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Reward center addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687506/effects-of-alkaloid-rich-extract-from-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-havil-on-naloxone-precipitated-morphine-withdrawal-symptoms-and-local-field-potential-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-mice
#1
Dania Cheaha, Chayaporn Reakkamnuan, Jakkrit Nukitram, Somsmorn Chittrakarn, Pimpimol Phukpattaranont, Niwat Keawpradub, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. (M. speciosa) is among the most well-known plants used in ethnic practice of Southeast Asia. It has gained increasing attention as a plant with potential to substitute morphine in addiction treatment program. However, its action on the central nervous system is controversial. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the effects of M. speciosa alkaloid extract on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and neural signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, brain reward center) of mice...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649663/addictive-neurons
#2
Sodikdjon A Kodirov
Since the reward center is considered to be the area tegmentalis ventralis of the hypothalamus, logically its neurons could mainly be responsible for addiction. However, the literature asserts that almost any neurons of CNS can respond to one or another addictive compound. Obviously not only addictive nicotine, but also alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, heroin and morphine may influence dopaminergic cells alone in VTA. Moreover, paradoxically some of these drugs ameliorate symptoms, counterbalance syndromes, cure diseases and improve health, not only those related to the CNS and in adults, but also almost all other organs and in children, e...
2017: Therapeutic Targets for Neurological Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624587/the-lateral-habenula-and-alcohol-role-of-glutamate-and-m-type-potassium-channels
#3
REVIEW
Avi Shah, Wanhong Zuo, Seungwoo Kang, Jing Li, Rao Fu, Haifeng Zhang, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder. Our knowledge of alcoholism hinges on our understanding of its effects on the brain. This review will center on the effects of alcohol in the lateral habenula (LHb), an epithalamic structure that connects the forebrain with the midbrain and encodes aversive signaling. Like many addictive drugs, alcohol has both rewarding and aversive properties. While alcohol's euphoric property is believed to be important for the initiation of drinking, increasing evidence suggests that alcohol's negative affect plays a critical role in excessive drinking and alcohol dependence...
June 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576510/the-role-of-the-habenula-in-the-transition-from-reward-to-misery-in-substance-use-and-mood-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Albert Batalla, Judith R Homberg, Tatiana V Lipina, Guillaume Sescousse, Maartje Luijten, Svetlana A Ivanova, Arnt F A Schellekens, Anton J M Loonen
The habenula (Hb) is an evolutionary well-conserved structure located in the epithalamus. The Hb receives inputs from the septum, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, and projects to several midbrain centers, most importantly the inhibitory rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and the excitatory interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), which regulate the activity of midbrain monoaminergic nuclei. The Hb is postulated to play a key role in reward and aversion processing across species, including humans, and to be implicated in the different stages of transition from recreational drug intake to addiction and co-morbid mood disorders...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533660/genes-emotions-and-gut-microbiota-the-next-frontier-for-the-gastroenterologist
#5
REVIEW
Arturo Panduro, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Sonia Roman
Most medical specialties including the field of gastroenterology are mainly aimed at treating diseases rather than preventing them. Genomic medicine studies the health/disease process based on the interaction of the human genes with the environment. The gastrointestinal (GI) system is an ideal model to analyze the interaction between our genes, emotions and the gut microbiota. Based on the current knowledge, this mini-review aims to provide an integrated synopsis of this interaction to achieve a better understanding of the GI disorders related to bad eating habits and stress-related disease...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445527/enhanced-functional-connectivity-and-volume-between-cognitive-and-reward-centers-of-na%C3%A3-ve-rodent-brain-produced-by-pro-dopaminergic-agent-kb220z
#6
Marcelo Febo, Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Pablo D Perez, Luis M Colon-Perez, Panayotis K Thanos, Craig F Ferris, Praveen Kulkarni, John Giordano, David Baron, Mark S Gold
Dopaminergic reward dysfunction in addictive behaviors is well supported in the literature. There is evidence that alterations in synchronous neural activity between brain regions subserving reward and various cognitive functions may significantly contribute to substance-related disorders. This study presents the first evidence showing that a pro-dopaminergic nutraceutical (KB220Z) significantly enhances, above placebo, functional connectivity between reward and cognitive brain areas in the rat. These include the nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate gyrus, anterior thalamic nuclei, hippocampus, prelimbic and infralimbic loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226334/prescription-opioid-abuse-in-chronic-pain-an-updated-review-of-opioid-abuse-predictors-and-strategies-to-curb-opioid-abuse-part-2
#7
Alan D Kaye, Mark R Jones, Adam M Kaye, Juan G Ripoll, Donald E Jones, Vincent Galan, Burton D Beakley, Frank Calixto, Jamie L Bolden, Richard D Urman, Laxmaiah Manchikanti
