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Lactate AND GLP-1

Adora M W Yau, John McLaughlin, Ronald J Maughan, William Gilmore, Gethin H Evans
This study aimed to examine gastric emptying rate and gastrointestinal hormone responses to fructose and glucose ingestion following 3 days of dietary fructose supplementation. Using the (13)C-breath test method, gastric emptying rates of equicaloric fructose and glucose solutions were measured in 10 healthy men with prior fructose supplementation (fructose supplement, FS; glucose supplement, GS) and without prior fructose supplementation (fructose control, FC; glucose control, GC). In addition, circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin (GHR), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were determined, as well as leptin, lactate, and triglycerides...
March 10, 2017: Nutrients
Adora M W Yau, John McLaughlin, William Gilmore, Ronald J Maughan, Gethin H Evans
This pilot study aimed to investigate the effect of simple sugar ingestion, in amounts typical of common ingestion, on appetite and the gut-derived hormone response. Seven healthy men ingested water (W) and equicaloric solutions containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate (G), 36 g fructose (F), 36 g sucrose (S), and 19.8 g glucose monohydrate + 18 g fructose (C), in a randomised order. Serum concentrations of ghrelin, glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, lactate, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and d-3 hydroxybutyrate, were measured for 60 min...
February 14, 2017: Nutrients
Ketlin T Colombelli, Sérgio A A Santos, Ana C L Camargo, Flávia B Constantino, Caroline N Barquilha, Jaqueline C Rinaldi, Sérgio L Felisbino, Luis A Justulin
Experimental data demonstrated the negative impact of maternal protein malnutrition (MPM) on rat prostate development, but the mechanism behind the impairment of prostate growth has not been well understood. Male Sprague Dawley rats, borned to dams fed a normal protein diet (CTR group, 17% protein diet), were compared with those borned from dams fed a low protein diet (6% protein diet) during gestation (GLP group) or gestation and lactation (GLLP). The ventral prostate lobes (VP) were removed at post-natal day (PND) 10 and 21, and analyzed via different methods...
December 29, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Sebastian Steven, Kerstin Jurk, Maximilian Kopp, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Yuliya Mikhed, Kathrin Schwierczek, Siyer Roohani, Fatemeh Kashani, Matthias Oelze, Thomas Klein, Sergey Tokalov, Sven Danckwardt, Susanne Strand, Philip Wenzel, Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Excessive inflammation in sepsis causes microvascular thrombosis and thrombocytopenia associated with organ dysfunction and high mortality. The present studies aimed to investigate whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition and supplementation with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues improves endotoxaemia-associated microvascular thrombosis via immunomodulatory effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Endotoxaemia was induced in C57BL/6 J mice by single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (17...
July 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
D Enette Larson-Meyer, Jessica Schueler, Erin Kyle, Kathleen J Austin, Ann Marie Hart, Brenda M Alexander
To determine whether fasting and meal-induced appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with body weight retention after childbearing, we studied 24 exclusively breastfeeding women (BMI = 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)) at 4-5 weeks postpartum and 20 never-pregnant controls (BMI = 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)). Ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and appetite ratings were measured before/and 150 minutes after a standardized breakfast and 60 minutes after an ad libitum lunch. Body weight/composition were measured at 6 and 12 months...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Xiao-Ying Liu, Lin-Xi Wang, Zhou Chen, Li-Bin Liu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the GLP-1 analog liraglutide on beta-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and study the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Cultured SH-SY5Y cells in vitro were randomly divided into normal control group, beta-amyloid (Aβ) group (20, 40, and 80 uM), and liraglutide pre-treatment group (10, 100, and 200 nM). Cell viability was determined by CCK-8 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)...
April 2016: Neurological Research
Sarah J Glastras, Hui Chen, Rachel T McGrath, Amgad A Zaky, Anthony J Gill, Carol A Pollock, Sonia Saad
Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease in offspring, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Exendin-4 (Exd-4) activates the glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor thereby decreasing serum glucose levels and body weight. In addition, Exd-4 has been shown to reduce renal and cardiac complications in experimental models of T2D. We hypothesized that treatment with Exd-4 would ameliorate the detrimental effects of maternal and diet-induced obesity on renal characteristics in offspring...
