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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161769/influence-of-biceps-brachii-tendon-mechanical-properties-on-elbow-flexor-force-steadiness-in-young-and-old-males
#1
Rowan R Smart, Stéphane Baudry, Andrey Fedorov, Samantha L Kuzyk, Jennifer M Jakobi
Elbow flexor force steadiness (FS) depends on strength and decreases with age. Achilles tendon mechanics effect standing balance and isometric plantarflexion FS. This study investigated the influence of distal biceps brachii (BB) tendon mechanics and elbow flexor strength on age-related decline in FS. Nine young (23±2 years) and 9 old (77±5 years) males performed submaximal isometric elbow flexion tasks at low (2.5, 5, 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)) and high (20, 40, 60, 80%MVC) forces in a neutral forearm position...
November 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101577/tendon-pathology-in-hypercholesterolemia-and-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#2
REVIEW
Brittany Taylor, Adnan Cheema, Louis Soslowsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypercholesterolemia (HC), or high cholesterol, is usually caused by diet, other health conditions, or inherited diseases, such as familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC). Studies have shown patients with hypercholesterolemia are more prone to tendon injury and impaired healing. Nonetheless, the mechanism by which high cholesterol alters the biochemical and biomechanical properties of tendon and the healing environment is not well defined. This review highlights scientific findings on the relationship between hypercholesterolemia and treatments and tendon pathology at the cellular and tissue level...
November 4, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100187/mechanical-muscle-and-tendon-properties-of-the-plantar-flexors-are-altered-even-in-highly-functional-children-with-spastic-cerebral-palsy
#3
Annika Kruse, Christian Schranz, Martin Svehlik, Markus Tilp
BACKGROUND: Recent ultrasound studies found increased passive muscle stiffness and no difference in tendon stiffness in highly impaired children and young adults with cerebral palsy. However, it is not known if muscle and tendon mechanical properties are already altered in highly functional children with cerebral palsy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical and material properties of the plantar flexors in highly functional children with cerebral palsy and typically developing children...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977366/muscle-and-tendon-contributions-to-reduced-rate-of-torque-development-in-healthy-older-males
#4
Jonathan I Quinlan, Constantinos N Maganaris, Martino V Franchi, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton, Nathaniel J Szewczyk, Paul L Greenhaff, Bethan E Phillips, James I Blackwell, Catherine Boereboom, John P Williams, John Lund, Marco V Narici
Background: The ability to rapidly generate and transfer muscle force is essential for effective corrective movements in order to prevent a fall. The aim of this study was to establish the muscle and tendon contributions to differences in rate of torque development (RTD) between younger (YM) and older males (OM). Method: Twenty-eight young males (23.9 years ± 1.1) and 22 old males (68.5 years ± 0.5) were recruited for assessment of Quadriceps Anatomical CSA (ACSA), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), rate of torque development (RTD), and tendon biomechanical properties...
August 2, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974931/muscle-tendon-unit-properties-during-eccentric-exercise-correlate-with-the-creatine-kinase-response
#5
Kirsty M Hicks, Gladys L Onambele-Pearson, Keith Winwood, Christopher I Morse
Aim: The aim of this paper was to determine whether; (1) patella tendon stiffness, (2) the magnitude of vastus lateralis fascicle lengthening, and (3) eccentric torque correlate with markers of exercise induced muscle damage. Method: Combining dynamometry and ultrasonography, patella tendon properties and vastus lateralis architectural properties were measured pre and during the first of six sets of 12 maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions. Maximal isometric torque loss and creatine kinase activity were measured pre-damage (-48 h), 48, 96, and 168 h post-damage as markers of exercise-induced muscle damage...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948634/applying-physical-science-principles-to-mid-substance-achilles-tendinopathy-and-the-relationship-to-eccentric-lengthening-exercises
#6
Geoffrey M Verrall, Bronwyn K Dolman, Thomas Best
OBJECTIVES: Mid-substance Achilles tendinopathy is common in the active population. Eccentric (lengthening) exercises are known to be effective in alleviating the clinical condition. To better understand mid-substance Achilles tendinopathy and the response to lengthening exercises physical science principles of elasticity are applied. METHOD: We apply elastic motion laws to the spring-like tendon as well as the normal and pathological adaptation seen with this common injury...
September 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944585/loading-rate-and-contraction-duration-effects-on-in%C3%A2-vivo-human-achilles-tendon-mechanical-properties
#7
Christopher McCrum, Kai D Oberländer, Gaspar Epro, Peter Krauss, Darren C James, Neil D Reeves, Kiros Karamanidis
Tendons are viscoelastic, which implies loading rate dependency, but loading rates of contractions are often not controlled during assessment of human tendon mechanical properties in vivo. We investigated the effects of sustained submaximal isometric plantarflexion contractions, which potentially negate loading rate dependency, on the stiffness of the human Achilles tendon in vivo using dynamometry and ultrasonography. Maximum voluntary contractions (high loading rate), ramp maximum force contractions with 3 s loading (lower loading rate) and sustained contractions (held for 3 s) at 25%, 50% and 80% of maximal tendon force were conducted...
