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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453411/the-impact-of-a-helminth-modified-microbiome-on-host-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Tara P Brosschot, Lisa A Reynolds
Intestinal helminths have well-characterized modulatory effects on mammalian immune pathways. Ongoing helminth infection has been associated with both the suppression of allergies and an altered susceptibility to microbial infections. Enteric helminths share a niche with the intestinal microbiota, and the presence of helminths alters the microbiota composition and the metabolic signature of the host. Recent studies have demonstrated that the helminth-modified intestinal microbiome has the capacity to modify host immune responses even in the absence of live helminth infection...
February 16, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451597/achatina-fulica-infected-by-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-on-beaches-in-the-west-zone-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#2
André H Bechara, Raquel O Simões, Marta Júlia Faro, Juberlan S Garcia
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is considered the main etiological agent of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. At present, this zoonosis is considered an emerging disease mainly in the Americas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Achatina fulica infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in restinga areas along beaches in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. The study areas included the following beaches: Barra da Tijuca, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Reserva, Prainha and Grumari. Ninety specimens of Achatina fulica were collected...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446344/genotype-characterization-of-livestock-and-human-cystic-echinococcosis-in-mazandaran-province-iran
#3
T Gorgani-Firouzjaee, N Kalantrai, S Ghaffari, J Alipour, S Siadati
Echinococcus granulosus is a helminth from the family Taeniidae, which causes cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans and diverse livestock around the world. The identification of existing genotypes in different regions is a major step towards the prevention and establishment of control programmes for the disease. This study aimed to detect CE genotypes using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) gene and sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) gene in isolates from the central part of Mazandaran province, northern Iran...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441842/crowding-in-the-first-intermediate-host-does-not-affect-infection-probability-in-the-second-host-in-two-helminths
#4
D P Benesh
When many worms co-infect the same host, their average size is often reduced. This negative density-dependent growth is called the crowding effect. Crowding has been reported many times for worms in their intermediate hosts, but rarely have the fitness consequences of crowding been examined. This study tested whether larval crowding reduces establishment success in the next host for two parasites with complex life cycles, the nematode Camallanus lacustris and the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Infected copepods, the first host, were fed to sticklebacks, the second host...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440657/nippostrongylus-brasiliensis-infection-leads-to-impaired-reference-memory-and-myeloid-cell-interference
#5
T M Brombacher, K S De Gouveia, L Cruywagen, N Makena, F Booley, O Tamgue, F Brombacher
Hookworm infection is endemic in developing countries, leading to poor cognitive function-among other disruptions. In this study, the effects of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection (a murine model of Necator Americanus) on cognitive function were investigated. Though impaired cognition has been extensively reported, the exact domain of cognition affected is still unknown, hence requiring investigation. The objective of this study was to identify possible cognitive changes during Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection in mice, using the Morris water maze...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436086/global-spread-of-helminth-parasites-at-the-human-domestic-animal-wildlife-interface
#6
Konstans Wells, David I Gibson, Nicholas J Clark, Alexis Ribas, Serge Morand, Hamish I McCallum
Changes in species distributions open novel parasite transmission routes at the human-wildlife interface, yet the strength of biotic and biogeographical factors that prevent or facilitate parasite host shifting are not well understood. We investigated global patterns of helminth parasite (Nematoda, Cestoda, Trematoda) sharing between mammalian wildlife species and domestic mammal hosts (including humans) using >24,000 unique country-level records of host-parasite associations. We used hierarchical modelling and species trait data to determine possible drivers of the level of parasite sharing between wildlife species and either humans or domestic animal hosts...
February 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435719/adaptation-of-the-secretome-of-echinostoma-caproni-may-contribute-to-parasite-survival-in-a-th1-milieu
#7
Alba Cortés, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, María Álvarez-Izquierdo, Javier Sotillo, J Guillermo Esteban, Rafael Toledo
Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) is an intestinal trematode, broadly employed to study the host-dependent mechanisms that govern the evolution of intestinal helminth infections. Resistance against E. caproni homologous secondary infections has been reported in mice and appears to be related to the generation of a local Th2 response, whereas Th1 responses promote the development of chronic primary infections. Herein, the ability of E. caproni to modulate its secretome according to the host environment is investigated...
