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Positive affect circadian

Adrian Andrzej Chrobak, Anna Tereszko, Daria Dembinska-Krajewska, Aleksandra Arciszewska, Marcin Siwek, Dominika Dudek, Janusz Rybakowski
Chronotype is a stable trait presenting one's circardian preference. Since chronotype disturbances are common in patients with affective disorders, our aim is to evaluate chronotypes related to affective temperaments, measured with the temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). The study included 618 subjects (151 men and 467 women) within the framework of web-based design. They all fulfilled a questionnaire, consisting of the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), Sleep Wake Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SWPAQ), and the TEMPS-A scale...
October 13, 2016: Chronobiology International
Mohammad Haddadi, Samaneh Reiszadeh Jahromi, Upendra Nongthomba, T Shivanandappa, S R Ramesh
Oxidative stress is one of the major etiological factors implicated in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Since neurons are more sensitive to oxidative damage there is an increasing interest in developing novel antioxidant therapies, especially herbal preparations due to their safety profile and high efficiency. In this regard, the neuroprotective potential of a novel antioxidant compound, 4-hydroxyisophthalic acid (4-HIPA) isolated from aqueous extract of Decalepis hamiltonii roots was examined using transgenic Drosophila model of taupathy expressing wild-type and mutant forms of 2N4R isoform of human microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT)...
September 9, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Leonardo Rodríguez-Sosa, Gabina Calderón-Rosete, Aída Ortega-Cambranis, Francisco F De-Miguel
The biogenic amine octopamine (OA) modulates invertebrate behavior by changing neuronal responses from sensory inputs to motor outputs. However, the OA modulation of visual sensitivity and its possible coupling to diurnal cycles remains unexplored. Here we studied the diurnal variations in the OA levels in the hemolymph of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, its release from the structures in the eyestalk and its modulation of the retinal light sensitivity. The hemolymph concentration of OA and its amino acid precursor tyrosine was measured by high-resolution liquid chromatography; OA varied along the 24-hcycle...
September 1, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Alicia Carissimi, Alessandra Castro Martins, Fabiane Dresch, Lilian Corrêa da Silva, Cristian Patrick Zeni, Maria Paz Hidalgo
School start time influences sleep parameters. Differences between circadian sleep parameters on weekends and weekdays have been associated with obesity, sleep, and psychiatric disorders. Moreover, circadian rhythm dysregulation affects the secretion of some hormones, such as melatonin and cortisol. In the current study, we investigate the effect of school start time on cortisol and melatonin levels in a community sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study of 454 students (mean age, 12...
August 31, 2016: Chronobiology International
Shariq Najeeb, Zohaib Khurshid, Sana Zohaib, Muhammad Sohail Zafar
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine) is a substance secreted by multiple organs in vertebrates. In addition to playing a part in the circadian cycle of the body, melatonin is known to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antioncotic effects on human tissues. Oral cavity is affected by a number of conditions such as periodontitis, mucositis, cancers, and cytotoxicity from various drugs or biomaterials. Research has suggested that melatonin is effective in treating the aforementioned pathologies. Furthermore, melatonin has been observed to enhance osseointegration and bone regeneration...
August 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Feng Li, Kan Sun, Diaozhu Lin, Yiqin Qi, Yan Li, Li Yan, Meng Ren
OBJECTIVE: Menopause can affect the physiological timing system, which could result in circadian rhythm changes and development of napping habits. Whether longtime napping in postmenopausal women is associated with cardiovascular disease is, however, still debated. The present study aims to investigate this association. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study in 4,616 postmenopausal Chinese women. Information on sleep duration was self-reported. The Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Score was calculated and used to identify participants at high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)...
