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Female contraception

Seo Ah Hong, Karl Peltzer, Kyi Tun Lwin, La Seng Aung
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and their socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in a female adult population in Myanmar. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in the 2015-16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 12,160 women aged 18-49 years and not currently pregnant completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was determined using Asian body mass index cut-offs: underweight (BMI<18...
2018: PloS One
Wenge Chen, Yunlong Cheng, Jianzhong Chen, Jiahang Chen, Kai Jiang, Yuyang Zhou, Lee Jia
Mifepristone (RU486) is developed originally as a contraceptive used by hundreds of millions of women world-wide, and also reported as a safe and long-term psychotic depressant, or as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent used by both sexes. In our preliminary study aimed at developing mifepristone as a cancer metastatic chemopreventive, we coincidentally observed that blood mifepristone concentrations in female rats seem to be higher than those in male ones post administration. To substantiate if the pharmacokinetic differences between sexes exist, we established a fast UPLC-MS/MS method to determine mifepristone concentrations in plasma, and analyzed blood concentrations of mifepristone over time in rats and dogs of both sexes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Kate S Wilson, George Wanje, Linnet Masese, Jane Simoni, Juma Shafi, Lucy Adala, Julie Overbaugh, Walter Jaoko, Barbra A Richardson, R Scott McClelland
BACKGROUND: Little is known about fertility desire in HIV-positive female sex workers (FSW). Fertility desire could increase HIV transmission risk if it were associated with condomless sex or lower adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 255 HIV-positive FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. Using generalized estimating equations, fertility desire was evaluated as a risk factor for semen detection in vaginal secretions by prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, a biomarker of condomless sex, detectable plasma viral load (VL), and HIV transmission potential, defined as visits with positive PSA and detectable VL...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Kathryn A McInerney, Kristen A Hahn, Elizabeth E Hatch, Ellen M Mikkelsen, Anne Z Steiner, Kenneth J Rothman, Henrik T Sørensen, Thala M Snerum, Lauren A Wise
OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent to which lubricant use during intercourse is associated with time-to-pregnancy (TTP). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Denmark and North America. POPULATION: 6,467 women aged 18-49 years who were not using contraception or fertility treatment. METHODS: We pooled data from two ongoing prospective cohort studies of pregnancy planners in Denmark (2011-2017) and North America (2013-2017)...
March 15, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Matthew Quaife, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Robyn Eakle, Maria A Cabrera Escobar, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Mercy Mvundura, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Peter Vickerman
INTRODUCTION: A number of antiretroviral HIV prevention products are efficacious in preventing HIV infection. However, the sexual and reproductive health needs of many women extend beyond HIV prevention, and research is ongoing to develop multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that offer dual HIV and pregnancy protection. We do not yet know if these products will be an efficient use of constrained health resources. In this paper, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of combinations of candidate multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs), in South Africa among general population women and female sex workers (FSWs)...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Neidin Eustace, Kiran M Sarma, Jane Murphy, Gerard J Molloy
We examine the association between a six-facet model of conscientiousness and adherence to the Oral Contraceptive Pill (OCP), to investigate if these 6 facets can account for variation in adherence to the OCP. Cross-sectional data were collected from an opportunity sample of 243 female participants who were current users of the OCP, via online survey. Data were analysed using correlation and standard regression. The 60-item Chernyshenko Conscientiousness Scale (CCS), the 10-item IPIP Conscientiousness (IPIP C) subscale and the 5-item OCP Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS) were employed...
March 13, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Gabriel T Gao, William Binder
Nexplanon is a long-acting 4cm radio-opaque rod shaped contraceptive device implanted in the subdermal layer of the inner, upper arm. Complications from implantation are uncommon and mostly local and minor, including infection at the implantation site with resulting cellulitis or abscess, hematoma, abnormal scar formation, or local damage to nerves and blood vessels. Intravascular insertion is estimated to be at 1.3 per million Nexplanon implants, and migration and embolization is a rare complication of this device...
