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Female contraception

Waltraud Maierhofer, Emanuella Israel
The Fifty Shades trilogy by E.L. James has taken the world by storm and become a cultural phenomenon. The lack of contraceptive use in the erotic fiction, first pointed out by bloggers, is analysed in this article and compared to medical information. James may be praised for sexualising condom use. However, her protagonist makes poor choices in terms of hormonal contraception and is negligent about its use, resulting in an unintended pregnancy and resolved in marital bliss and motherhood. What is of more interest here than a possible message about contraceptive use, is the outcome that the fiction's negligence in birth control and responsibility affirms an ideology in which female sexuality and sexual experimentation can only be tolerated within the context of procreation and affirmation of motherhood...
October 20, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Jenny E Mullen, John-Olof Thörngren, Jenny J Schulze, Magnus Ericsson, Nina Gårevik, Mikael Lehtihet, Lena Ekström
Today's doping tests involving longitudinal monitoring of steroid profiles are difficult in women. Women have more complex hormonal fluctuations than men and commonly take drugs such as hormonal contraceptives that are shown to affect biomarkers used in these doping tests. In this study we followed six women's urinary steroid profile during one menstrual cycle, including both glucuronides and sulfate conjugated fractions. Additionally, we studied what happens to the steroidal module of the athlete biological passport (ABP) after administration of an emergency contraceptive (levonorgestrel, NorLevo®)...
October 18, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Mussa N Sweya, Sia E Msuya, Michael J Mahande, Rachel Manongi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that knowledge of contraceptives, especially among the youth in universities, remains limited, and the rate of premarital sexual activity, unwanted pregnancies, and illegal abortions remains higher among university students. This study aimed to assess contraceptive knowledge, sexual behavior, and factors associated with contraceptive use among female undergraduate university students in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted from May to June 2015 among undergraduate female students in four universities in Kilimanjaro region...
2016: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Katalin Gornicsar, Tibor Mózes, Andor Grosz, Edit Bíró, Szabolcs Ládi, Paul Clayton
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have found gender-based disparities in ICU admission rates and in complications following trauma. Female gender was associated with lower mortality when comparing patients less than 50 years of age. These data suggest an important role for cycle rather than gender itself. Our previous results indicate a crucial role for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in inducing nososocomial infections. HYPOTHESIS: Cycle is important for TNF and other female hormone productions...
October 12, 2016: Shock
Sabina Cauci, Cinzia Buligan, Micaela Marangone, Maria Pia Francescato
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress in female athletes is understudied. We investigated oxidative stress in sportswomen of different disciplines according to combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and lifestyle/alimentary habits. METHODS: Italian sportswomen (n = 144; mean age 23.4 ± 4.2 years; body mass index 21.2 ± 2.2 kg m(-2); sport activity 9.2 ± 4.1 h week(-1)) were analyzed; 48 % were volleyball players, 12.5 % soccer players, 10.4 % track-and-field sports, and followed by other disciplines' athletes...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Helen S Pentikis, Nikki Adetoro, Carol J Braun
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a serious infection that is the most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing potential. SYM-1219 is a novel, granule formulation containing 2 g of secnidazole that is being developed as a single, oral dose to treat women with BV. Because many of the women diagnosed with BV use hormonal contraception, the effect of SYM-1219 on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of commonly prescribed oral contraceptive drugs, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), and norethindrone (NET) was evaluated...
October 15, 2016: Advances in Therapy
Camille Clare, Mary-Beatrice Squire, Karem Alvarez, Julia Meisler, Candice Fraser
OBJECTIVE: The United States has the highest rate of adolescent pregnancy of the industrialized nations. Previously reported patient barriers to the use of contraception included an ambivalence about pregnancy; method side effects; difficulty using methods; lack of satisfaction with methods; concerns about safety; expense; and a lack of knowledge about long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). This survey aims to determine if there are additional barriers to contraception use and adherence among an ethnically diverse urban population...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
J L Yoost, R W Starcher, R A King-Mallory, N Hussain, C A Hensley, T W Gress
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of telehealth to teach reproductive health to rural areas with high rates of teen pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study SETTING: Two high schools in rural West Virginia. PARTICIPANTS: High school females that attended telehealth sessions. INTERVENTIONS: Teleconferencing equipment connected rural high schools to a distal academic institution. Telehealth sessions included reproductive health and life skills topics...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, Shira Dunsiger, Heather H Swales, Gerard P Aurigemma, Ira Ockene, Lindsey Rosman, Ilan S Wittstein
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) occurs predominantly in postmenopausal women, suggesting a possible role of reproductive and hormonal factors in the pathophysiology of this condition. Yet reproductive characteristics of women with TC have received limited attention. This prospective case-control study sought to explore reproductive characteristics associated with TC. Incident TC cases and myocardial infarction (MI) controls were recruited among consecutive women presenting at the emergency departments of 2 large medical centers in Massachusetts and Connecticut...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Jenny A Higgins, Jessica N Sanders, Mari Palta, David K Turok
OBJECTIVE: To document how long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) affects women's sexual outcomes. METHODS: In this prospective, observational cohort study, we enrolled new-start intrauterine device and contraceptive implant users attending four family planning clinics. Data collection occurred at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. Primary outcomes were the Female Sexual Function Index, New Sexual Satisfaction Scale, and perceived sexual effects of method (positive, negative, or none)...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
J Floehr, E Dietzel, C Schmitz, A Chappell, W Jahnen-Dechent
STUDY QUESTION: Does antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-mediated down-regulation of serum fetuin-B cause an infertility-like fetuin-B gene deficiency in female mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: Pharmacological fetuin-B down-regulation by ASO therapy results in reversible infertility in female mice. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Female fetuin-B deficient (Fetub(-/-)) mice are infertile owing to premature zona pellucida (ZP) hardening. Enzyme activity studies demonstrated that fetuin-B is a potent and highly specific inhibitor of the zona proteinase ovastacin, which cleaves ZP protein 2 (ZP2) and thus mediates definitive ZP hardening...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Ronni Hayon
Transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals experience significant health disparities. They are more likely to use drugs and alcohol, smoke, be diagnosed with HIV infection or other sexually transmitted infections, and experience depression or attempt suicide. Many also experience discrimination within the health care system. Office-level strategies to create a safe and affirming space for gender-expansive patients include posting of a nondiscrimination statement, use of intake forms that ask about current gender identity and birth-assigned sex, provision of gender-neutral restrooms, and staff training in use of appropriate language...
