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Cachétne S X Barrett, Ana C Millena, Shafiq A Khan
BACKGROUND: Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) family (cJun, JunB, JunD, cFos, FosB, Fra1, and Fra2) plays a central role in the transcriptional regulation of many genes that are associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, metastasis, and survival. Many oncogenic signaling pathways converge at the AP-1 transcription complex. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional regulatory cytokine that regulates many aspects of cellular function, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, adhesion, angiogenesis, immune surveillance, and survival...
September 7, 2016: Prostate
Alexandra Papoudou-Bai, Eleftheria Hatzimichael, Alexandra Barbouti, Panagiotis Kanavaros
The activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a dimeric transcription factor composed of proteins belonging to the Jun (c-Jun, JunB and JunD), Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra1 and Fra2) and activating transcription factor protein families. AP-1 is involved in various cellular events including differentiation, proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Deregulated expression of AP-1 transcription factors is implicated in the pathogenesis of various lymphomas such as classical Hodgkin lymphomas, anaplastic large cell lymphomas, diffuse large B cell lymphomas and adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma...
September 6, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Hyo-Jin Kim, Kang-Lok Lee, Kyoung-Dong Kim, Jung-Hye Roe
Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated since iron is an essential but toxic element in the cell. The GATA-type transcription factor Fep1 and its orthologs contribute to iron homeostasis in many fungi by repressing genes for iron uptake when intracellular iron is high. Even though the function and interaction partners of Fep1 have been elucidated extensively In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the mechanism behind iron-sensing by Fep1 remains elusive. It has been reported that Fep1 interacts with Fe-S-containing monothiol glutaredoxin Grx4 and Grx4-Fra2 complex...
September 9, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Lubna Nadeem, Oksana Shynlova, Elzbieta Matysiak-Zablocki, Sam Mesiano, Xuesen Dong, Stephen Lye
Progesterone suppresses uterine contractility acting through its receptors (PRA/B). The mechanism by which human labour is initiated in the presence of elevated circulating progesterone has remained an enigma since Csapo first theorized of a functional withdrawal of progesterone in 1965. Here we report that in vitro progesterone-liganded nuclear PRB forms a complex including JUN/JUN homodimers and P54(nrb)/Sin3A/HDAC to repress transcription of the key labour gene, Cx43. In contrast, unliganded PRA paradoxically activates Cx43 transcription by interacting with FRA2/JUND heterodimers...
2016: Nature Communications
Ya-Wen Chen, Hai-Cheng Wang, Long-Hua Gao, Chang Liu, Yu-Xi Jiang, Hong Qu, Cui-Ying Li, Jiu-Hui Jiang
OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of alveolar decortication on local bone remodeling, and to explore the possible mechanism by which decortication facilitates tooth movement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty rabbits were included in the experiment. The left mandible was subjected to decortication-facilitated orthodontics, and the right mandible underwent traditional orthodontics as a control. The animals were sacrificed on the days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14, after undergoing orthodontic procedures...
2016: PloS One
Yoshihide Asano
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease characterized by the three cardinal pathological features, comprising aberrant immune activation, vasculopathy and tissue fibrosis, with unknown etiology. Although many inducible and genetic animal models mimicking the selected aspects of SSc have been well documented, the lack of models encompassing the full clinical manifestations hindered the development and preclinical testing of therapies against this disease. Under this situation, three new genetic animal models have recently been established, such as Fra2 transgenic mice, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor deficient mice and Klf5(+/-) ;Fli1(+/-) mice, all of which recapitulate the pathological cascade of SSc...
January 2016: Journal of Dermatology
Joseph Cursons, Catherine E Angel, Daniel G Hurley, Cristin G Print, P Rod Dunbar, Marc D Jacobs, Edmund J Crampin
BACKGROUND: Phosphoprotein signalling pathways have been intensively studied in vitro, yet their role in regulating tissue homeostasis is not fully understood. In the skin, interfollicular keratinocytes differentiate over approximately 2 weeks as they traverse the epidermis. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) branch of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway has been implicated in this process. Therefore, we examined ERK-MAPK activity within human epidermal keratinocytes in situ...