March 3, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Abigail L M Webb, Paul B Hibbard, Rick O'Gorman
Evidence suggests that females experience adaptive shifts in facial preferences across the menstrual cycle. However, recent discussions and meta-analyses suggest that these findings are equivocal. A previously unexplored question is the extent to which shifts in female preferences are modulated by hormone-dependent changes occurring in low-level vision, such as visual sensitivity. This mechanistic approach has been a novel method for investigating the extent to which complex perceptual phenomena are driven by low-level versus higher-level perceptual processes...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Sultana Monira Hussain, Yuanyuan Wang, Graham G Giles, Stephen Graves, Anita E Wluka, Flavia M Cicuttini
OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of female reproductive and hormonal factors with incidence of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for osteoarthritis, and whether the associations differ according to overweight/obesity status. DESIGN: This study included 22,289 women in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Data on age at menarche, pregnancy, parity, years of menstruation, oral contraceptive pill (OCP), menopausal status and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were collected in 1990-1994...
March 7, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Clare Minahan, Hailey O'Neill, Nelie Sikkema, Sarah Joyce, Brianna Larsen, Surendran Sabapathy
We sought to determine whether oral contraception alters the gender-related differences observed in the exercise pressor reflex during isometric handgrip exercise. Fifteen men, fifteen normally menstruating women (WomenNM), and fifteen women taking monophasic oral contraceptives (WomenOC) completed two trials of a 3-min isometric handgrip exercise protocol performed at 30% of their maximal voluntary contraction: (1) where arterial occlusion was applied to the previously exercising arm during a 3-min recovery period (Occlusion trial); (2) where no arterial occlusion was applied during recovery (Control trial)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Shaohua Sun, Jing Cai, Wenjing Tao, Limin Wu, Chakraborty Tapas, Linyan Zhou, Deshou Wang
17α, 20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (17α, 20β-DP, DHP), a teleost specific biologically active progestin, has been proved to play a critical role in oocytes maturation, ovulation and spermiation. RU486 (Mifepristone, an antagonist of progestin receptor) has been applied in contraceptives, abortion and hormone therapy in clinical medicine. To get further insights into the molecular mechanisms of nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr) activated ovarian differentiation and maintenance, we conducted comparative gonadal transcriptome analysis, and investigated histological and transcriptional differences using 4 mah (month after hatching) RU486-treated XX and control XX/XY Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)...
March 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Tom Kovitwanichkanont, Tim Driscoll
Isotretinoin has revolutionized the treatment of severe acne vulgaris, a condition which if left untreated may result in significant socio-psychological implications for those affected. Timely access to isotretinoin therapy is important to avoid the risks of potential physical and emotional scarring. However, due to its high risks of teratogenicity, isotretinoin must be used with care in females of childbearing potential. Since isotretinoin's introduction, numerous risk management programs have been implemented across the world in an attempt to prevent isotretinoin use in pregnancy...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Anneli Uusküla, Mait Raag, Sigrid Vorobjov, Don Des Jarlais
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing contraceptive availability, unintended pregnancy remains a global problem. Developing strategies to reverse this trend and increasing occurrence of withdrawal syndrome among newborn children of females currently injecting drugs warrants special attention. The knowledge base on the uptake of effective contraception among females who inject drugs (FWID) is scant. We aimed to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with the use of non-condom contraceptives among sexually active FWID with the focus on effective contraception...
