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Renin Angiotensin System

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776996/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-12%C3%A2-saltwater-on-the-endocrine-physiology-of-juvenile-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis
#1
P C Faulkner, M L Burleson, L Simonitis, C Marshall, D Hala, L H Petersen
American alligator ( Alligator mississippiensis , Linnaeus) habitats are prone to saltwater intrusion following major storms, hurricanes or droughts. Anthropogenic impacts affecting hydrology of freshwater systems may exacerbate saltwater intrusion into freshwater habitats. The endocrine system of alligators is susceptible to changes in the environment but it is currently not known how the crocodilian physiological system responds to environmental stressors such as salinity. Juvenile alligators were exposed to 12‰ saltwater for 5 weeks to determine effects of chronic exposure to saline environments...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772567/the-renin-angiotensin-system-not-the-kinin-kallikrein-system-affects-post-exercise-proteinuria
#2
Günnur Koçer, Filiz Basralı, Oktay Kuru, Ümit Kemal Şentürk
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Temporary proteinuria post-exercise is common and is caused predominantly by renal haemodynamic alterations. One reason is up-regulation of angiotensin II (Ang II) due to the reducing effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. However, another, ignored, reason could be the kininase effect of ACE inhibition. This study investigated how ACE inhibition reduces post-exercise proteinuria: by either Ang II up-regulation inhibition or bradykinin elevation due to kininase activity inhibition...
May 17, 2018: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772435/aliskiren-preclinical-evidence-for-the-treatment-of-hyperproliferative-skin-disorders
#3
Priscila Lúcia Pawloski, Camila Guimarães Moreira, Cintia Delai Silva Horinouchi, Daniel Fernandes, Luiz Renato Olchanheski, Willian Machado, Daniela Almeida Cabrini, Michele Dietrich, Kátia Paludo, Michel Fleith Otuki
Psoriasis is a complex inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin disease. The pathogenesis and mechanisms involved are not completely understood, which makes treatment a difficult issue. Angiotensin II, the most active peptide of the renin-angiotensin system, seems to be involved in processes related to psoriasis pathogenesis, such as inflammation and cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of renin inhibition on inflammation parameters and keratinocyte proliferation in a mouse model of chronic skin inflammation induced by croton oil...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771478/the-reverse-remodeling-response-to-sacubitril-valsartan-therapy-in-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#4
Pieter Martens, Hanne Beliën, Matthias Dupont, Pieter Vandervoort, Wilfried Mullens
BACKGROUND: Major classes of medical therapy for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) induce reverse remodeling. The revere remodeling response to sacubitril/valsartan remains unstudied. METHODS: We performed a single-center, prospective assessor-blinded study to determine the reverse remodeling response of sacubitril/valsartan-therapy in HFrEF-patients with a class I-indication (New York heart Association [NYHA]-class II-IV, Left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]<35%, optimal dose with Renin-Angiotensin-System-Blocker [RAS-blocker])...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767556/hydronephrosis-is-associated-with-elevated-plasmin-in-urine-in-pediatric-patients-and-rats-and-changes-in-ncc-and-%C3%AE-enac-abundance-in-rat-kidney
#5
Rikke Zachar, Ammar Al-Mashhadi, Henrik Dimke, Per Svenningsen, Boye L Jensen, Mattias Carlström
Obstruction of urine flow at the level of the pelvo-ureteric junction (UPJO) and subsequent development of hydronephrosis is one of the most common congenital renal malformations. UPJO is associated with development of salt-sensitive hypertension, which is set by the obstructed kidney, and with a stimulated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in rodent models. This study aimed at investigating the hypothesis that i) in pediatric patients with UPJO the RAAS is activated prior to surgical relief of the obstruction; ii) in rats with UPJO the RAAS activation is reflected by increased abundance of renal aldosterone-stimulated Na+ transporters; and iii) the injured UPJO kidney allows aberrant filtration of plasminogen leading to proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel gamma subunit (γ-ENaC)...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766392/excessive-glutamate-stimulation-impairs-ace2-activity-through-adam17-mediated-shedding-in-cultured-cortical-neurons
#6
Jiaxi Xu, Srinivas Sriramula, Eric Lazartigues
The excitotoxicity of glutamate plays an important role in the progression of various neurological disorders via participating in inflammation and neuronal damage. In this study, we identified the role of excessive glutamate stimulation in the modulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2), a critical component in the compensatory axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In primary cultured cortical neurons, high concentration of glutamate (100 µM) significantly reduced the enzymatic activity of ACE2...
