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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772513/a-transition-to-white-led-increases-ecological-impacts-of-nocturnal-illumination-on-aquatic-primary-producers-in-a-lowland-agricultural-drainage-ditch
#1
Maja Grubisic, Roy H A van Grunsven, Alessandro Manfrin, Michael T Monaghan, Franz Hölker
The increasing use of artificial light at night (ALAN) has led to exposure of freshwater ecosystems to light pollution worldwide. Simultaneously, the spectral composition of nocturnal illumination is changing, following the current shift in outdoor lighting technologies from traditional light sources to light emitting diodes (LED). LEDs emit broad-spectrum white light, with a significant amount of photosynthetically active radiation, and typically a high content of blue light that regulates circadian rhythms in many organisms...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768068/population-level-study-links-short-wavelength-nighttime-illumination-with-breast-cancer-incidence-in-a-major-metropolitan-area
#2
Nataliya Rybnikova, Boris A Portnov
Several population-level studies revealed a positive association between breast cancer (BC) incidence and artificial light at night (ALAN) exposure. However, the effect of short-wavelength illumination, implicated by laboratory research and small-scale cohort studies as the main driving force behind BC-ALAN association, has not been supported by any population-level study carried out to date. We investigated a possible link between BC and ALAN of different subspectra using a multi-spectral year-2011 satellite image, taken from the International Space Station, and superimposing it with year-2013 BC incidence data available for the Great Haifa Metropolitan Area in Israel...
May 16, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766666/light-at-night-disrupts-nocturnal-rest-and-elevates-glucocorticoids-at-cool-color-temperatures
#3
Valentina J Alaasam, Richard Duncan, Stefania Casagrande, Scott Davies, Abhijaat Sidher, Brett Seymoure, Yantao Shen, Yong Zhang, Jenny Q Ouyang
Nighttime light pollution is quickly becoming a pervasive, global concern. Since the invention and proliferation of light-emitting diodes (LED), it has become common for consumers to select from a range of color temperatures of light with varying spectra. Yet, the biological impacts of these different spectra on organisms remain unclear. We tested if nighttime illumination of LEDs, at two commercially available color temperatures (3000 and 5000 K) and at ecologically relevant illumination levels affected body condition, food intake, locomotor activity, and glucocorticoid levels in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757516/species-composition-and-nocturnal-activity-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-inhabiting-a-limestone-cave-in-thailand
#4
Narong Jaturas, Apichat Vitta, Yudthana Samung, Chamnarn Apiwathnasorn, Raxsina Polseela
We investigated the nocturnal activity of cave-dwelling sand flies at different time intervals and determined their species composition and seasonal variation. Sand flies were captured on one night each month using CDC light traps from 18:00-06:00 with the collecting bag being changed every two h between February, 2010 and January, 2011. A total of 18,709 individuals, including 10,740 males and 7,969 females, was collected. The overall ratio between male and female specimens was 1:0.74. The collected specimens included 14 species from four genera, Chinius, Idiophlebotomus, Phlebotomus, and Sergentomyia...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753728/retinal-adaptation-to-dim-light-vision-in-spectacled-caimans-caiman-crocodilus-fuscus-analysis-of-retinal-ultrastructure
#5
Anett Karl, Silke Agte, Astrid Zayas-Santiago, Felix N Makarov, Yomarie Rivera, Jan Benedikt, Mike Francke, Andreas Reichenbach, Serguei N Skatchkov, Andreas Bringmann
It has been shown that mammalian retinal glial (Müller) cells act as living optical fibers that guide the light through the retinal tissue to the photoreceptor cells (Agte et al., 2011; Franze et al., 2007). However, for nonmammalian species it is unclear whether Müller cells also improve the transretinal light transmission. Furthermore, for nonmammalian species there is a lack of ultrastructural data of the retinal cells, which, in general, delivers fundamental information of the retinal function, i.e. the vision of the species...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751019/nighttime-light-exposure-enhances-rev-erb%C3%AE-targeting-micrornas-and-contributes-to-hepatic-steatosis
#6
Patricia C Borck, Thiago M Batista, Jean F Vettorazzi, Gabriela M Soares, Camila Lubaczeuski, Dongyin Guan, Antonio C Boschero, Elaine Vieira, Mitchell A Lazar, Everardo M Carneiro
OBJECTIVE: The exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) disrupts the biological rhythms and has been associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) display a critical role in fine-tuning the circadian system and energy metabolism. In this study, we aimed to assess whether altered miRNAs expression in the liver underlies metabolic disorders caused by disrupted biological rhythms. RESULTS: We found that C3H/HePas mice exposed to ALAN developed obesity, and hepatic steatosis, which was paralleled by decreased expression of Rev-erbα and up-regulation of its lipogenic targets ACL and FAS in liver...