March 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Sezcan Mümüşoğlu, Servet Hacıvelioğlu, Lale Karakoç Sökmensüer, Rengin Karataylı, Ayşegül Süzer, Figen Kaymaz
OBJECTIVE: To compare the degree of apoptosis in ovaries and tubal epithelium observed secondary to tubal ligation either by Pomeroy's method or bipolar electrocauterization in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 3 study groups: control (n=8), Pomeroy (n=8), and the electrocauterization group (n=8). Apoptotic cells were detected on the primary, secondary, tertiary follicles of the ovaries, and on the tubal epithelium using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Per Kempe, Daniel Eklund, Agnes Hallin, Mats Hammar, Tomas Olsson, Jan Brynhildsen, Jan Ernerudh
To prospectively study systemic in vivo immunological effects of sex hormones, using different phases of oral combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC), and the natural menstrual cycles in both healthy women and in women with multiple sclerosis (MS), blood samples from sixty female MS patients and healthy controls with and without CHC were drawn in high and low estrogenic/progestogenic phases. Expression of Th-associated genes in blood cells was determined by qPCR and a panel of cytokines and chemokines was measured in plasma...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Preston F Ashby, Chelsea Alfafara, Albert Amini, Richard Amini
We present the case of a young female on oral contraceptives (OCs) who was diagnosed with focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and remained on oral contraceptives. Months later, the patient presented with acute abdominal pain and intratumoral hemorrhage in the liver. The patient was taken to the operating room (OR) and was diagnosed with a ruptured hepatic adenoma (HA). We review the key diagnostic features of FNH and HA, the different management guidelines including use of OCs, and potential surgical indications...
December 20, 2017: Curēus
Ellen Laan, Yvette Zimmerman, Rik H W van Lunsen, Hanneke M M Termeer, Nicole Appels, Bart C J M Fauser, Herjan J T Coelingh Bennink
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of combined oral contraceptives (OCs) on sexual function, either alone or together with DHEA. STUDY DESIGN: An exploratory randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparative, crossover study was conducted in 81 OC users. Subjects discontinued their OC for one cycle before being randomized for 10cycles to a 30μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/levonorgestrel (LNG) OC or a 30μg EE/drospirenone (DRSP) OC, along with daily use of 50mg dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or placebo during 5 OC cycles before crossing over from DHEA to placebo or the reverse for another 5cycles...
February 25, 2018: Contraception
Marita Nittner-Marszalska, Anna Dor-Wojnarowska, Anna Wolańczyk-Mędrala, Anna Rosner-Tenerowicz, Mariusz Zimmer, Julia Dobek, Krzysztof Gomułka, Anna Parużyńska, Bernard Panaszek
It has been reported that female sex hormones influence on allergic inflammation and ventilation parameters in asthma but conclusions drawn by different researchers are divergent. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of progesterone (Pg) and estradiol (E) on the dynamics of allergic inflammation and spirometry test results in regularly menstruating women with stable allergic asthma. 13 women (28 days menstrual cycle), aged 18-45, taking no hormonal contraceptives, with mild and moderate asthma, without reported exacerbations at the near-ovulation and/or menstruation time, were monitored during two consecutive menstrual cycles...
February 24, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Wojciech Wrona, Anna Stępniak, Piotr Czuczwar
Uterine fibroids are considered to be the most frequently occurring tumours in females. The majority of fibroids do not require any treatment. When symptomatic, the major ailments include abnormal uterine bleeding, painful menstruation, pelvic pressure or pain, urinary problems, constipation, infertility, and recurrent pregnancy loss. Surgery remains a mainstay of symptomatic uterine fibroids therapy; however, minimally-invasive techniques and pharmacological management have become more available. The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is a T-shaped device with a vertical stem containing a reservoir of levonorgestrel and is widely known for its contraception effect...
December 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
Bronwyn M Graham, Sophie H Li, Melissa J Black, Lars-Göran Öst
Preclinical studies have demonstrated that conditioned fear extinction is impaired in females with low endogenous levels of the sex hormone estradiol, due to menstrual fluctuations or hormonal contraceptive use. As fear extinction is a laboratory model of exposure therapy for anxiety and trauma disorders, here we assessed the hypothesis that treatment outcomes may be diminished when exposure therapy occurs during periods of low estradiol. 90 women with spider phobia (60 cycling and 30 using hormonal contraceptives) underwent a one-session exposure treatment for spider phobia, following which, serum estradiol levels were assessed...
February 21, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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