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Light at night

Tong Zhao, Lingxiao Yang, Weida Yan, Junmei Zhang, Wei Lu, Yumeng Yang, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang
Daytime and night-time PM1 and PM2.5 samples were simultaneously collected at the summit of Mount Tai during summer and autumn 2014. The mass concentrations and chemical compositions were analysed to determine the temporal variations of PM1 and PM2.5 and their contributions to visibility impairment. In summer, the average mass concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were 38.16μg/m(3) and 53.33μg/m(3), respectively. In autumn, the values were 42.75μg/m(3) and 59.16μg/m(3). Water-soluble inorganic ions were the most abundant species in both PM1 and PM2...
October 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Andreas Arendt, El-Sayed Baz, Monika Stengl
The circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia (Leucophaea) maderae is located in the accessory medulla (AME). Ipsi- and contralateral histaminergic compound eyes are required for photic entrainment. Light pulses delayed locomotor activity rhythms during the early night and advanced during the late night. Thus, different neuronal pathways might relay either light-dependent delays or advances to the clock. Injections of neuroactive substances combined with running-wheel assays suggested that GABA, PDF, myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs), and orcokinins (ORCs) are part of both entrainment pathways, while allatotropin (AT) only delayed locomotor rhythms at the early night...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Dirk Jan Stenvers, Rick van Dorp, Ewout Foppen, Jorge Mendoza, Anne-Loes Opperhuizen, Eric Fliers, Peter H Bisschop, Johanna H Meijer, Andries Kalsbeek, Tom Deboer
Exposure to light at night (LAN) is associated with insomnia in humans. Light provides the main input to the master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that coordinates the sleep-wake cycle. We aimed to develop a rodent model for the effects of LAN on sleep. Therefore, we exposed male Wistar rats to either a 12 h light (150-200lux):12 h dark (LD) schedule or a 12 h light (150-200 lux):12 h dim white light (5 lux) (LDim) schedule. LDim acutely decreased the amplitude of daily rhythms of REM and NREM sleep, with a further decrease over the following days...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Thomas Raap, Giulia Casasole, David Costantini, Hamada AbdElgawad, Han Asard, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Artificial light at night (ALAN), termed light pollution, is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may have profound effects on animal physiology, particularly during early life. Here, we experimentally investigated for the first time the impact of ALAN on body mass and oxidative status during development, using nestlings of a free-living songbird, the great tit (Parus major), an important model species. Body mass and blood oxidative status were determined at baseline (=13 days after hatching) and again after a two night exposure to ALAN...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Casey O Diekman, Amitabha Bose
Circadian oscillators found across a variety of species are subject to periodic external light-dark forcing. Entrainment to light-dark cycles enables the circadian system to align biological functions with appropriate times of day or night. Phase response curves (PRCs) have been used for decades to gain valuable insights into entrainment; however, PRCs may not accurately describe entrainment to photoperiods with substantial amounts of both light and dark due to their reliance on a single limit cycle attractor...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Maartje Liefting, Jarno Cosijn, Jacintha Ellers
Some major aspects of insect life, like development time and reproduction, can benefit from fluctuating temperatures rather than a constant temperature regime. The benefit of fluctuating temperature has generally been attributed to the non-linear properties of the relationship of many life history traits with temperature. Daily temperature rise, however, usually coincide with the light phase of the photoperiodic cycle and there could be a benefit in linking daily temperature fluctuations with light and dark phases e...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Massimiliano de Zambotti, John Trinder, Harold Javitz, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker
OBJECTIVE: Insomnia disorder is a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) pathology. It is unknown whether insomnia that develops in the context of the menopausal transition (MT) impacts the CV system. We assessed nocturnal blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) profiles in women with insomnia disorder in the MT. METHODS: Twelve women meeting DSM-IV criteria for insomnia in the MT (age, mean ± SD: 50.5 ± 3.6 y) and 11 controls (age, mean ± SD: 49.0 ± 3...