February 12, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435716/helminth-parasites-of-mabuya-arajara-rebou%C3%A3-as-spieker-1981-lacertilia-mabuyidae-from-chapada-do-araripe-northeastern-brazil
#8
Arthur do Nascimento Cabral, Diego Alves Teles, Samuel Vieira Brito, Waltécio de Oliveira Almeida, Luciano Alves Dos Anjos, Míriam Camargo Guarnieri, Samuel Cardozo Ribeiro
We provide data on the helminth fauna from the digestive tract of the lizard Mabuya arajara Rebouças-Spieker, 1981 from Chapada do Araripe, northeastern Brazil. Seventy one of the 127 lizards examined (56%) were infected with four nematode species: Physalopteroides venancioi and Physaloptera sp. (Physalopteridae), Strongyluris oscari (Heterakidae), and Parapharyngodon alvarengai (Pharyngodonidae), the latter being the component species (prevalence 53.5%; mean intensity of infection 3.37 ± 2.0; discrepancy index D = 0...
February 12, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434034/influence-of-alternative-husbandry-systems-on-postmortem-findings-and-prevalence-of-important-bacteria-and-parasites-in-layers-monitored-from-end-of-rearing-until-slaughter
#9
Angelika Zloch, Sabrina Kuchling, Michael Hess, Claudia Hess
In the present study 66 layer flocks housed in different alternative husbandry systems were monitored from placement of birds on the farm until slaughter to evaluate a possible influence on the occurrence of selected non-infectious as well as infectious diseases. Postmortems were performed and the occurrence of extraintestinal Escherichia coli and Gallibacterium anatis was investigated. No specific postmortem findings were seen in pullets. Non-infectious diseases were mainly found in layers. Most prominent postmortem findings in layers were reproductive tract lesions and the presence of intestinal helminths...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432771/the-relationships-between-faecal-egg-counts-and-gut-microbial-composition-in-uk-thoroughbreds-infected-by-cyathostomins
#10
L E Peachey, R A Molena, T P Jenkins, A Di Cesare, D Traversa, J E Hodgkinson, C Cantacessi
A growing body of evidence, particularly in humans and rodents, supports the existence of a complex network of interactions occurring between gastrointestinal (GI) helminth parasites and the gut commensal bacteria, with substantial effects on both host immunity and metabolic potential. However, little is known of the fundamental biology of such interactions in other animal species. Nonetheless, given the considerable economic losses associated with GI parasites, particularly in livestock and equines, as well as the global threat of emerging anthelmintic resistance, further explorations of the complexities of host-helminth-microbiota interactions in these species are needed...
February 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432423/estimation-of-the-number-of-women-of-reproductive-age-in-need-of-preventive-chemotherapy-for-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections
#11
Denise Mupfasoni, Alexei Mikhailov, Pamela Mbabazi, Jonathan King, Theresa W Gyorkos, Antonio Montresor
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth infections are among the most common infections in developing countries. Globally, as many as 2 billion people are considered to be at risk for soil-transmitted-helminth (STH) infections. Preschool children (PSAC), school-age children (SAC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) are at high risk of STH-attributable morbidity and preventive chemotherapy (PC) for STH is recommended by the World health Organization (WHO). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over the last five years, PC coverage in PSAC and SAC has gradually increased, while coverage in WRA has lagged...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428924/impact-of-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-on-growth-non-diarrheal-morbidity-and-mortality-in-children-residing-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#12
Tarun Gera, Dheeraj Shah, Harshpal Singh Sachdev
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in children (age <18 y) on growth, non-diarrheal morbidity and mortality in children. DESIGN: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials and controlled before-after studies. SETTING: Low- and middle-income countries. PARTICIPANTS: 41 trials with WASH intervention, incorporating data on 113055 children...
February 9, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426708/new-perspectives-in-equine-intestinal-parasitic-disease-insights-in-monitoring-helminth-infections
#13
REVIEW
Kurt Pfister, Deborah van Doorn
Regular anthelmintic treatment has contributed to anthelmintic resistance in horse helminths. This mass anthelmintic treatment was originally developed owing to a lack of larvicidal drugs against Strongylus vulgaris. The high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance and shortening of strongyle egg reappearance period after avermectins/moxidectins requires epidemiologically appropriate and sustainable measures. Selective anthelmintic treatment is a much-needed deworming approach: More than 50% of adult horses manifest no strongyle egg excretion...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424716/soil-transmitted-helminth-eggs-assessment-in-wastewater-in-an-urban-area-in-india
#14
Sonia Grego, Viswa Barani, Meghan Hegarty-Craver, Antony Raj, Prasanna Perumal, Adrian B Berg, Colleen Archer
Water quality and sanitation are inextricably linked to prevalence and control of soil-transmitted helminth infections, a public health concern in resource-limited settings. India bears a large burden of disease associated with poor sanitation. Transformative onsite sanitation technologies are being developed that feature elimination of pathogens including helminth eggs in wastewater treatment. We are conducting third-party testing of multiple sanitation technology systems in Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu) India. To ensure stringent testing of the pathogen removal ability of sanitation technologies, the presence of helminth eggs in wastewater across the town of Coimbatore was assessed...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424659/schistosomes-and-microfilarial-parasites-in-magellanic-penguins