September 24, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801950/can-chronic-stretching-change-the-muscle-tendon-mechanical-properties-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Sandro R Freitas, Bruno Mendes, Guillaume Le Sant, Ricardo J Andrade, Antoine Nordez, Zoran Milanovic
PURPOSE: It is recognized that stretching is an effective method to chronically increase the joint range of motion. However, the effects of stretching training on the muscle-tendon structural properties remain unclear. This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to determine whether chronic stretching alter the muscle-tendon structural properties. METHODS: Published papers regarding longitudinal stretching (static, dynamic and/or PNF) intervention (either randomized or not) in humans of any age and health status, with more than 2 weeks in duration and at least 2 sessions per week, were searched in PubMed, PEDro, ScienceDirect and ResearchGate databases...
August 12, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801518/effects-of-plyometric-and-isometric-training-on-muscle-and-tendon-stiffness-in%C3%A2-vivo
#9
Keitaro Kubo, Tomonobu Ishigaki, Toshihiro Ikebukuro
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric and isometric training on tendon properties during ramp and ballistic contractions and muscle stiffness under passive and active conditions. Eleven subjects completed 12 weeks (3 days/week) of a unilateral training program for the plantar flexors. They performed plyometric training on one side (PLY) and isometric training on the other side (ISO). Active muscle stiffness in the medial gastrocnemius muscle was calculated according to changes in estimated muscle force and fascicle length during fast stretching after submaximal isometric contractions...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753624/muscular-fatigue-in-response-to-different-modalities-of-crossfit-sessions
#10
José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Juan H Lougedo, Manuel Barba, Pablo García-Fernández, Manuel V Garnacho-Castaño, Raúl Domínguez
BACKGROUND: CrossFit is a new strength and conditioning regimen involving short intense daily workouts called workouts of the day (WOD). This study assesses muscular fatigue levels induced by the three modalities of CrossFit WOD; gymnastics (G), metabolic conditioning (M) and weightlifting (W). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 34 healthy subjects undertook three WOD (one per week): a G WOD consisting of completing the highest number of sets of 5 pull-ups, 10 push-ups and 15 air squats in 20 min; an M WOD, in which the maximum number of double skipping rope jumps was executed in 8 sets (20 s), resting (10 s) between sets; and finally, a W WOD in which the maximum number of power cleans was executed in 5 min, lifting a load equivalent to 40% of the individual's 1RM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670285/muscle-and-tendon-adaptation-in-adolescence-elite-volleyball-athletes-compared-to-untrained-boys-and-girls
#11
Falk Mersmann, Georgios Charcharis, Sebastian Bohm, Adamantios Arampatzis
Though the plasticity of human tendons is well explored in adults, it is still unknown how superimposed mechanical loading by means of athletic training affects the properties of tendons during maturation. Due to the increased responsiveness of muscle to mechanical loading, adolescence is an important phase to investigate the effects of training on the mechanical properties of tendons. Hence, in the present study we compared vastus lateralis (VL) architecture, muscle strength of the knee extensor muscles and patellar tendon mechanical properties of male and female adolescent elite athletes to untrained boys and girls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624851/acute-effects-of-constant-torque-and-constant-angle-stretching-on-the-muscle-and-tendon-tissue-properties
#12
Andreas Konrad, Francesco Budini, Markus Tilp
PURPOSE: Static stretching induces acute structural changes of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) that are related to the intensity or duration of stretching. It has been reported that stretching with a constant torque (CT) leads to greater joint range of motion changes than stretching with a constant angle (CA). Whether or not this difference is due to different structural changes of the MTUs of the lower leg and ankle plantar flexors is not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of single CA and CT stretching on various muscle and tendon mechanical properties...
August 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497386/oral-contraceptive-pill-use-and-the-susceptibility-to-markers-of-exercise-induced-muscle-damage
#13
K M Hicks, G Onambélé-Pearson, K Winwood, C I Morse
PURPOSE: Firstly, to establish whether oral contraceptive pill (OCP) users are more susceptible to muscle damage compared to non-users, and secondly, to establish whether differences can be attributed to differences in patella tendon properties. METHODS: Nine female OCP users and 9 female non-users participated in the investigation. Combining dynamometry, electromyography and ultrasonography, patella tendon properties and vastus lateralis architectural properties were measured pre and during the first of 6 sets of 12 maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions...