2015: GigaScience
Oscar V Torres, Michael T McCoy, Bruce Ladenheim, Subramaniam Jayanthi, Christie Brannock, Ingrid Tulloch, Irina N Krasnova, Jean Lud Cadet
Methamphetamine (METH) produces increases in the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) and of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, we tested whether HDAC2 deletion influenced the effects of METH on IEG expression in the NAc. Microarray analyses showed no baseline differences in IEG expression between wild-type (WT) and HDAC2 knockout (KO) mice. Quantitative-PCR analysis shows that an acute METH injection produced time-dependent increases in mRNA levels of several IEGs in both genotypes...
2015: Scientific Reports
Jon M Carthy, Anders Sundqvist, Angelos Heldin, Hans van Dam, Dimitris Kletsas, Carl-Henrik Heldin, Aristidis Moustakas
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine which stimulates the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Myofibroblasts are critical for normal wound healing, but also accumulate pathologically in a number of chronic inflammatory conditions where they are key contributors to aberrant tissue remodeling and fibrosis, and in cancer stroma. In the current study, we identified a role for tamoxifen as a potent inhibitor of the TGF-β-mediated activation of primary human skin and breast fibroblasts...
December 2015: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Khampoun Sayasith, Jean Sirois
A disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 (ADAM17) is thought to play a key role in the release of soluble and active epiregulin (EREG) and amphiregulin (AREG) in ovarian follicles but its transcriptional regulation in follicular cells remains largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize the regulation of ADAM17 transcripts in bovine follicles prior to ovulation and to investigate its transcriptional control in bovine granulosa cells. To study the regulation of ADAM17 transcripts, RT-PCR analyses were performed using total RNA extracted from bovine follicles collected between 0 h and 24 h post-hCG...
August 15, 2015: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Javier Encinar del Dedo, Natalia Gabrielli, Mercè Carmona, José Ayté, Elena Hidalgo
Iron is an essential cofactor, but it is also toxic at high levels. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the sensor glutaredoxin Grx4 guides the activity of the repressors Php4 and Fep1 to mediate a complex transcriptional response to iron deprivation: activation of Php4 and inactivation of Fep1 leads to inhibition of iron usage/storage, and to promotion of iron import, respectively. However, the molecular events ruling the activity of this double-branched pathway remained elusive. We show here that Grx4 incorporates a glutathione-containing iron-sulfur cluster, alone or forming a heterodimer with the BolA-like protein Fra2...
March 2015: PLoS Genetics
H C Pal, J C Chamcheu, V M Adhami, G S Wood, C A Elmets, H Mukhtar, F Afaq
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by hyperproliferation and aberrant keratinocyte differentiation. We have shown that treatment of reconstituted human skin with delphinidin, an anthocyanidin, present in pigmented fruits and vegetables, increased the expression and processing of caspase-14, which is involved in cornification. Delphinidin also increases the expression of epidermal differentiation marker proteins. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether topical application of delphinidin can modulate pathological markers of psoriasiform lesions in flaky skin mice and if this is associated with increased epidermal differentiation and a reduction in proliferation and inflammation...
February 2015: British Journal of Dermatology
Jean-François Jacques, Alexandre Mercier, Ariane Brault, Thierry Mourer, Simon Labbé
Iron is required for several metabolic functions involved in cellular growth. Although several players involved in iron transport have been identified, the mechanisms by which iron-responsive transcription factors are controlled are still poorly understood. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the Fep1 transcription factor represses genes involved in iron acquisition in response to high levels of iron. In contrast, when iron levels are low, Fep1 becomes inactive and loses its ability to associate with chromatin. Although the molecular basis by which Fep1 is inactivated under iron starvation remains unknown, this process requires the monothiol glutaredoxin Grx4...
2014: PloS One
Andrew W Foster, Samantha J Dainty, Carl J Patterson, Ehmke Pohl, Hannah Blackburn, Clare Wilson, Corinna R Hess, Julian C Rutherford, Laura Quaranta, Andy Corran, Nigel J Robinson
The extreme resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to copper is overcome by 2-(6-benzyl-2-pyridyl)quinazoline (BPQ), providing a chemical-biology tool which has been exploited in two lines of discovery. First, BPQ is shown to form a red (BPQ)2 Cu(I) complex and promote Ctr1-independent copper-accumulation in whole cells and in mitochondria isolated from treated cells. Multiple phenotypes, including loss of aconitase activity, are consistent with copper-BPQ mediated damage to mitochondrial iron-sulphur clusters...