March 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
Megan C Hallam, Raylene A Reimer
The Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis proposes that the fetus takes cues from the maternal environment to predict its postnatal environment. A mismatch between the predicted and actual environments precipitates an increased risk of chronic disease. Our objective was to determine if, following a high fat, high sucrose (HFS) diet challenge in adulthood, re-matching offspring to their maternal gestational diet would improve metabolic health more so than if there was no previous exposure to that diet. Animals re-matched to a high prebiotic fiber diet (HF) had lower body weight and adiposity than animals re-matched to a high protein (HP) or control (C) diet and also had increased levels of the satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY (p < 0...
January 14, 2016: Nutrients
Laura J McCreight, Clifford J Bailey, Ewan R Pearson
Metformin is an effective agent with a good safety profile that is widely used as a first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes, yet its mechanisms of action and variability in terms of efficacy and side effects remain poorly understood. Although the liver is recognised as a major site of metformin pharmacodynamics, recent evidence also implicates the gut as an important site of action. Metformin has a number of actions within the gut. It increases intestinal glucose uptake and lactate production, increases GLP-1 concentrations and the bile acid pool within the intestine, and alters the microbiome...
March 2016: Diabetologia
Tom J Hazell, Hashim Islam, Logan K Townsend, Matt S Schmale, Jennifer L Copeland
The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. As the effectiveness of exercise to induce weight loss is a controversial topic, there is considerable interest in the effect of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP)...
March 1, 2016: Appetite
Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Elayne Hondares, Marta Giralt, Teresa Mampel, Roser Iglesias, Francesc Villarroya
FGF21 is a hormonal factor with important functions in the control of metabolism. FGF21 is found in rodent and human milk. Radiolabeled FGF21 administered to lactating dams accumulates in milk and is transferred to neonatal gut. The small intestine of neonatal (but not adult) mice highly expresses β-Klotho in the luminal area. FGF21-KO pups fed by FGF21-KO dams showed decreased expression and circulating levels of incretins (GIP and GLP-1), reduced gene expression of intestinal lactase and maltase-glucoamylase, and low levels of galactose in plasma, all associated with a mild decrease in body weight...
2015: Scientific Reports
Lauryn M Nyhoff, Timothy D Heden, Heather J Leidy, Nathan C Winn, Young-Min Park, John P Thyfault, Jill A Kanaley
Prior research has shown an increase in GLP-1 concentrations during exercise but this exercise bout was conducted postprandially. The purpose of this study was to examine the incretin response to a meal following an exercise bout of different intensities in obese subjects. Eleven women (BMI>37.3±7.0kg/m(2); Age 24.3±4.6year) participated in 3 counter- balanced study days, where a standardized meal was preceded by: (1) No exercise (NoEx), (2) ModEx (55% VO2max), and (3) IntEx (4min (80% VO2max)/3min (50% VO2max)...
September 2015: Peptides
Karpagam Aravindhan, Weike Bao, Mark R Harpel, Robert N Willette, John J Lepore, Beat M Jucker
Previous studies have shown that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) provides cardiovascular benefits independent of its role on peripheral glycemic control. However, the precise mechanism(s) by which GLP-1 treatment renders cardioprotection during myocardial ischemia remain unresolved. Here we examined the role for GLP-1 treatment on glucose and fatty acid metabolism in normal and ischemic rat hearts following a 30 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion injury, and in isolated cardiomyocytes (CM). Relative carbohydrate and fat oxidation levels were measured in both normal and ischemic hearts using a 1-13C glucose clamp coupled with NMR-based isotopomer analysis, as well as in adult rat CMs by monitoring pH and O2 consumption in the presence of glucose or palmitate...