October 2016: FP Essentials
Hamed Khalili, Martin Neovius, Anders Ekbom, Jonas F Ludvigsson, Johan Askling, Andrew T Chan, Ola Olen
OBJECTIVES: Oral contraceptive (OC) use has been consistently linked to increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Nonetheless, a specific role of OC in the natural history of ulcerative colitis (UC) is unknown. METHODS: We identified 6,104 incident female UC cases aged 16-51 years at diagnosis from the Swedish National Patient Register starting in January of 2003. Information on current OC use was obtained from the Prescribed Drug Register starting in July of 2005...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Kurt T Barnhart
The science of contraceptive medicine and reproductive medicine are similar. At present contraceptive medicine has moved beyond understanding the mechanism of action of steroid hormones with the introduction of many safe and effective methods. Long-acting reversible contraceptives are increasing in acceptance and providing very high efficacy. The science has pivoted toward optimization of family planning in selected high-risk populations, such as those with a high-risk of thrombosis, as well as addressing the challenge of obesity...
October 5, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Anthony Idowu Ajayi, Ezebunwa Ethelbert Nwokocha, Wilson Akpan, Oladele Vincent Adeniyi
BACKGROUND: Emergency contraception (EC) can significantly reduce the rate of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the increasing awareness of EC among educated young women in Nigeria, the rate of utilisation remains low. This study therefore explores the main barriers to the use of EC among female university students by analysing their knowledge of emergency contraception, methods ever used, perceived efficacy, and its acceptability. METHODS: This paper brings together the findings from several focus groups (N = 5) and in-depth interviews (N = 20) conducted amongst unmarried female undergraduate students in two Nigerian universities...
October 4, 2016: BMC Public Health
Kyle E Horst, Susan C Modesitt
OBJECTIVES: Endometrial cancer remains the fourth most common malignancy among US women, and hormonal contraceptives drastically reduce this risk. The study objectives were to assess the prescribing patterns, counseling practices, and knowledge of family physicians and obstetrician/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) regarding hormonal contraceptives, obesity, and cancer prevention. METHODS: A 25-question survey was mailed to 4600 OB/GYNs and family practitioners licensed in Virginia to assess self-reported hormonal contraceptive prescription practices, patient evaluation and counseling, and gynecologic oncology knowledge...
October 2016: Southern Medical Journal
Johannes Bitzer, Virginia Abalos, Dan Apter, Ricardo Martin, Amanda Black
INTRODUCTION: Sexual and reproductive health care should empower and enable all individuals to have a sex life that is as safe and pleasurable as possible. Achievement of this goal for adolescents is often impeded by regional and sociocultural barriers. OBJECTIVES: To review global barriers to provision of effective counselling and care of adolescents seeking advice on contraception and sexual and reproductive health and identify elements of best practice that can be adapted to meet their needs at regional level...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Irina Virtanen, Nea Kalleinen, Anna S Urrila, Päivi Polo-Kantola
OBJECTIVES: In sleep laboratory studies, the new environment is generally considered to disturb sleep during the first night. However, older women have rarely been studied. Although menopause and hormone therapy affect sleep, their impact on the first-night effect is virtually unknown. PARTICIPANTS: Four groups of women with no sleep laboratory experience: young on hormonal contraceptives (n = 11, 23.1 [0.5] years), perimenopausal (n = 15, 48.0 [0.4] years), postmenopausal without hormone therapy (HT; off-HT, n = 22, 63...
October 4, 2016: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Kathrine Birch Petersen
The overall aim of this thesis was to validate the new concept of the Fertility Assessment and Counselling (FAC) Clinic at Rigshospitalet. The intention was to: explore the prognostic value of fertility risk factors by a risk score and provide an estimate of female fecundity, to quantify the impact of oral contraception (OC) on ovarian reserve parameters defined as Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH), Antral Follicle Count (AFC) and ovarian volume, and to gain knowledge of attitudes and considerations toward family formation in women of advanced age...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Samira Yadegari, Askar Ghorbani, S Roohollah Miri, Mohammad Abdollahi, Mohsen Rostami
INTRODUCTION: Despite increasing the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has remained an under-diagnosed condition. In this study, characteristics and frequency of various risk factors of CVST patients in a tertiary referral hospital were closely assessed. METHODS: Patients with an unequivocal diagnosis of CVST confirmed by MRI and magnetic resonance venography during 6 years of the study were included. All data from the onset of symptoms regarding clinical signs and symptoms, hospital admission, seasonal distribution, medical and drug history, thrombophilic profile, D-dimer, neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid findings, mortality, and outcome were collected and closely analyzed...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
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