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Lactate AND GLP-1

Guanglei Chang, Jian Liu, Shu Qin, Youqin Jiang, Peng Zhang, Hui Yu, Kai Lu, Nan Zhang, Li Cao, Ying Wang, Yong Li, Dongying Zhang
Accumulating evidence suggests that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analogues exert cardioprotective effects via modulating cardiomyocyte metabolism. Mitochondria play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell metabolism. It was hypothesized that treatment with exenatide, a GLP-1 analogue, may exert cardioprotective effects by improving mitochondrial function in an in vitro model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). H9c2 cells were employed to establish an in vitro model of H/R. Exenatide was added to the cells for 30 min prior to exposure to hypoxia...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
H Li, J Sun, J Du, F Wang, R Fang, C Yu, J Xiong, W Chen, Z Lu, J Liu
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common occurrence following gastrointestinal dysfunction. Recently, more and more attentions are being focused on gut microbiota in brain and behavior. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is considered as a mediator that links the gut-brain axis. The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of Clostridium butyricum (Cb) on brain damage in a mouse model of TBI. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a model of TBI-induced by weight-drop impact head injury and were treated intragastrically with Cb...
November 27, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Hashim Islam, Logan K Townsend, Greg L McKie, Philip J Medeiros, Brendon J Gurd, Tom J Hazell
High-intensity exercise suppresses appetite partly through changes in peripheral appetite-regulating hormones. Lactate and IL-6 mediate the release of these hormones in animal/cell models and may provide a mechanistic link between exercise intensity and appetite regulation. The current study examined changes in appetite-regulating hormones, lactate, and IL-6 after different intensities of running. Eight males completed four experimental sessions: 1) moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; 65% V̇o2max); 2) vigorous-intensity continuous training (VICT; 85% V̇o2max); 3) sprint interval training (SIT; repeated "all-out" sprints); and 4) Control (CTRL; no exercise)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Laura Gillard, Camille Mayeur, Véronique Robert, Isabelle Pingenot, Johanne Le Beyec, André Bado, Patricia Lepage, Muriel Thomas, Francisca Joly
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by severe intestinal malabsorption following restrictive surgery. The objective of this study was to determine the functional contribution of SBS-microbiota after resection. It is well-known that SBS-microbiota displayed specific features with a prevalence of Lactobacillus, a low amount of some anaerobic microbes (Clostridium leptum) and an accumulation of fecal lactate in some patients. Patients with jejuno-colonic anastomosis were stratified according to the presence of lactate in their feces and, we observe that the lactate-producing bacteria were predominant in the sub-group of patients accumulating fecal lactate...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Adora M W Yau, John McLaughlin, Ronald J Maughan, William Gilmore, Gethin H Evans
This study aimed to examine gastric emptying rate and gastrointestinal hormone responses to fructose and glucose ingestion following 3 days of dietary fructose supplementation. Using the (13)C-breath test method, gastric emptying rates of equicaloric fructose and glucose solutions were measured in 10 healthy men with prior fructose supplementation (fructose supplement, FS; glucose supplement, GS) and without prior fructose supplementation (fructose control, FC; glucose control, GC). In addition, circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin (GHR), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were determined, as well as leptin, lactate, and triglycerides...
March 10, 2017: Nutrients
Adora M W Yau, John McLaughlin, William Gilmore, Ronald J Maughan, Gethin H Evans
This pilot study aimed to investigate the effect of simple sugar ingestion, in amounts typical of common ingestion, on appetite and the gut-derived hormone response. Seven healthy men ingested water (W) and equicaloric solutions containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate (G), 36 g fructose (F), 36 g sucrose (S), and 19.8 g glucose monohydrate + 18 g fructose (C), in a randomised order. Serum concentrations of ghrelin, glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, lactate, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and d-3 hydroxybutyrate, were measured for 60 min...
