Read by QxMD icon Read

Renin Angiotensin System

LaDonya Jackson, Wael Eldahshan, Susan C Fagan, Adviye Ergul
For many years, modulators of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) have been trusted by clinicians for the control of essential hypertension. It was recently demonstrated that these modulators have other pleiotropic properties independent of their hypotensive effects, such as enhancement of cognition. Within the brain, different components of the RAS have been extensively studied in the context of neuroprotection and cognition. Interestingly, a crosstalk between the RAS and other systems such as cholinergic, dopaminergic and adrenergic systems have been demonstrated...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kotaro Nochioka, Yasuhiko Sakata, Hiroaki Shimokawa
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system play crucial roles in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Clinical trials provide strong evidence of prognostic benefits for combination therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and β-blocker in the treatment of HFrEF. Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) is not superior to ACEI in improving mortality and an alternative for patients who are intolerant to ACEI. Prognostic evidence for triple therapy which combined angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and ACEI in addition to β-blocker therapy, is still controversial in HFrEF...
March 15, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Fernando Pedro de Souza-Neto, Melissa Carvalho Santuchi, Mario de Morais E Silva, Maria José Campagnole-Santos, Rafaela Fernandes da Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the role of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] and alamandine in experimental hypertension and atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a very complex system, composed of a cascade of enzymes, peptides, and receptors, known to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Ang-(1-7), identified and characterized in 1987, and alamandine, discovered 16 years after, are the newest two main effector molecules from the RAS, protecting the vascular system against hypertension and atherosclerosis...
March 14, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Pablo Garrido-Gil, Antonio Dominguez-Meijide, Rosario Moratalla, Maria J Guerra, Jose L Labandeira-Garcia
Gastrointestinal dysfunction is a common problem in the elderly. Aging-related changes in interactions between local dopaminergic and renin-angiotensin systems (RAS) have been observed in the brain, renal and vascular tissues. However, it is not known if these interactions also occur in the gut, and are dysregulated with aging. We showed a mutual regulation between the colonic dopaminergic system and RAS using young and aged mice deficient for major angiotensin and dopamine receptors. Aged rats showed a marked decrease in colonic dopamine D2 receptor expression, together with an increase in angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor expression, a decrease in angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor expression (i...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Hong-Ren Yu, You-Lin Tain, Mao-Meng Tiao, Chih-Cheng Chen, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, I-Chun Lin, Shih-Wen Li, Ching-Chou Tsai, Yu-Ju Lin, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Li-Tung Huang
BACKGROUND: Hypertension may result from high-fat (HF) diet induced-obesity and overexposure to glucocorticoids in utero. Recent studies demonstrated the potent contribution of adipose tissue's renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to systemic RAS, which plays a key role in regulating blood pressure (BP). In this study, we investigated the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and postnatal HF diet on RAS of adipose tissue. METHODS: RAS and BP of 6-month old rats exposed to prenatal DEX and/or postnatal HF diet were examined...
March 14, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Eva Nüsken, Jörg Dötsch, Lutz T Weber, Kai-Dietrich Nüsken
Chronic kidney disease affects more than 10% of the population. Programming studies have examined the interrelationship between environmental factors in early life and differences in morbidity and mortality between individuals. A number of important principles has been identified, namely permanent structural modifications of organs and cells, long-lasting adjustments of endocrine regulatory circuits, as well as altered gene transcription. Risk factors include intrauterine deficiencies by disturbed placental function or maternal malnutrition, prematurity, intrauterine and postnatal stress, intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition, as well as dietary dysbalances in postnatal life...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Natalia P Rocha, Fernando M Bastos, Érica L M Vieira, Thiago R R Prestes, Katia D da Silveira, Mauro M Teixeira, Ana Cristina Simões E Silva
OBJECTIVE: Posterior urethral valve is the most common lower urinary tract obstruction in male children. A high percentage of patients with posterior urethral valve evolve to end-stage renal disease. Previous studies showed that cytokines, chemokines, and components of the renin-angiotensin system contribute to the renal damage in obstructive uropathies. The authors recently found that urine samples from fetuses with posterior urethral valve have increased levels of inflammatory molecules...