May 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766272/blood-pressure-is-normal-but-is-the-heart
#7
Serkan Fazlı Çelik, Cemşit Karakurt, Yılmaz Tabel, Taner Elmas, Saim Yoloğlu
BACKGROUND: There is no detailed strain analysis of cardiac functions in treated hypertensive pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardio-protective effects of different drug classes in treated pediatric hypertensive patients. METHODS: Sixty non-obese-treated hypertensive patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function and 45 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy subjects underwent clinical evaluation, including 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, standard echocardiographic examination, tissue Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766216/impact-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-or-receptor-blockers-on-post-icu-discharge-outcome-in-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury
#8
Etienne Gayat, Alexa Hollinger, Alain Cariou, Nicolas Deye, Antoine Vieillard-Baron, Samir Jaber, Benjamin G Chousterman, Qin Lu, Pierre François Laterre, Xavier Monnet, Michael Darmon, Marc Leone, Bertrand Guidet, Romain Sonneville, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Marie-Céline Fournier, Matthieu Resche-Rigon, Alexandre Mebazaa, Matthieu Legrand
PURPOSE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with the activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) improve outcome in patients recovering from AKI remains unexplored. The purpose was to investigate the association between prescription of ACEi/ARB at intensive care unit (ICU) discharge and 1-year outcome in patients recovering from AKI. METHODS: Association between ACEi/ARB and 1-year mortality rate was explored in 1551 patients discharged from 21 European ICUs in an observational cohort...
May 15, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765464/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-inhibition-improves-right-ventricular-function-a-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Jacob Y Cao, Seung Yeon Lee, Kevin Phan, David S Celermajer, Sean Lal
The benefits of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are well established for left ventricular dysfunction, but remain unknown for right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. The aim of the current meta-analysis is to investigate the role of RAAS inhibition on RV function in those with or at risk of RV dysfunction. Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Libraries were systematically searched and 12 studies were included for statistical synthesis, comprising 265 RAAS inhibition treatment patients and 265 placebo control patients...
2018: Heart Asia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765306/microglial-activation-is-modulated-by-captopril-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#10
Keren Asraf, Nofar Torika, Ron N Apte, Sigal Fleisher-Berkovich
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important peripheral system involved in homeostasis modulation, with angiotensin II (Ang II) serving as the main effector hormone. The main enzyme involved in Ang II formation is angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) such as captopril (Cap) are predominantly used for the management of hypertension. All of the components of the RAS have also been identified in brain. Centrally located hormones such as Ang II can induce glial inflammation. Moreover, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models, where glial inflammation occurs and is thought to contribute to the propagation of the disease, increased levels of Ang II and ACE have been detected...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763768/effects-on-estrogen-dependent-and-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells-growth-of-ni-ii-zn-ii-and-cd-ii-complexes-with-the-schiff-base-derived-from-pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde-and-5-6-diamino-1-3-dimethyluracil-explored-through-the-renin-angiotensin-system-ras
#11
Nuria A Illán-Cabeza, Sonia B Jiménez-Pulido, Francisco Hueso-Ureña, María J Ramírez-Expósito, Purificación Sánchez-Sánchez, José M Martínez-Martos, Miguel N Moreno-Carretero
A series of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with the Schiff base derived from the condensation 1:1 from pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde and 5,6-diamino-1,3-dimethyluracil (6-amino-1,3-dimethyl-5-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)-amino]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, DAAUPic) were synthesized and subsequently characterized by means of elemental analysis, FT-IR, NMR and nine of them by X-ray diffraction. Except the [Zn(μ-O,O'-AcO)(N5 ,N6 ,N1F -DAAUPicH-1 )]2 and [Cd(O,O'-NO3 )(μ-O4 ,(N5 ,N6 ,N1F )-DAAUPicH-1 )(H2 O)]2 ·2H2 O dimers and the [Cd(μ-S,N-SCN)(N5 ,N6 ,N1F -DAAUPicH-1 )]n chain-like polymer, all of them display monomeric molecular structures...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761600/loss-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-exacerbates-diabetic-retinopathy-by-promoting-bone-marrow-dysfunction
#12
Yaqian Duan, Eleni Beli, Sergio Li Calzi, Judith L Quigley, Rehae C Miller, Leni Moldovan, Dongni Feng, Tatiana E Salazar, Sugata Hazra, Jude Al-Sabah, Kakarla V Chalam, Thao Le Phuong Trinh, Marya Meroueh, Troy A Markel, Matthew C Murray, Ruchi J Vyas, Michael E Boulton, Patricia Parsons-Wingerter, Gavin Y Oudit, Alexander G Obukhov, Maria B Grant
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the primary enzyme of the vasoprotective axis of the renin angiotensin system (RAS). We tested the hypothesis that loss of ACE2 would exacerbate diabetic retinopathy by promoting bone marrow dysfunction. ACE2-/y were crossed with Akita mice, a model of type 1 diabetes. When comparing the bone marrow of the ACE2-/y -Akita mice to that of Akita mice, we observed a reduction of both short-term and long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells, a shift of hematopoiesis towards myelopoiesis, and an impairment of lineage- c-kit+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HS/PC) migration and proliferation...