September 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Tuo Xue, Chunnian Song, Qing Wang, Yan Wang, Guangju Chen
The circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), and brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) proteins are important transcriptional factors of the endogenous circadian clock. The CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins can regulate the transcription-translation activities of the clock-related genes through the DNA binding. The hetero-/homo-dimerization and DNA combination of the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins play a key role in the positive and negative transcriptional feedback processes. In the present work, we constructed a series of binary and ternary models for the bHLH/bHLH-PAS domains of the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins, and the DNA molecule, and carried out molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations and conformational analysis to explore the interaction properties of the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins with DNA...
2016: PloS One
Angela R Ozburn, Kush Purohit, Puja K Parekh, Gabrielle N Kaplan, Edgardo Falcon, Shibani Mukherjee, Hannah M Cates, Colleen A McClung
Circadian rhythm disruptions are prominently associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Circadian rhythms are regulated by the molecular clock, a family of proteins that function together in a transcriptional-translational feedback loop. The CLOCK protein is a key transcription factor of this feedback loop, and previous studies have found that manipulations of the Clock gene are sufficient to produce manic-like behavior in mice (1). The CLOCK 3111T/C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1801260) is a genetic variation of the human CLOCK gene that is significantly associated with increased frequency of manic episodes in BD patients (2)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Hiroyuki Sasaki, Yuta Hattori, Yuko Ikeda, Mayo Kamagata, Shiho Iwami, Shinnosuke Yasuda, Shigenobu Shibata
Circadian rhythms are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) clock, which is the main oscillator and peripheral clock. SCN clock can be entrained by both photic and non-photic stimuli, and an interaction exists between photic and non-photic entrainment. Moreover, peripheral circadian clocks can be entrained not only by scheduled restricted feeding, but also by scheduled exercise. Thus, the entrainment of peripheral circadian clocks may be the result of an interaction between the entrainment caused by feeding and exercise...
2016: Chronobiology International
Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga
Circadian alignment is crucial for body-weight management, and for metabolic health. In this context, circadian alignment consists of alignment of sleep, meal patterns and physical activity. During puberty a significant reduction in sleep duration occurs, and pubertal status is inversely associated with sleep duration. A consistent inverse association between habitual sleep duration and body-weight development occurs, independent of possible confounders. Research on misalignment reveals that circadian misalignment affects sleep-architecture and subsequently disturbs glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, leptin- and ghrelin concentrations, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity and gut-peptide concentrations enhancing positive energy balance and metabolic disturbance...
April 27, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Mickal Houadria, Nico Blüthgen, Alex Salas-Lopez, Mona-Isabel Schmitt, Johanna Arndt, Eric Schneider, Jérôme Orivel, Florian Menzel
The diversity-stability relationship has been under intense scrutiny for the past decades, and temporal asynchrony is recognized as an important aspect of ecosystem stability. In contrast to relatively well-studied interannual and seasonal asynchrony, few studies investigate the role of circadian cycles for ecosystem stability. Here, we studied multifunctional redundancy of diurnal and nocturnal ant communities in four tropical rain forest sites. We analyzed how it was influenced by species richness, functional performance, and circadian asynchrony...
January 2016: Ecology
Magda J Castelhano-Carlos, Vera Baumans, Nuno Sousa
The use of animals is essential in biomedical research. The laboratory environment where the animals are housed has a major impact on them throughout their lives and influences the outcome of animal experiments. Therefore, there has been an increased effort in the refinement of laboratory housing conditions which is explicitly reflected in international regulations and recommendations. Since housing conditions affect behaviour and brain function as well as well-being, the validation of an animal model or paradigm to study the brain and central nervous system disorders is not complete without an evaluation of its implication on animal welfare...
March 15, 2016: Laboratory Animals
M C Gordijn, D G Beersma, A L Bouhuys, H J Korte, R H van den Hoofdakker
Unequivocal results demonstrating a causal relationship between a disturbance in circadian rhythms and depression have not yet been reported (reviews). However, acute mood changes, such as the antidepressive effect of sleep deprivation, diurnal variations of mood and their interrelationship, are commonly put forward as evidence of the importance of circadian dysregulations in affective disorders. The purpose of the present study is to obtain more insight in the mechanisms underlying these mood changes. The results will be discussed in the context of a recently postulated non-chronobiological explanation...