March 10, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Shin Ishikane, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga
Hypertension, which often exists as a comorbid condition in cancer patients, is considered as a factor affecting cancer progression. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in theregulation of blood pressure, and angiotensin II (Ang II) is a well-known pressor peptide in RAS. There is also accumulated evidence indicating that Ang II plays a critical role in the metastasis of various cancers by modulating adhesion, migration invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Consistent with this, large epidemiological studies have reported the potential beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and Ang II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) against cancer metastasis; however, some of the results remain controversial...
March 10, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Junya Hashimoto, Yuko Hamasaki, Yusuke Takahashi, Mai Kubota, Taketo Yanagisawa, Yoshihiro Itabashi, Masaki Muramatsu, Takeshi Kawamura, Naonori Kumagai, Yoko Ohwada, Ken Sakai, Seiichiro Shishido
AIM: Epstein syndrome is a hereditary disease characterised by macrothrombocytopaenia and progressive nephritis. The abnormality of the MYH9 gene has a strong relationship to the severity of the disease. Severe Epstein syndrome progresses to end-stage renal disease rapidly after adolescence. There is no established therapy. We sought to clarify appropriate management of Epstein syndrome nephropathy. METHODS: Epstein syndrome patients who underwent renal transplantation at our institution between March 2009 and March 2017 were enrolled...
March 13, 2018: Nephrology
Maryam Maleki, Jalal Hasanshahi, Fatemeh Moslemi
Background: Nitric oxide (NO) as a vasodilator factor has renoprotective effect against renal ischemia. The balance between angiotensin II (Ang II) and NO can affect kidney homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine NO alteration in response to renin-Ang system vasodilator receptors antagonists (PD123319; Ang II type 2 receptor antagonist and A779; Mas receptor antagonist) in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty-three Wistar male and female rats were used...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Věra Čertíková Chábová, Petr Kujal, Petra Škaroupková, Zdeňka Varňourková, Šárka Vacková, Zuzana Husková, Soňa Kikerlová, Janusz Sadowski, Elzbieta Kompanowska-Jezierska, Iwona Baranowska, Sung Hee Hwang, Bruce D Hammock, John D Imig, Vladimír Tesař, Ludek Červenka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We found recently that increasing renal epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) levels by blocking soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), an enzyme responsible for EETs degradation, shows renoprotective actions and retards the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Ren-2 transgenic hypertensive rats (TGR) after 5/6 renal ablation (5/6 NX). This prompted us to examine if additional protection is provided when sEH inhibitor is added to the standard renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade, specifically in rats with established CKD...
March 6, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
P Kala, L Sedláková, P Škaroupková, L Kopkan, Z Vaňourková, M Táborský, A Nishiyama, S H Hwang, B D Hammock, J Sadowski, V Melenovský, J D Imig, L Červenka
We showed recently that increasing kidney epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by blocking soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), an enzyme responsible for EETs degradation, retarded the development of renal dysfunction and progression of aorto-caval fistula(ACF)-induced congestive heart failure (CHF) in Ren-2 transgenic hypertensive rats (TGR). In that study the final survival rate of untreated ACF TGR was only 14 % but increased to 41 % after sEH blockade. Here we examined if sEH inhibition added to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade would further enhance protection against ACF-induced CHF in TGR...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Karin Rådholm, Gemma Figtree, Vlado Perkovic, Scott D Solomon, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Dick de Zeeuw, Greg Fulcher, Terrance D Barrett, Wayne Shaw, Mehul Desai, David R Matthews, Bruce Neal
BACKGROUND : Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that reduces the risk of cardiovascular events. We report the effects on heart failure and cardiovascular death overall, in those with and without a baseline history of heart failure, and in other participant subgroups. METHODS : The CANVAS Program (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study) enrolled 10 142 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk. Participants were randomly assigned to canagliflozin or placebo and followed for a mean of 188 weeks...
