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Oestrogen, estrogen, menopause, HRT

Jenifer Sassarini, Mary Ann Lumsden
Menopausal symptoms can disrupt a woman's personal and social life. Vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats) are the most common symptoms and can be treated very effectively with oestrogen-based hormone therapy. The decision to use oestrogen (often simply termed hormone therapy or hormone replacement therapy or HT) therapy involves balancing the potential benefits against the potential risks. Most agree that short-term oestrogen therapy, using the lowest effective dose, is a reasonable option for recently menopausal women with moderate-to-severe symptoms who are in good cardiovascular health (Martin and Manson...
July 2015: Age and Ageing
I C D Westendorp, D E Grobbee, J C M Witteman
What part menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) play in the risk of cardiovascular disease in women after middle-age is still debated. The associations between menopause, HRT and cardiovascular disease as well as atherosclerosis were examined in a large cohort study. Our results suggest menopause has an unfavorable association with several cardiovascular risk factors, structural characteristics of the large arteries, on atherosclerosis and on coronary heart disease. HRT was shown to protect women from development of atherosclerosis in the lower extremities and in the common carotid artery...
August 2001: Netherlands Heart Journal
Elisabetta Poluzzi, Carlo Piccinni, Emanuel Raschi, Angela Rampa, Maurizio Recanatini, Fabrizio De Ponti
Phytoestrogens represent a diverse group of non-steroidal natural products, which seem to have some oestrogenic effects and are often marketed as food supplements. Population exposed to phytoestrogens is potentially increasing, in part because an unfavourable risk-benefit profile of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) for prolonged treatments (e.g., osteoporosis prevention) highlighted by the publication of the Women Health Initiative (WHI) trial in 2002, but also because many post-menopausal women often perceived phytoestrogens in food supplements as a safer alternative than HRT...
2014: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Nur Farhana Mohd Fozi, Mazliadiyana Mazlan, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Mohamed Isa Naina
Osteoporosis is a progressive disease of the skeleton characterised by bone fragility due to a reduction in bone mass and possibly to alteration in bone architecture that lead to a propensity to fracture with minimum trauma. Most osteoporotic fractures occur at locations rich in trabecular or cancellous bone and usually related to post menopausal women. Recently, silymarin received attention due to its alternative beneficial effect on bone formation. It is a mixture of flavonoids with powerful antioxidant properties...
December 2013: Current Drug Targets
Helen Close, James M Mason, Douglas Wilson, A Pali S Hungin
BACKGROUND: Oestrogen and progestogen have the potential to influence gastro-intestinal motility; both are key components of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Results of observational studies in women taking HRT rely on self-reporting of gastro-oesophageal symptoms and the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) remains unclear. This study investigated the association between HRT and GORD in menopausal women using validated general practice records. METHODS: 51,182 menopausal women were identified using the UK General Practice Research Database between 1995-2004...
May 29, 2012: BMC Gastroenterology
Tülay Akcay, Yildiz Dincer, E Ilker Saygili, Hakan Seyisoğlu, Erdogan Ertunğalp
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxidative stress by investing oxidatively damaged DNA AS Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) -sensitive sites, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities reduced glutathione (GSH) level and nitrite level as satble end product of in women receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 127 healthy postmenopausal women receiving HRT and 25 healthy control postmenopausal women were included in this study...
January 2010: Indian Journal of Medical Sciences
J Challberg, L Ashcroft, F Lalloo, B Eckersley, R Clayton, P Hopwood, P Selby, A Howell, D G Evans
BACKGROUND: Women at high ovarian cancer risk, especially those with mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2, are encouraged to undergo bilateral risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (BRRSPO) prior to the natural menopause. The decision to use HRT to cover the period of oestrogen deprivation up to 50 years of age is difficult because of balancing the considerations of breast cancer risk, bone and cardiovascular health. METHODS: We reviewed by questionnaire 289 women after BRRSPO aged ≤48 years because of high ovarian cancer risk; 212 (73%) of women responded...
June 28, 2011: British Journal of Cancer
Amanda Daley, Helen Stokes-Lampard, Christine Macarthur
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that many perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women will experience menopause symptoms, hot flushes being the most common. Symptoms caused by fluctuating levels of oestrogen may be alleviated by HRT but there has been a marked global decline in its use due to concerns about the risks and benefits of HRT; consequently many women are now seeking alternatives. As large numbers of women are choosing not to take HRT, it is increasingly important to identify evidence based lifestyle modification interventions that have potential to reduce vasomotor menopausal symptoms...
May 11, 2011: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Judy King, Catherine Harper Wynne, Laura Assersohn, Alison Jones
The importance of addressing survivorship issues has been emphasised in recent years. As cancer therapies improve there is a growing population of cancer survivors, which includes many women with premature menopause. Women who are premenopausal at the time of their cancer diagnosis may have specific survivorship issues to be addressed, including infertility, early menopause and sexual dysfunction. These factors can continue have a significant impact on the quality of life of these patients at long term follow up...
July 2011: European Journal of Cancer
Maryam Darabi, Mohammed Rabbani, Mohsen Ani, Elahe Zarean, Mojtaba Panjehpour, Ahmad Movahedian
OBJECTIVE: The ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) is a key participant in the reverse cholesterol process whereby mediates cholesterol efflux directly to HDL particles. The aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term treatment with conventional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in post-menopausal women could affect their leukocytes ABCA1 expression. Changes in various serum lipids and lipoprotein fractions were also investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 60 non-obese normolipidaemic post-menopausal women treated with oral oestrogen together with progestin therapy for 3 months were selected...