June 1995: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
A Wirz-Justice, K Kräuchi, D P Brunner, P Graw, H J Haug, G Leonhardt, A Sarrafzadeh, J English, J Arendt
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterised by recurrent episodes in autumn and winter of depression, hypersomnia, augmented appetite with carbohydrate craving, and weight gain, and can be successfully treated with bright light. Circadian rhythm hypotheses (summarized in) have stimulated research into the pathophysiology of SAD, postulating that: 1.The illness is a consequence of delayed phase position, 2.It is correlated with diminished circadian amplitude, or 3.It results from changes in the nocturnal duration between dusk and dawn e...
June 1995: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Konrad S Jankowski
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to elucidate previously observed associations between morningness-eveningness and depressive symptomatology in university students. Relations between components of depressive symptomatology and morningness-eveningness were analysed. METHODS: Nine hundred and seventy-four university students completed Polish versions of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies - Depression scale (CES-D; Polish translation appended to this paper) and the Composite Scale of Morningness...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Philippa L Rock, Guy M Goodwin, Katharina Wulff, Sarah F B McTavish, Catherine J Harmer
BACKGROUND: Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic that can stabilise mood from any index episode of bipolar disorder. This study investigated the effects of seven-day quetiapine administration on sleep, circadian rhythms and emotional processing in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers received 150 mg quetiapine XL for seven nights and 20 matched controls received placebo. Sleep-wake actigraphy was completed for one week both pre-dose and during drug treatment...
March 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Fuyuki Sato, Ujjal K Bhawal, Tomohiro Yoshimura, Yasuteru Muragaki
Clock genes, major regulators of circadian rhythm, are involved in tumor progression. We have shown that clock genes basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) transcription factors, differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene 1 (DEC1/BHLHE40/Sharp2/Stra13) and DEC2 (BHLHE41/Sharp1) play important roles in circadian rhythm, cell proliferation, apoptosis, hypoxia response, various stresses, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells. Various stresses, such as exposure to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), hypoxia, cytokines, serum-free, and anti-tumor drugs affect DEC1 and DEC2 expression...
2016: Journal of Cancer
J Lopez-Minguez, L Colodro-Conde, C Bandín, J R Ordoñana, M Garaulet, J A Madrid
At present, the measurement of circadian system status under free-living conditions by the use of sensors is a relatively new technique. The data obtained using these methods are influenced by strong environmental masking factors and artifacts that can affect its recording. Therefore, the use of integrative variables such as TAP, a measure that includes temperature, activity and position that reduces these drawbacks and the number of parameters obtained is necessary. However, the relative genetic contribution to this circadian marker is unknown...
2016: Chronobiology International
Anna Alkozei, Ryan Smith, William D S Killgore
Blue wavelength light has been used as an effective treatment for some types of mood disorders and circadian rhythm related sleep problems. We hypothesized that acute exposure to blue wavelength light would directly affect the functioning of neurocircuity implicated in emotion regulation (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]) during 'certain' and 'uncertain' anticipation of negative and positive stimuli. Thirty-five healthy adults were randomized to receive a thirty-minute exposure to either blue (active) or amber (placebo) light, immediately followed by an emotional anticipation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
March 11, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Robert Lewis, J Thomas Curtis
Mammals typically display alternating active and resting phases and, in most species, these rhythms follow a circadian pattern. The active and resting phases often are accompanied by corresponding physiological changes. In humans, blood pressure decreases during the resting phase of the activity cycle, and the magnitude of that "nocturnal dipping" has been used to stratify patients according to the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in contrast to most mammals, prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) have periods of activity and rest that follow an ultradian rhythm with period lengths significantly <24h...
March 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
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