February 14, 2017: Nutrients
Ketlin T Colombelli, Sérgio A A Santos, Ana C L Camargo, Flávia B Constantino, Caroline N Barquilha, Jaqueline C Rinaldi, Sérgio L Felisbino, Luis A Justulin
Experimental data demonstrated the negative impact of maternal protein malnutrition (MPM) on rat prostate development, but the mechanism behind the impairment of prostate growth has not been well understood. Male Sprague Dawley rats, borned to dams fed a normal protein diet (CTR group, 17% protein diet), were compared with those borned from dams fed a low protein diet (6% protein diet) during gestation (GLP group) or gestation and lactation (GLLP). The ventral prostate lobes (VP) were removed at post-natal day (PND) 10 and 21, and analyzed via different methods...
May 15, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Sebastian Steven, Kerstin Jurk, Maximilian Kopp, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Yuliya Mikhed, Kathrin Schwierczek, Siyer Roohani, Fatemeh Kashani, Matthias Oelze, Thomas Klein, Sergey Tokalov, Sven Danckwardt, Susanne Strand, Philip Wenzel, Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Excessive inflammation in sepsis causes microvascular thrombosis and thrombocytopenia associated with organ dysfunction and high mortality. The present studies aimed to investigate whether inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) and supplementation with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists improved endotoxaemia-associated microvascular thrombosis via immunomodulatory effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Endotoxaemia was induced in C57BL/6J mice by a single injection of LPS (17...
June 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
D Enette Larson-Meyer, Jessica Schueler, Erin Kyle, Kathleen J Austin, Ann Marie Hart, Brenda M Alexander
To determine whether fasting and meal-induced appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with body weight retention after childbearing, we studied 24 exclusively breastfeeding women (BMI = 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)) at 4-5 weeks postpartum and 20 never-pregnant controls (BMI = 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)). Ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and appetite ratings were measured before/and 150 minutes after a standardized breakfast and 60 minutes after an ad libitum lunch. Body weight/composition were measured at 6 and 12 months...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Xiao-Ying Liu, Lin-Xi Wang, Zhou Chen, Li-Bin Liu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the GLP-1 analog liraglutide on beta-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and study the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Cultured SH-SY5Y cells in vitro were randomly divided into normal control group, beta-amyloid (Aβ) group (20, 40, and 80 uM), and liraglutide pre-treatment group (10, 100, and 200 nM). Cell viability was determined by CCK-8 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)...
April 2016: Neurological Research
Sarah J Glastras, Hui Chen, Rachel T McGrath, Amgad A Zaky, Anthony J Gill, Carol A Pollock, Sonia Saad
Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease in offspring, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Exendin-4 (Exd-4) activates the glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor thereby decreasing serum glucose levels and body weight. In addition, Exd-4 has been shown to reduce renal and cardiac complications in experimental models of T2D. We hypothesized that treatment with Exd-4 would ameliorate the detrimental effects of maternal and diet-induced obesity on renal characteristics in offspring...
March 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
Megan C Hallam, Raylene A Reimer
The Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis proposes that the fetus takes cues from the maternal environment to predict its postnatal environment. A mismatch between the predicted and actual environments precipitates an increased risk of chronic disease. Our objective was to determine if, following a high fat, high sucrose (HFS) diet challenge in adulthood, re-matching offspring to their maternal gestational diet would improve metabolic health more so than if there was no previous exposure to that diet. Animals re-matched to a high prebiotic fiber diet (HF) had lower body weight and adiposity than animals re-matched to a high protein (HP) or control (C) diet and also had increased levels of the satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY (p < 0...
January 14, 2016: Nutrients
Laura J McCreight, Clifford J Bailey, Ewan R Pearson
Metformin is an effective agent with a good safety profile that is widely used as a first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes, yet its mechanisms of action and variability in terms of efficacy and side effects remain poorly understood. Although the liver is recognised as a major site of metformin pharmacodynamics, recent evidence also implicates the gut as an important site of action. Metformin has a number of actions within the gut. It increases intestinal glucose uptake and lactate production, increases GLP-1 concentrations and the bile acid pool within the intestine, and alters the microbiome...