July 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469747/effects-of-karate-fights-on-achilles-tendon-stiffness-measured-by-myotonometry
#14
Beata Pożarowszczyk, Weronika Pawlaczyk, Małgorzata Smoter, Andrzej Zarzycki, Dariusz Mroczek, Martyna Kumorek, Kazimierz Witkowski, Kawczyński Adam
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of karate fights on Achilles tendon stiffness in karate competitors. Eleven male karate fighters participated in the present study. A handheld MyotonPRO device (MyotonPRO, Myoton Ltd, Estonia) was applied to measure Achilles tendon stiffness in karate fighters. The Achilles tendon was tested 5 cm above the tuber calcanei. Stiffness measurements were performed before and after eight sparring fights. Each fight lasted 2 min and was separated by a 2 min rest period...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412025/the-influence-of-chronic-il-6-exposure-in-vivo-on-rat-achilles-tendon-extracellular-matrix
#15
Mark S Katsma, Shivam H Patel, Erica Eldon, Kathryn A Corbell, Kevin L Shimkus, James D Fluckey, Chad C Carroll
When compared to placebo, acetaminophen (APAP) reduces tendon stiffness and collagen cross-linking. APAP also enhances the exercise-induced increase in peritendinous levels of IL-6. Elevated levels of IL-6 are associated with tendinopathy, thus we hypothesized that chronic, elevated peritendinous IL-6 would alter tendon extracellular matrix (ECM). IL-6 (∼3000pgml(-1)) was injected (3dwk(-1) for 8-wks) into the Achilles peritendinous region of male Wistar rats (n=16) with the opposite leg serving as a sham...
April 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353085/alterations-in-mechanical-properties-of-the-patellar-tendon-is-associated-with-pain-in-athletes-with-patellar-tendinopathy
#16
W C Lee, Z J Zhang, L Masci, G Y F Ng, Siu Ngor Fu
PURPOSE: To compare tendon strain and stiffness between athletes with patellar tendinopathy and healthy controls, and explore whether the intensity of pain and dysfunction were related to the mechanical properties of the tendon. METHODS: Thirty-four male athletes with patellar tendinopathy and 13 healthy controls matched by age and activity levels were recruited. The in vivo mechanical properties of the patellar tendon were examined by ultrasonography and dynamometry...
May 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348529/sport-specific-capacity-to-use-elastic-energy-in-the-patellar-and-achilles-tendons-of-elite-athletes
#17
Hans-Peter Wiesinger, Florian Rieder, Alexander Kösters, Erich Müller, Olivier R Seynnes
Introduction: During running and jumping activities, elastic energy is utilized to enhance muscle mechanical output and efficiency. However, training-induced variations in tendon spring-like properties remain under-investigated. The present work extends earlier findings on sport-specific profiles of tendon stiffness and cross-sectional area to examine whether years of distinct loading patterns are reflected by tendons' ability to store and return energy. Methods:Ultrasound scans were performed to examine the morphological features of knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle-tendon units in elite ski jumpers, distance runners, water polo players, and sedentary controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290718/assessments-of-mechanical-stiffness-and-relationships-to-performance-determinants-in-middle-distance-runners
#18
Simon A Rogers, Chris S Whatman, Simon N Pearson, Andrew E Kilding
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine relationships between methods of lower-limb stiffness and their associations with running economy (RE) and maximal velocity (vmax) in middle-distance (MD) runners. METHODS: Eleven highly-trained male MD runners performed a series of mechanical and physiological tests to determine maximal overground sprint speed, RE and V̇O2peak. Achilles tendon stiffness (kT) was estimated using ultrasonography during maximal isometric ankle plantarflexion...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179885/plyometric-training-favors-optimizing-muscle-tendon-behavior-during-depth-jumping
#19
Kuniaki Hirayama, Soichiro Iwanuma, Naoki Ikeda, Ayumi Yoshikawa, Ryoichi Ema, Yasuo Kawakami
The purpose of the present study was to elucidate how plyometric training improves stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise performance in terms of muscle strength, tendon stiffness, and muscle-tendon behavior during SSC exercise. Eleven men were assigned to a training group and ten to a control group. Subjects in the training group performed depth jumps (DJ) using only the ankle joint for 12 weeks. Before and after the period, we observed reaction forces at foot, muscle-tendon behavior of the gastrocnemius, and electromyographic activities of the triceps surae and tibialis anterior during DJ...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128865/modelling-the-effect-of-race-surface-and-racehorse-limb-parameters-on-in-silico-fetlock-motion-and-propensity-for-injury
#20
J E Symons, D A Hawkins, D P Fyhrie, S K Upadhyaya, S M Stover
BACKGROUND: The metacarpophalangeal joint (fetlock) is the most commonly affected site of racehorse injury, with multiple observed pathologies consistent with extreme fetlock dorsiflexion. Race surface mechanics affect musculoskeletal structure loading and injury risk because surface forces applied to the hoof affect limb motions. Race surface mechanics are a function of controllable factors. Thus, race surface design has the potential to reduce the incidence of musculoskeletal injury through modulation of limb motions...
January 27, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
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