#15
Ralph Vanstreels, Chris H Gardiner, Michael J Yabsley, Liandrie Swanepoel, Cristiane K M Kolesnikovas, Rodolfo P Silva-Filho, Ana C Ewbank, José L Catão-Dias
The Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) is native to Argentina, Chile and the Falkland/Malvinas islands and is a regular winter migrant in Uruguayan and Brazilian coastal waters. The species is known to be susceptible to a variety of gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes, trematodes and acanthocephalans, as well as renal trematodes and pulmonary nematodes. Schistosomes (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda, Schistosomatidae) and microfilariae (Nematoda, Secernentea, Onchocercidae) were histologically identified in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) that died while under care at rehabilitation centers in southern Brazil...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420601/taenia-solium-taenia-saginata-taenia-asiatica-their-hybrids-and-other-helminthic-infections-occurring-in-a-neglected-tropical-diseases-highly-endemic-area-in-lao-pdr
#16
Marcello Otake Sato, Megumi Sato, Tetsuya Yanagida, Jitra Waikagul, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Yasuhito Sako, Surapol Sanguankiat, Tipparayat Yoonuan, Sengchanh Kounnavang, Satoru Kawai, Akira Ito, Munehiro Okamoto, Kazuhiko Moji
Most part of Southeast Asia is considered endemic for human-infecting Taenia tapeworms; Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica. However, until now there was no report of the occurrence of human cases of T. asiatica in Lao PDR. This study, conducted in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR, microscopically examined a total of 470 fecal samples by Kato Katz method and found 86% of people harboring at least one helminth. Hookworms were detected in 56% of the samples besides Opisthorchis like eggs (42%), Trichuris trichiura (27%), Ascaris spp...
February 8, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420245/imported-gnathostomiasis-manifesting-as-cutaneous-larva-migrans-and-l%C3%A3-ffler-s-syndrome
#17
William L Hamilton, Daniel Agranoff
Here, we report an unusual case of invasive gnathostomiasis in a returning traveller, with a shifting pattern of relapsing cutaneous disease. The previously fit and well 32-year-old man first presented with serpiginous, pruriginous erythematous tracks characteristic of cutaneous larva migrans shortly after returning from South-East Asia. He was systemically well with no other symptoms. After ivermectin therapy, he re-presented with respiratory symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia and transient pulmonary infiltrates; the classic triad of Löffler's syndrome associated with invasive helminth infection...
February 2, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415781/control-of-helminth-ruminant-infections-by-2030
#18
Jozef Vercruysse, Johannes Charlier, Jan Van Dijk, Eric R Morgan, Tim Geary, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Edwin Claerebout
Helminth infections have large negative impacts on production efficiency in ruminant farming systems worldwide, and their effective management is essential if livestock production is to increase to meet future human needs for dietary protein. The control of helminths relies heavily on routine use of chemotherapeutics, but this approach is unsustainable as resistance to anthelmintic drugs is widespread and increasing. At the same time, infection patterns are being altered by changes in climate, land-use and farming practices...
February 8, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414108/the-optimal-timing-of-post-treatment-sampling-for-the-assessment-of-anthelminthic-drug-efficacy-against-ascaris-infections-in-humans
#19
Bruno Levecke, Alice V Easton, Piet Cools, Marco Albonico, Shaali Ame, John S Gilleard, Jennifer Keiser, Antonio Montresor, Roger Prichard, Johnny Vlaminck, Jozef Vercruysse
The egg reduction rate (ERR) is the current standard mean to assess the efficacy of drugs against human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm). Although the timing of post-treatment sampling is pivotal for a readily interpretation of drug efficacy, there is lack empirical data that allows recommending the optimal time point for a follow-up egg counting. In the present study, we re-analyzed both the kinetics of worm expulsion and egg output for Ascaris lumbricoides following a single oral dose of albendazole in a series of studies previously conducted in Kenyan communities...
January 13, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411665/immunomodulatory-potential-of-recombinant-filarial-protein-rwbl2-and-its-therapeutic-implication-in-experimental-ulcerative-colitis-in-mouse
#20
Namdev Togre, Priyanka Bhoj, Nitin Amdare, Kalyan Goswami, Aaditya Tarnekar, Moreshwar Shende
OBJECTIVE: Immunomodulation by helminth proteins has potential therapeutic implications in inflammatory bowel disease. In the present study, we have explored the therapeutic effect of a RAL family protein of filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti i.e., rWbL2 protein against DSS induced colitis in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-inflammatory activity of rWbL2 on mice peritoneal exudate cells was analyzed under in vitro condition. The colitis mice were treated intraperitoneally (i...
February 7, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
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