September 2011: Gynecological Endocrinology
Grégoire Le Gal, Michael J Kovacs, Marc Carrier, Kimberley Do, Susan R Kahn, Philip S Wells, David A Anderson, Isabelle Chagnon, Susan Solymoss, Mark Crowther, Marc Righini, Karine Lacut, Richard H White, Linda Vickars, Marc Rodger
The use of exogenous oestrogen in women with otherwise unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) could be considered sufficient explanation to classify VTE as provoked if the risk of recurrent VTE after 3-6 months of anticoagulant treatment is similar to the risk of recurrent VTE observed after a surgery or prolonged immobilisation. Our objective was to assess the risk of recurrent VTE in women after a first unprovoked episode on oestrogen. The REVERSE study is a cohort study of patients with a first unprovoked VTE treated with anticoagulant treatment for 5-7 months...
September 2010: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Malgorzata Magliano
Arthralgia is experienced by more then half of the women around the time of menopause. The causes of joint pain in postmenopausal women can be difficult to determine as the period of menopause coincides with rising incidence of chronic rheumatic conditions such as osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, prevalence of arthralgia does appear to increase in women with menopausal transition and is thought to result from reduction in oestrogen levels. Similar syndrome occurs following sudden withdrawal of hormone replacement therapy or treatment with aromatase inhibitors...
September 2010: Maturitas
Isabelle Romieu, Alban Fabre, Agnes Fournier, Francine Kauffmann, Raphaëlle Varraso, Sylvie Mesrine, Benedicte Leynaert, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that female hormones might play a role in asthma and that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT or hormone replacement therapy (HRT)) might increase the risk of asthma in postmenopausal women. The only prospective study addressing this issue reports an increase in the risk of developing asthma which was similar for oestrogen alone and oestrogen/progestagen treatment. METHODS: The association between the use of different types of MHT and the risk of asthma onset in postmenopausal women was investigated prospectively from 1990 to 2002 by biennial questionnaires as part of the French E3N cohort study...
April 2010: Thorax
Katharine H Sharpe, Paula McClements, Douglas I Clark, Joanne Collins, Anthea Springbett, David H Brewster
Many countries report a decline in breast cancer incidence among peri- and post-menopausal women following a decline in HRT prescribing. To investigate recent Scottish incidence trends, European age-standardised incidence rates from 1997 to 2005 were stratified by method of first detection, ER status and age group. We developed change point models of the annual age-specific cases for the peri- and post-menopausal age groups and ER status using Poisson regression. In Scotland all HRT categories together show a 32...
March 2010: European Journal of Cancer
Marlene Heinz
Since the 1960s, oestrogen deficiency in hypogonadism in girls has been successfully treated by a sort of analogous application of the menopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) scheme, here however, to induce and support sexual development in puberty and adolescence. The essential distinction between goals, ways and means of the two distinct hormonal treatments caused by menopause and by hypogonadism in puberty also suggests that the latter treatment is more characteristic of defining hormonal development therapy (HDT)...
April 2010: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Piksi Singh, Martin K Oehler
Treatment of gynaecological cancer frequently results in the loss of ovarian function and menopausal symptoms. Symptoms of iatrogenic menopause are usually significantly more intense than those of natural menopause due to sudden onset of symptoms, younger age and its effects on common physical and psychological problems of cancer therapy like body image concerns and sexual dysfunction. The most effective treatment for menopausal symptoms is hormone replacement therapy (HRT). However, it is very controversial if HRT is safe in patients after a gynaecological malignancy...
March 2010: Maturitas
Hilary V O Carswell, I Mhairi Macrae, Tracy D Farr
Evidence exists for the potential protective effects of circulating ovarian hormones in stroke, and oestrogen reduces brain damage in animal ischaemia models. However, a recent clinical trial indicated that HRT (hormone-replacement therapy) increased the incidence of stroke in post-menopausal women, and detrimental effects of oestrogen on stroke outcome have been identified in a meta-analysis of HRT trials and in pre-clinical research studies. Therefore oestrogen is not an agent that can be promoted as a potential stroke therapy...
March 2010: Clinical Science (1979-)
Jukka H Meurman, Laura Tarkkila, Aila Tiitinen
OBJECTIVES: To review the literature about oral symptoms and signs at the menopause with an emphasis on hormone replacement therapy (HRT). To give practical guidelines for women and their physicians in menopause-related oral health problems. METHODS: The PubMed and Cochrane databases was searched until mid January 2009 with key words such as "menopause", "menopausal complaints", "postmenopausal complaints" and "oral diseases", "oral discomfort", "dental health", "dental diseases", "saliva", "burning mouth syndrome", "dry mouth", "xerostomia"...
May 20, 2009: Maturitas
Barry G Wren
Recently, two major epidemiological studies found that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women increased the risk of breast cancer. One of the studies also found that HRT increased the risk of cardiovascular disease and thrombosis. As a consequence, women were advised to cease this therapy. However, detailed analysis of these studies suggests that the conclusions may be erroneous. Other studies suggest that the timing of initiation of HRT for healthy women is critical to achieving a beneficial outcome...
March 16, 2009: Medical Journal of Australia
Thomas H Schindler, Roxana Campisi, Deborah Dorsey, John O Prior, Manfred Olschewski, James Sayre, Heinrich R Schelbert
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on coronary vasomotor function in post-menopausal women (PM) with medically treated cardiovascular risk factors (RFs) in a cross-sectional and a longitudinal follow-up (FU) study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial blood flow (MBF) response to cold pressor testing (CPT) and during pharmacologically induced hyperaemia was measured with positron emission tomography in pre-menopausal women (CON), in PM with HRT and without HRT, and repeated in PM after a mean FU of 24 +/- 14 months...
April 2009: European Heart Journal
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