2015: PloS One
Kai Lu, Guanglei Chang, Lin Ye, Peng Zhang, Yong Li, Dongying Zhang
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues are likely to exert cardioprotective effects via balancing the energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes following ischemic or hypoxic insults. The present study aimed to explore the protective effects and mechanism of exendin-4, a GLP-1 analogue, on cardiomyocyte glucose uptake using an in vitro model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) of H9c2 cardiomyocyte cells. Pre-treatment with exendin-4 (200 nM) prior to H/R increased the cell viability, decreased cell apoptosis, enhanced cardiomyocyte glucose uptake and increased the production of adenosine triphosphate...
August 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yoshitaka Kihira, Ariunzaya Burentogtokh, Mari Itoh, Yuki Izawa-Ishizawa, Keisuke Ishizawa, Yasumasa Ikeda, Koichiro Tsuchiya, Toshiaki Tamaki
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone, is secreted from L cells located in the intestinal epithelium. It is known that intestinal oxygen tension is decreased postprandially. In addition, we found that the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which accumulates in cells under hypoxic conditions, was significantly increased in the colons of mice with food intake, indicating that the oxygen concentration is likely reduced in the colon after eating. Therefore, we hypothesized that GLP-1 secretion is affected by oxygen tension...
2015: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Z Y Hu, Z Y Yin, X Y Lin, Z G Yan, Z H Wang
Multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (n = 16) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow. Treatments were as follows: (i) feeding low-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet A), (ii) feeding low-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium (Diet B), (iii) feeding high-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet C) and (iv) feeding high-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium...
October 2015: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Adela Penesova, Miroslav Vlcek, Richard Imrich, Lucia Vernerova, Andrea Marko, Milada Meskova, Lucia Grunnerova, Peter Turcani, Daniela Jezova, Branislav Kollar
There are limited data regarding glucose metabolism dysregulation in multiple sclerosis (MS). Present study investigates glucose and insulin response during oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) in MS patients. We examined 19 MS patients and 19 age, sex and body mass index (BMI) matched healthy controls. MS patients were newly diagnosed, untreated and with low Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score (1.1 ± 0.7). Plasma glucose, lactate, insulin and GLP-1 during oGTT, and fasting adipokines, lipid and inflammatory parameters were analyzed...
August 2015: Metabolic Brain Disease
Fernanda Torres Quitete, Jessica Lopes Nobre, Nayara Peixoto-Silva, Egberto Gaspar de Moura, Patricia Cristina Lisboa, Elaine de Oliveira
SCOPE: Gut peptides regulate appetite and adipogenesis. Early weaning (EW) leads to later development of obesity that can be prevented by calcium supplementation. We evaluated gut peptides that may have a role in the establishment of this dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: At birth, lactating Wistar rats were separated in: EW, lactating rats involved with a bandage interrupting the lactation during the last 4 days of standard lactation, and C (control) dams whose pups had free access to milk during throughout lactation...
April 2015: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Kaisa Olli, Krista Salli, Esa Alhoniemi, Markku Saarinen, Alvin Ibarra, Tommi Vasankari, Nina Rautonen, Kirsti Tiihonen
BACKGROUND: Dietary fibers are associated with enhanced satiety. However, the mechanism of different dietary fibers contributing to satiety-related gastrointestinal (GI) peptide release, especially in an obese population, is still poorly understood. Polydextrose (PDX), a water-soluble glucose polymer, has demonstrated its ability to reduce energy intake at a subsequent meal, but its mechanism of action requires further research. Also, there is limited evidence on its capacity to regulate subjective feelings of appetite...
January 3, 2015: Nutrition Journal
H Q Sun, C Q Tan, H K Wei, Y Zou, G Long, J T Ao, H X Xue, S W Jiang, J Peng
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different amounts of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in the gestation diet on the physio-chemical properties of diets, postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, lactation feed intake of sows and piglet performance during two successive reproductive cycles. Multiparous Landrace sows (n=140) were assigned randomly to one of four experimental diets, and four gestation diets were formulated to contain varying amounts of KF at 0%, 0.6%, 1.2% or 2.2%, respectively. The water binding capacity (WBC) (P<0...
January 2015: Animal Reproduction Science
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