October 3, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Karen Spruyt, Wiebe Braam, Marcel Smits, Leopold Mg Curfs
AIMS: Individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are reported to have a disrupted circadian rhythm. Our aim was to examine problematic sleeping in those attending our sleep clinic for the first time. METHODS: At intake, caregivers of 50 children and nine adults with SMS were surveyed about the sleep pattern and potential melatonin administration. Sampling of salivary melatonin levels was performed. RESULTS: At intake, exogenous melatonin was used by 16 children (27...
October 14, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Michael Bennardo, Faisal J Alibhai, Elena V Tsimakouridze, Nirmala Chinnappareddy, Peter Podobed, Cristine J Reitz, W Glen Pyle, Jeremy A Simpson, Tami A Martino
Diurnal or circadian rhythms are fundamentally important for healthy cardiovascular physiology, and play a role in timing of onset and tolerance to myocardial infarction (MI) in patients. Whether time of day of MI triggers different molecular and cellular responses that can influence myocardial remodelling is not known. This study was designed to test whether time of day of MI triggers different gene expression, humoral, and innate inflammatory responses that contribute to cardiac repair after MI. Mice were infarcted by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (MI model) within a 2 hour time window either shortly after lights on or lights off, and the early remodelling responses at 8 hours post infarction were examined...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Iwona Adamska, Bogdan Lewczuk, Magdalena Markowska, Pawel M Majewski
The aim of the present study was to characterize the daily profiles of melatonin synthesis-related indoles in the pineal glands of male Hy-Line chickens hatched in the winter and reared under controlled light (L:D 12:12) conditions. The pineal glands were isolated from 16-day-old birds immediately after decapitation every 2h over a 24-h period. The indole contents were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection. According to the obtained data, in chicken pineal glands tryptophan occurred at the highest level among the investigated compounds, showing rhythmical, daily changes with decreased levels during the scotophase...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Teresa Bonacci, Pierpaolo Storino, Stefano Scalercio, Pietro Brandmayr
Many environmental and intrinsic factors (e.g. limited access to the body) can disrupt insect activity, causing a delay in the colonization of a corpse. These elements could hinder an accurate estimation of the minimum Post-mortem Interval (minPMI), raising questions about the limits of forensic entomology. Blow fly are considered mainly diurnal and relatively inactive at night, at extreme temperatures and in dark conditions. Data on their ability to lay eggs in darkness and in laboratory conditions are scarce...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Laëtitia Riva-Roveda, Brigitte Escale, Catherine Giauffret, Claire Périlleux
BACKGROUND: European Flint maize inbred lines are used as a source of adaptation to cold in most breeding programs in Northern Europe. A deep understanding of their adaptation strategy could thus provide valuable clues for further improvement, which is required in the current context of climate change. We therefore compared six inbreds and two derived Flint x Dent hybrids for their response to one-week at low temperature (10 °C day/7 or 4 °C night) during steady-state vegetative growth...
October 4, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Lonnele J Ball, Oxana Palesh, Lance J Kriegsfeld
Most physiological processes in the brain and body exhibit daily (circadian) rhythms coordinated by an endogenous master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus that are essential for normal health and functioning. Exposure to sunlight during the day and darkness at night optimally entrains biological rhythms to promote homeostasis and human health. Unfortunately, a major consequence of the modern lifestyle is increased exposure to sun-free environments during the day and artificial lighting at night...