Chronic pain and prescription opioid abuse are extremely prevalent in the United States and worldwide. The consequences of opioid misuse can be life-threatening with significant morbidity and mortality, exacting a heavy toll on patients, physicians, and society. The risk for misuse of prescribed opioids is much higher in patients with chronic pain, especially those with concurrent substance use and /or mental health disorders. Several reasons can account for the occurrence of opioid abuse and misuse, including self-medication, use for reward, compulsive use related to addiction, and diversion for profit...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226333/prescription-opioid-abuse-in-chronic-pain-an-updated-review-of-opioid-abuse-predictors-and-strategies-to-curb-opioid-abuse-part-1
#8
REVIEW
Alan D Kaye, Mark R Jones, Adam M Kaye, Juan G Ripoll, Vincent Galan, Burton D Beakley, Frank Calixto, Jamie L Bolden, Richard D Urman, Laxmaiah Manchikanti
Chronic pain and prescription opioid abuse are extremely prevalent both in this country and worldwide. Consequences of opioid misuse can be life-threatening with significant morbidity and mortality, exacting a heavy toll on patients, physicians, and society. Individuals with chronic pain and co-occurring substance use disorders and/or mental health disorders, are at a higher risk for misuse of prescribed opioids. Opioid abuse and misuse occurs for a variety of reasons, including self-medication, use for reward, compulsive use because of addiction, and diversion for profit...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146250/effect-of-selective-inhibition-of-reactivated-nicotine-associated-memories-with-propranolol-on-nicotine-craving
#9
Yan-Xue Xue, Jia-Hui Deng, Ya-Yun Chen, Li-Bo Zhang, Ping Wu, Geng-Di Huang, Yi-Xiao Luo, Yan-Ping Bao, Yu-Mei Wang, Yavin Shaham, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
Importance: A relapse into nicotine addiction during abstinence often occurs after the reactivation of nicotine reward memories, either by acute exposure to nicotine (a smoking episode) or by smoking-associated conditioned stimuli (CS). Preclinical studies suggest that drug reward memories can undergo memory reconsolidation after being reactivated, during which they can be weakened or erased by pharmacological or behavioral manipulations. However, translational clinical studies using CS-induced memory retrieval-reconsolidation procedures to decrease drug craving reported inconsistent results...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090374/neurophysiological-measures-and-alcohol-use-disorder-aud-hypothesizing-links-between-clinical-severity-index-and-molecular-neurobiological-patterns
#10
Mario Vitali, Carmen Napolitano, Marlene Oscar Berman, Simona Flamminii Minuto, Gemma Battagliese, Maria Luisa Attilia, Eric R Braverman, Marina Romeo, Kenneth Blum, Mauro Ceccanti
BACKGROUND: In 1987, Cloninger proposed a clinical description and classification of different personality traits genetically defined and independent from each other. Moreover, he elaborated a specific test the TCI to investigate these traits/states. The study of craving in Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) assumed a greater significance, since ever more data seems to suggest a direct correlation between high levels of craving and a higher risk of relapse in alcoholics. Thus, our study aim is to explore the possible correlations among TCI linked molecular neurobiological pattern (s), craving and alcohol addiction severity measures in a sample of Italian alcoholics...
April 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012058/glutamate-and-brain-glutaminases-in-drug-addiction
#11
REVIEW
Javier Márquez, José A Campos-Sandoval, Ana Peñalver, José M Matés, Juan A Segura, Eduardo Blanco, Francisco J Alonso, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and its actions are related to the behavioral effects of psychostimulant drugs. In the last two decades, basic neuroscience research and preclinical studies with animal models are suggesting a critical role for glutamate transmission in drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse. Although most of the interest has been centered in post-synaptic glutamate receptors, the presynaptic synthesis of glutamate through brain glutaminases may also contribute to imbalances in glutamate homeostasis, a key feature of the glutamatergic hypothesis of addiction...
March 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620345/a-preliminary-study-of-longitudinal-neuroadaptation-associated-with-recovery-from-addiction
#12
Sarah E Forster, Peter R Finn, Joshua W Brown
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored longitudinal change in event-related brain responses during early recovery from addiction. Moreover, existing findings yield evidence of both increased and decreased signaling within reward and control centers over time. The current study explored reward- and control-related signals in a risky decision-making task and specifically investigated parametric modulations of the BOLD signal, rather than signal magnitude alone. It was hypothesized that risk-related signals during decision-making and outcome evaluation would reflect recovery and that change in specific signals would correspond with improved treatment outcomes...
November 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502054/pilot-clinical-observations-between-food-and-drug-seeking-derived-from-fifty-cases-attending-an-eating-disorder-clinic
#13
Harriet Beitscher-Campbell, Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Margaret A Madigan, John Giordano, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Mark S Gold
Background The reward deficiency syndrome hypothesis posits that genes are responsible for reward dependence and related behaviors. There is evidence that both bulimia and anorexia nervosa, especially in women, have been linked to a lifetime history of substance use disorder (SUD). There are difficulties in accepting food as an addiction similar to drugs; however, increasingly neuroimaging studies favor such an assertion. Case presentations We are reporting the evidence of comorbidity of eating disorders with SUD found within these case presentations...