July 2014: Molecular Microbiology
Hiroyoshi Matsumura, Yorimasa Ogata
Melatonin is produced by the pineal gland and regulates various physiological processes including osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized connective tissue-specific protein expressed in the early stage of cementum and bone mineralization. To elucidate the effects of melatonin on human BSP gene expression, we utilized human Saos2 osteoblast-like cells. Melatonin (100 nM) increased the level of BSP mRNA at 3 h, and the level became maximal at 12 and 24 h. We then investigated the melatonin-induced transcriptional activity of luciferase constructs (between -84LUC and -868LUC) including different lengths of the human BSP gene promoter transfected into Saos2 cells...
March 2014: Journal of Oral Science
Aradhana Rani, Roseanna Greenlaw, Manohursingh Runglall, Stipo Jurcevic, Susan John
Signal transducers and activators of transcription 5(STAT5) are cytokine induced signaling proteins, which regulate key immunological processes, such as tolerance induction, maintenance of homeostasis, and CD4 T-effector cell differentiation. In this study, transcriptional targets of STAT5 in CD4 T cells were studied by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Genomic mapping of the sites cloned and identified in this study revealed the striking observation that the majority of STAT5-binding sites mapped to intergenic (>50 kb upstream) or intronic, rather than promoter proximal regions...
2014: PloS One
Sergey A Shiryaev, Albert G Remacle, Andrei V Chernov, Vladislav S Golubkov, Khatereh Motamedchaboki, Norihito Muranaka, Corey M Dambacher, Petr Capek, Muskan Kukreja, Igor A Kozlov, Manuel Perucho, Piotr Cieplak, Alex Y Strongin
Enterotoxigenic anaerobic Bacteroides fragilis is a significant source of inflammatory diarrheal disease and a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Two distinct metalloproteinase types (the homologous 1, 2, and 3 isoforms of fragilysin (FRA1, FRA2, and FRA3, respectively) and metalloproteinase II (MPII)) are encoded by the B. fragilis pathogenicity island. FRA was demonstrated to be important to pathogenesis, whereas MPII, also a potential virulence protein, remained completely uncharacterized. Here, we, for the first time, extensively characterized MPII in comparison with FRA3, a representative of the FRA isoforms...
November 29, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Matthieu F Bastide, Sandra Dovero, Giselle Charron, Gregory Porras, Christian E Gross, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut, Erwan Bézard
Long-term l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) leads to l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), a condition thought to primarily involve the dopamine D1 receptor-expressing striatal medium spiny neurons. Activation of the D1 receptor results in increased expression of several molecular markers, in particular the members of the immediate-early gene (IEG) family, a class of genes rapidly transcribed in response to an external stimulus. However, several dopaminoceptive structures in the brain that are likely to be affected by the exogenously produced DA have received little attention although they might play a key role in mediating those l-DOPA-induced abnormal behaviours...
February 2014: Neurobiology of Disease
Daniel W Bak, Sean J Elliott
While its biological function remains unclear, the three-cysteine, one-histidine ligated human [2Fe-2S] cluster containing protein mitoNEET is of interest because of its interaction with the anti-diabetes drug pioglitazone. The mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] cluster demonstrates proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) and marked cluster instability, which have both been linked to the single His ligand. Highly conserved hydrogen bonding networks, which include the His-87 ligand, exist around the [2Fe-2S] cluster. Through a series of site-directed mutations, PCET of the cluster has been examined, demonstrating that multiple sites of protonation exist in addition to the His ligand, which can influence redox potential...
July 9, 2013: Biochemistry
Oscar Busnadiego, José González-Santamaría, David Lagares, Juan Guinea-Viniegra, Cathy Pichol-Thievend, Laurent Muller, Fernando Rodríguez-Pascual
Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic factor involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and remodeling. In search for novel genes mediating the action of TGF-β1 on vascular ECM, we identified the member of the lysyl oxidase family of matrix-remodeling enzymes, lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4), as a direct target of TGF-β1 in aortic endothelial cells, and we dissected the molecular mechanism of its induction. Deletion mapping and mutagenesis analysis of the LOXL4 promoter demonstrated the absolute requirement of a distal enhancer containing an activator protein 1 (AP-1) site and a Smad binding element for TGF-β1 to induce LOXL4 expression...
June 2013: Molecular and Cellular Biology
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