May 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761293/stable-but-progressive-nature-of-heart-failure-considerations-for-primary-care-physicians
#13
REVIEW
Inder Anand
Primary care physicians play a significant role in managing heart failure (HF), with the goals of reducing mortality, avoiding hospitalization, and improving patients' quality of life. Most HF-related hospitalizations and deaths occur in patients with New York Heart Association functional class II or III, many of whom are perceived to have stable disease, which often progresses without clinical symptoms due to underlying deleterious effects of neurohormonal imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. Management includes lifestyle changes and stepped pharmacological therapy directed at the four stages of HF, with aggressive uptitration of therapies, including beta-blockers and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760662/targeting-renin-angiotensin-system-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Abadi Kahsu Gebre, Birhanetensay Masresha Altaye, Tesfay Mehari Atey, Kald Beshir Tuem, Derbew Fikadu Berhe
Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) is a hormonal system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance through a coordinated action of renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. In addition to its hemodynamic regulatory role, RAS involves in many brain activities, including memory acquisition and consolidation. This review has summarized the involvement of RAS in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the outcomes of treatment with RAS inhibitors. We have discussed the effect of brain RAS in the amyloid plaque (Aβ) deposition, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and vascular pathology which are directly and indirectly associated with AD...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760343/acute-effect-of-ivabradine-on-heart-rate-and-myocardial-oxygen-consumption-in-dogs-with-asymptomatic-mitral-valve-degeneration
#15
Prapawadee Pirintr, Vudhiporn Limprasutr, Nakkawee Saengklub, Parnpradub Pavinadol, Napat Yapao, Natthakarn Limvanicharat, Hathaisiri Kuecharoen, Anusak Kijtawornrat
Degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) is a common cardiac disease in geriatric dogs characterized by the degeneration of the mitral valve, leading to decreased cardiac output and activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This disease results in an increased resting heart rate (HR) and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2 ). A recent publication demonstrated that dogs with asymptomatic DMVD had a significantly higher HR and systemic blood pressure (BP) than age-matched control dogs...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758100/diagnostic-approach-to-low-renin-hypertension
#16
Silvia Monticone, Isabel Losano, Martina Tetti, Fabrizio Buffolo, Franco Veglio, Paolo Mulatero
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a crucial role in maintaining water and electrolytes homeostasis and its deregulation contributes to the development of arterial hypertension. Since the historical description of the "classical" RAAS, a dramatic increase in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of both essential and secondary hypertension has occurred. Approximatively 25% of the patients affected by arterial hypertension display low renin levels, a definition that is largely arbitrary and depends on the investigated population and the specific characteristics of the assay...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754503/hesperidin-suppresses-renin-angiotensin-system-mediated-nox2-over-expression-and-sympathoexcitation-in-2k-1c-hypertensive-rats
#17
Chutamas Wunpathe, Prapassorn Potue, Putcharawipa Maneesai, Sarawoot Bunbupha, Parichat Prachaney, Upa Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan, Poungrat Pakdeechote
Hesperidin, a flavonoid derived from citrus fruits, possesses several beneficial effects including anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hesperidin on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) cascade that mediated oxidative stress and sympathoexcitation in two-kidney, one-clipped (2K-1C) hypertensive rats. 2K-1C hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hypertensive rats were treated with hesperidin at 20[Formula: see text]mg/kg or 40[Formula: see text]mg/kg or losartan at 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg beginning at three weeks after surgery and then continued for four weeks ([Formula: see text]/group)...
May 13, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753367/aldosterone-blockade-added-to-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-to-reduce-albuminuria-a-path-for-improved-renoprotection
#18
EDITORIAL
Peter Rossing, Frederik Persson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753230/nebivolol-prevents-vascular-oxidative-stress-and-hypertension-in-rats-chronically-treated-with-ethanol
#19
Gabriel T do Vale, Janaina A Simplicio, Natália A Gonzaga, Rodrigo Yokota, Amanda A Ribeiro, Dulce E Casarini, Bruno S de Martinis, Carlos R Tirapelli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic ethanol consumption is associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis. Vascular oxidative stress is described as an important mechanism whereby ethanol predisposes to atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that nebivolol would prevent ethanol-induced hypertension and vascular oxidative stress. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol 20% (vol./vol.) or nebivolol (10 mg/kg/day, p. o., gavage), a selective β1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist...
April 30, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753046/identification-of-two-isoforms-of-pop-in-the-domestic-silkworm-bombyx-mori-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis
#20
Ping Fu, Wei Sun, Juan Lai, Yi-Hong Shen, Ze Zhang
Two isoforms, Bmpop-a and Bmpop-b, were cloned and characterized, which were found to encode prolyl oligopeptidase (Pop) of the domestic silkworm Bombyx mori. The full lengths of Bmpop-a and Bmpop-b were 2497 and 2508 bp, deducing 707 and 740 amino acids, respectively. Both of them, possessing the typical characteristics of the Pop family of serine proteinase, were detected to be expressed among different tissues and development stages at the transcription and translation levels. Soluble recombinant BmPop-a (rBmPop-a) had oligopeptidase activity toward the substrates, Z-Gly-Pro-pNA, Z-Gly-Pro-AMC and angiotensin I...
May 9, 2018: Gene
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