to ropivacaine may reduce the time to achieve complete sensory block after axillary brachial plexus block. The patients were randomly assigned into a hyaluronidase group (n = 24) and a control group (n = 24)...
March 2015: Anaesthesia
Alessandra Ciccozzi, Chiara Angeletti, Cristiana Guetti, Joseph Pergolizzi, Paolo Matteo Angeletti, Roberta Mariani, Franco Marinangeli
PURPOSE: This review will analyse some aspects of regional anaesthesia (RA) for carotid endarterectomy (CEA), a surgical procedure which requires a strict monitoring of patient's status. RA remains an important tool for the anaesthesiologist. Some debates remain about type and definition of regional anaesthesia, efficacy and safety of the different cervical block techniques, the right dose, concentration and volume of local anaesthetic, the use of adjuvants, the new perspectives: ultrasonography, the future directions...
September 2014: Journal of Ultrasound
Sameer N Desai, M C B Santhosh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A review of all the adjuncts for intravenous regional anaesthesia concluded that there is good evidence to recommend NonSteroidal Anti-Inflammatory agents and pethidine in the dose of 30mg dose as adjuncts to intravenous regional anaesthesia. But there are no studies to compare pethidine of 30mg dose to any of the NonSteroidal Anti-Inflammatory agents. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, double blind study, 45 patients were given intravenous regional anaesthesia with either lignocaine alone or lignocaine with pethidine 30mg or lignocaine with ketprofen 100mg...
July 2014: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Yohann Rouscoff, Alexander Tuan Falk, Matthieu Durand, Jocelyn Gal, Marie-Eve Chand, Mathieu Gautier, Alexandre Marsaud, Daniel Chevallier, Jean Amiel, Jean-Michel Hannoun-Levi
PURPOSE: To assess clinical outcomes of high-dose rate interstitial brachytherapy (HIB) in localized penile carcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 03/2006 to 08/2013, patients with biopsy-proven T1-T2 (<4 cm) non-metastatic localized penile squamous cell carcinoma underwent HIB. Under general anaesthesia, after Foley catheter placement, needles were placed in the target volume using a dedicated template. Planification was carried out with a post-implant CT-scan to deliver a total dose of 36 Gy in 9 fractions over 5 days (in adjuvant setting) or 39 Gy in 9 fractions over 5 days (as monotherapy)...
2014: Radiation Oncology
Mahima Gupta, S Shailaja, K Sudhir Hegde
BACKGROUND: The supplementation of local anaesthetics with adjuvants to improve the efficacy of subarachnoid block has been recognised since long. The most preferred drug has been opioids, but newer drugs like dexmedetomidine has also been introduced and investigated as an effective adjuvant. AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the characteristics of subarachnoid blockade, hemodynamic stability and adverse effects of intrathecal buprenorphine and intrathecal dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to 0...
February 2014: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
N Yoganarasimha, Tr Raghavendra, S Amitha, K Shridhar, Mk Radha
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Spinal anaesthesia requires a small volume of drug to produce profound reproducible sensory analgesia and motor blockade, but has limited duration of action. A properly chosen adjuvant to local anaesthetic agent produces the best way to achieve a better quality regional block. Hence, a study was conducted to compare the effect of intrathecal clonidine 75 μg or neostigmine 50 μg added to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine, with regards to sensory characteristics, motor characteristics, haemodynamic stability and side effects...
January 2014: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
J S Lee, J S Kim, M K Kim, S H Kim, J Y Kim
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the possible difference in the optimal effect site concentration of propofol for conscious sedation during spinal anaesthesia with or without intrathecal fentanyl in patients undergoing urologic surgery. The hypothesis was that intrathecal fentanyl would decrease the effect site concentration of propofol needed for conscious sedation. METHODS: Among 43 patients, 23 patients received fentanyl 25 mcg and 20 patients received normal saline in addition to hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg during spinal anaesthesia...
May 2014: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
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