October 2016: Endocrine Reviews
Danilo E F L Flôres, Milene G Jannetti, Veronica S Valentinuzzi, Gisele A Oda
Synchronization of biological rhythms to the 24-hour day/night has long been studied with model organisms, under artificial light/dark cycles in the laboratory. The commonly used rectangular light/dark cycles, comprising hours of continuous light and darkness, may not be representative of the natural light exposure for most species, including humans. Subterranean rodents live in dark underground tunnels and offer a unique opportunity to investigate extreme mechanisms of photic entrainment in the wild. Here, we show automated field recordings of the daily light exposure patterns in a South American subterranean rodent, the tuco-tuco (Ctenomys aff...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Melissa A St Hilaire, Melanie Rüger, Federico Fratelli, Joseph T Hull, Andrew J K Phillips, Steven W Lockley
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Intra-individual night-to-night sleep duration is often insufficient and variable. Here we report the effects of such chronic variable sleep deficiency on neurobehavioral performance and the ability of state-of the-art models to predict these changes. METHODS: Eight healthy males (mean age ± SD: 23.9 ± 2.4 years) studied on our inpatient intensive physiologic monitoring unit completed an 11-day protocol with a baseline 10-hour sleep opportunity and three cycles of two 3-hour time-in-bed and one 10-hour time-in-bed sleep opportunities...
September 26, 2016: Sleep
Richard Amoh-Gyimah, Eric N Aidoo, Millicent A Akaateba, Simon K Appiah
Despite the benefits of walking as a means of travelling, walking can be quite hazardous. Pedestrian-vehicle crashes remain a major concern in Ghana as they account for the highest percentage of fatalities. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of both natural and built environmental features on pedestrian-vehicle crash severity in Ghana. The study is based on an extensive pedestrian-vehicle crash dataset extracted from the National Road Traffic Accident Database at the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Ghana...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Mauro Sassi, Nunzio Buccheri, Myles Rooney, Chiara Botta, Francesco Bruni, Umberto Giovanella, Sergio Brovelli, Luca Beverina
Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating in the near-infrared spectral region are gaining growing relevance for emerging photonic technologies, such as lab-on-chip platforms for medical diagnostics, flexible self-medicated pads for photodynamic therapy, night vision and plastic-based telecommunications. The achievement of efficient near-infrared electroluminescence from solution-processed OLEDs is, however, an open challenge due to the low photoluminescence efficiency of most narrow-energy-gap organic emitters...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ango C Hsu, Andre M Boustany, Jason J Roberts, Jui-Han Chang, Patrick N Halpin
To analyze the effects of mesoscale eddies, sea surface temperature (SST), and gear configuration on the catch of Atlantic bluefin (Thunnus thynnus), yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in the U.S. northwest Atlantic longline fishery, we constructed multivariate statistical models relating these variables to the catch of the four species in 62 121 longline hauls made between 1993 and 2005. During the same 13-year period, 103 anticyclonic eddies and 269 cyclonic eddies were detected by our algorithm in the region 30-55°N, 30-80°W...
November 2015: Fisheries Oceanography
Zhi-Qian Zhang, Degejin, Di Geng, Qi Zhang, Yan Tian, Yuan Xi, Wen-Qi Wang, Hua-Qi Tang, Bing Xu, Hong-Ying Lin, Yi-Kun Sun
The present study aimed to establish a pharmacodynamic method using the pySolo software to explore the influence of freeze-dried powders of Shuangxia Decoction (SXD) on the sleep of normal Drosophila melanogaster and the Drosophila melanogaster whose sleep was divested by light. The dose-effect and the time-effect relationships of SXD on sleep were examined. The effect-onset concentration of SXD was 0.25%, the plateau appeared at the concentration of 2.5% and the total sleep time showed a downtrend when the concentration was greater than 2...
September 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Neziha Karabulut, Yeşim Yaman Aktaş
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine nurses' approaches to care of patients with postoperative delirium in the postanesthesia care unit and intensive care unit. DESIGN: A descriptive survey design was used. METHODS: Eighty-seven nurses who have been working at a Training and Research Hospital in Erzurum, east of Turkey, were enrolled in this study between October 1 and November 20, 2012. FINDINGS: 83.9% of the nurses reported that they had given pharmacologic therapy for pain management in delirium patients, 39...
October 2016: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
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