September 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189881/modulation-of-pain-nociception-and-analgesia-by-the-brain-reward-center
#14
REVIEW
Vasiliki Mitsi, Venetia Zachariou
The midbrain dopamine center comprises a key network for reward, salience, motivation, and mood. Evidence from various clinical and preclinical settings points to the midbrain dopamine circuit as an important modulator of pain perception and pain-induced anxiety and depression. This review summarizes recent findings that shed light to the neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and molecular adaptations that chronic pain conditions promote in the mesolimbic dopamine system. Chronic pain states induce changes in neuronal plasticity and functional connectivity in several parts of the brain reward center, including nucleus accumbens, the ventral tegmental area and the prefrontal cortex...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147945/neuropharmacology-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-focus-on-the-rewarding-and-reinforcing-properties-of-cannabimimetics-and-amphetamine-like-stimulants
#15
REVIEW
Cristina Miliano, Giovanni Serpelloni, Claudia Rimondo, Maddalena Mereu, Matteo Marti, Maria Antonietta De Luca
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are a heterogeneous and rapidly evolving class of molecules available on the global illicit drug market (e.g smart shops, internet, "dark net") as a substitute for controlled substances. The use of NPS, mainly consumed along with other drugs of abuse and/or alcohol, has resulted in a significantly growing number of mortality and emergency admissions for overdoses, as reported by several poison centers from all over the world. The fact that the number of NPS have more than doubled over the last 10 years, is a critical challenge to governments, the scientific community, and civil society [EMCDDA (European Drug Report), 2014; UNODC, 2014b; Trends and developments]...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087806/the-influence-of-palatable-diets-in-reward-system-activation-a-mini-review
#16
REVIEW
Isabel Cristina de Macedo, Joice Soares de Freitas, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres
The changes in eating patterns that have occurred in recent decades are an important cause of obesity. Food intake and energy expenditure are controlled by a complex neural system involving the hypothalamic centers and peripheral satiety system (gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones). Highly palatable and caloric food disrupts appetite regulation; however, palatable foods induce pleasure and reward. The cafeteria diet is such a palatable diet and has been shown consistently to increase body weight and induce hyperplasia in animal obesity models...
2016: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27063845/application-of-fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry-for-the-in-vivo-characterization-of-optically-evoked-dopamine-in-the-olfactory-tubercle-of-the-rat-brain
#17
Ken T Wakabayashi, Michael J Bruno, Caroline E Bass, Jinwoo Park
The olfactory tubercle (OT), as a component of the ventral striatum, serves as an important multisensory integration center for reward-related processes in the brain. Recent studies show that dense dopaminergic innervation from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) into the OT may play an outsized role in disorders such as psychostimulant addiction and disorders of motivation, increasing recent scientific interest in this brain region. However, due to its anatomical inaccessibility, relative small size, and proximity to other dopamine-rich structures, neurochemical assessments using conventional methods cannot be readily employed...
June 21, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997723/effect-of-orexin-a-antagonist-sb-334867-infusion-into-the-nucleus-accumbens-on-consummatory-behavior-and-alcohol-preference-in-wistar-rats
#18
Santosh Mayannavar, K S Rashmi, Yalla Durga Rao, Saraswati Yadav, B Ganaraja
OBJECTIVE: Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has a role in addiction and ingestive behavior. In order to assess orexinergic system involved in this, we infused Orexin A antagonist and assessed the effect on food intake fluid intake and alcohol preference in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inbred Wistar rats (n = 54) were divided into control and experimental groups (low dose and high dose). Using stereotaxic method, guide cannula was set in place bilaterally to reach NAcc...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26939765/stereological-analyses-of-reward-system-nuclei-in-maternally-deprived-separated-alcohol-drinking-rats
#19
Marjorie C Gondré-Lewis, Philippe J Darius, Hong Wang, Joanne S Allard
The experience of early life stress can trigger complex neurochemical cascades that influence emotional and addictive behaviors later in life in both adolescents and adults. Recent evidence suggests that excessive alcohol drinking, and drug-seeking behavior in general, is co-morbid with depressive-like behavior. Both behaviors are reported in humans exposed to early life adversity, and are prominent features recapitulated in animal models of early life stress (ELS) exposure. Currently, little is known about whether or how ELS modulates reward system nuclei...
February 29, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26870706/temperament-and-character-dimensions-correlates-of-impulsivity-in-morphine-addicts
#20
Moslem Abassi, Abbas Abolghasemi
BACKGROUND: Given the role of temperament and character dimensions on impulsivity in addicts, the purpose of this study was to temperament and character dimensions: correlates of impulsivity in morphine addicts. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine and verify the association of temperament and character dimensions with impulsivity in morphine addicts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The research method was descriptive and correlational...
December 2015: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
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