March 2016: Diabetologia
Tom J Hazell, Hashim Islam, Logan K Townsend, Matt S Schmale, Jennifer L Copeland
The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. As the effectiveness of exercise to induce weight loss is a controversial topic, there is considerable interest in the effect of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP)...
March 1, 2016: Appetite
Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Elayne Hondares, Marta Giralt, Teresa Mampel, Roser Iglesias, Francesc Villarroya
FGF21 is a hormonal factor with important functions in the control of metabolism. FGF21 is found in rodent and human milk. Radiolabeled FGF21 administered to lactating dams accumulates in milk and is transferred to neonatal gut. The small intestine of neonatal (but not adult) mice highly expresses β-Klotho in the luminal area. FGF21-KO pups fed by FGF21-KO dams showed decreased expression and circulating levels of incretins (GIP and GLP-1), reduced gene expression of intestinal lactase and maltase-glucoamylase, and low levels of galactose in plasma, all associated with a mild decrease in body weight...
2015: Scientific Reports
Lauryn M Nyhoff, Timothy D Heden, Heather J Leidy, Nathan C Winn, Young-Min Park, John P Thyfault, Jill A Kanaley
Prior research has shown an increase in GLP-1 concentrations during exercise but this exercise bout was conducted postprandially. The purpose of this study was to examine the incretin response to a meal following an exercise bout of different intensities in obese subjects. Eleven women (BMI>37.3±7.0kg/m(2); Age 24.3±4.6year) participated in 3 counter- balanced study days, where a standardized meal was preceded by: (1) No exercise (NoEx), (2) ModEx (55% VO2max), and (3) IntEx (4min (80% VO2max)/3min (50% VO2max)...
September 2015: Peptides
Karpagam Aravindhan, Weike Bao, Mark R Harpel, Robert N Willette, John J Lepore, Beat M Jucker
Previous studies have shown that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) provides cardiovascular benefits independent of its role on peripheral glycemic control. However, the precise mechanism(s) by which GLP-1 treatment renders cardioprotection during myocardial ischemia remain unresolved. Here we examined the role for GLP-1 treatment on glucose and fatty acid metabolism in normal and ischemic rat hearts following a 30 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion injury, and in isolated cardiomyocytes (CM). Relative carbohydrate and fat oxidation levels were measured in both normal and ischemic hearts using a 1-13C glucose clamp coupled with NMR-based isotopomer analysis, as well as in adult rat CMs by monitoring pH and O2 consumption in the presence of glucose or palmitate...
2015: PloS One
Kai Lu, Guanglei Chang, Lin Ye, Peng Zhang, Yong Li, Dongying Zhang
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues are likely to exert cardioprotective effects via balancing the energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes following ischemic or hypoxic insults. The present study aimed to explore the protective effects and mechanism of exendin-4, a GLP-1 analogue, on cardiomyocyte glucose uptake using an in vitro model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) of H9c2 cardiomyocyte cells. Pre-treatment with exendin-4 (200 nM) prior to H/R increased the cell viability, decreased cell apoptosis, enhanced cardiomyocyte glucose uptake and increased the production of adenosine triphosphate...
August 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yoshitaka Kihira, Ariunzaya Burentogtokh, Mari Itoh, Yuki Izawa-Ishizawa, Keisuke Ishizawa, Yasumasa Ikeda, Koichiro Tsuchiya, Toshiaki Tamaki
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone, is secreted from L cells located in the intestinal epithelium. It is known that intestinal oxygen tension is decreased postprandially. In addition, we found that the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which accumulates in cells under hypoxic conditions, was significantly increased in the colons of mice with food intake, indicating that the oxygen concentration is likely reduced in the colon after eating. Therefore, we hypothesized that GLP-1 secretion is affected by oxygen tension...
2015: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Z Y Hu, Z Y Yin, X Y Lin, Z G Yan, Z H Wang
Multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (n = 16) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow. Treatments were as follows: (i) feeding low-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet A), (ii) feeding low-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium (Diet B), (iii) feeding high-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet C) and (iv) feeding high-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium...
October 2015: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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