March 11, 2018: Circulation
Hamish C G Prosser, Omar Azzam, Markus P Schlaich
Resistant hypertension is commonly defined as office blood pressure above recommended target despite the use of optimal doses of at least three antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic. Australian guidelines recommend combination of blockers of the renin-angiotensin system, either ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, with calcium channel blockers and diuretics as the preferred triple therapy. A substantial proportion of hypertensive patients will require additional pharmacotherapy to achieve or get close to target blood pressure levels...
March 1, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Brenda de Oliveira da Silva, Luciane Carla Alberici, Letícia Ferreira Ramos, Caio Mateus Silva, Marina Bonfogo da Silveira, Carlos R P Dechant, Scott L Friedman, Kumiko Koibuchi Sakane, Letícia Rocha Gonçalves, Karen C M Moraes
The development of new therapeutic strategies to control or reverse hepatic fibrosis requires thorough knowledge about its molecular and cellular basis. It is known that the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) [ang-(1-7)] can reduce hepatic fibrosis and steatosis in vivo; therefore, it is important to uncover the mechanisms regulating its activity and cellular model of investigation. Ang-(1-7) is a peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and here we investigated its modulatory effect on the expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs) in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) LX-2, which transdifferentiate into fibrogenic and proliferative cells...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Masaki Mogi, Katsuhiko Kohara, Yasuharu Tabara, Kana Tsukuda, Michiya Igase, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Our previous report indicated that sarcopenia is associated with arterial stiffness and cardiovascular death. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease and its activation may be correlated with sarcopenia according to basic research. However, few clinical studies have assessed the correlation between skeletal muscle loss and RAS component concentrations in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the excretion of angiotensinogen (AGT) and aldosterone (Ald) in 24-h urine samples and clinical and sarcopenic indices...
March 9, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Myint Aung, Tadashi Konoshita, Jagadissan Moodley, Prem Gathiram
INTRODUCTION: The exact cause of preeclampsia (PE) remains elusive. Recently, many researchers have focused on the role of genetic variations in pathogenesis of PE. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is affected in the pathogenesis of PE. OBJECTIVES: To determine association of gene polymorphisms of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in PE and normotensive South African Black women. METHODS: A group of 603 South African Black pregnant women, 246 normotensive and 357 with PE, was recruited...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Ioannis E Vasileiadis, Christos A Goudis, Pinelopi T Giannakopoulou, Tong Liu
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disorder that primarily affects the lungs and is characterized not only by local pulmonary, but also by systemic inflammation which promotes the development of extrapulmonary and cardiovascular co-morbidities. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) are widely used drugs in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, with growing evidence suggesting potential benefits in COPD patients. The purpose of this review is to describe the correlation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with COPD pathophysiology and to present the latest data regarding the potential role of RAS blockers in COPD...
March 9, 2018: COPD
Özcan Örsçelik, Buğra Özkan, Ayça Arslan, Emre Ertan Şahin, Ozan Sakarya, Orçun Ali Sürmeli, Şenay Balcı Fidancı, Ahmet Çelik, Burak Yavuz Çimen, İsmail Türkay Özcan
OBJECTIVE: Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome resulting from structural or functional damages. Although clinical trials have shown that the plasma renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation decreases HF functional status and increases hospitalization for HF patients, the effect of intrarenal RAS activity is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, duration, and number of hospitalizations in the previous year and urinary angiotensinogen (UAGT) in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)...
March 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Suparna C Clasen, Joyce W Wald
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to summarize the effect of cancer therapy-related cardiotoxicity on the development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: We discuss commonly used cancer therapeutics that have the potential for both acute and delayed cardiotoxicity. LV dysfunction from cancer therapies may be found by routine cardiac imaging prior to clinical manifestations of heart failure (HF) and we discuss the current multi-modality approaches for early detection of toxicity with the use of advanced echocardiographic parameters including strain techniques...
March 8, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"