May 8, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750549/does-breaking-up-prolonged-sitting-when-sleep-restricted-affect-postprandial-glucose-responses-and-subsequent-sleep-architecture-a-pilot-study
#7
Grace E Vincent, Sarah M Jay, Charli Sargent, Katya Kovac, Michele Lastella, Corneel Vandelanotte, Nicola D Ridgers, Sally A Ferguson
This pilot study investigated the impact of breaking up prolonged sitting with light-intensity walking on postprandial glucose responses and sleep architecture. In a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, six healthy males completed a sitting condition and an active condition (sitting interrupted with light-intensity walking) for three consecutive days, following 5-h sleep opportunities at night. Postprandial glucose response and sleep (time spent in all stages) was assessed. Breaking up prolonged sitting with light-intensity walking did not affect postprandial glucose responses in sleep-restricted participants; however a small increase (~9 min) in slow-wave sleep was observed...
May 11, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747703/dark-matters-effects-of-light-at-night-on-metabolism
#8
Randy J Nelson, Souhad Chbeir
Life on earth has evolved during the past several billion years under relatively bright days and dark night conditions. The wide-spread adoption of electric lights during the past century exposed animals, both human and non-human, to significant light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Endogenous circadian clocks depend on light to entrain to the external daily environment and seasonal rhythms depend on clear nightly melatonin signals to assess time of year. Thus, light at night can derange temporal adaptations...
May 11, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746721/melatonin-for-the-promotion-of-sleep-in-adults-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#9
REVIEW
Sharon R Lewis, Michael W Pritchard, Oliver J Schofield-Robinson, Phil Alderson, Andrew F Smith
BACKGROUND: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) experience sleep deprivation caused by environmental disruption, such as high noise levels and 24-hour lighting, as well as increased patient care activities and invasive monitoring as part of their care. Sleep deprivation affects physical and psychological health, and patients perceive the quality of their sleep to be poor whilst in the ICU. Artificial lighting during night-time hours in the ICU may contribute to reduced production of melatonin in critically ill patients...
May 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745349/automated-moth-flight-analysis-in-the-vicinity-of-artificial-light
#10
P Gaydecki
Instrumentation and software for the automated analysis of insect flight trajectories is described, intended for quantifying the behavioural dynamics of moths in the vicinity of artificial light. For its time, this moth imaging system was relatively advanced and revealed hitherto undocumented insights into moth flight behaviour. The illumination source comprised a 125 W mercury vapour light, operating in the visible and near ultraviolet wavelengths, mounted on top of a mobile telescopic mast at heights of 5 and 7...
May 10, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744870/circadian-nutritional-behaviours-and-cancer-risk-new-insights-from-the-nutrinet-sant%C3%A3-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Bernard Srour, Sabine Plancoulaine, Valentina A Andreeva, Philippine Fassier, Chantal Julia, Pilar Galan, Serge Hercberg, Mélanie Deschasaux, Paule Latino-Martel, Mathilde Touvier
Circadian disruption has been classified as probably carcinogenic to humans by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer. The circadian clock is subject to environmental factors, particularly light exposure and food intake rhythms. However, the association between nutritional circadian behaviours and cancer is not well understood. We investigated the longitudinal associations between number of eating episodes, night-time fasting duration, time of first and last eating episodes, as well as nutritional quality of last eating episode, respectively, with breast and prostate cancer risks, the two main cancer locations in women and men respectively...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743512/daytime-eyeshine-contributes-to-pupil-camouflage-in-a-cryptobenthic-marine-fish
#12
Matteo Santon, Pierre-Paul Bitton, Ulrike K Harant, Nico K Michiels
Ocular reflectors enhance eye sensitivity in dim light, but can produce reflected eyeshine when illuminated. Some fish can occlude their reflectors during the day. The opposite is observed in cryptic sit-and-wait predators such as scorpionfish and toadfish, where reflectors are occluded at night and exposed during the day. This results in daytime eyeshine, proposed to enhance pupil camouflage by reducing the contrast between the otherwise dark pupil and the surrounding tissue. In this study, we test this hypothesis in the scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus and show that eyeshine is the result of two mechanisms: the previously described Stratum Argenteum Reflected (SAR) eyeshine, and Pigment Epithelium Transmitted (PET) eyeshine, a newly described mechanism for this species...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735680/diurnal-down-regulation-of-ethylene-biosynthesis-mediates-biomass-heterosis
#13
Qingxin Song, Atsumi Ando, Dongqing Xu, Lei Fang, Tianzhen Zhang, Enamul Huq, Hong Qiao, Xing Wang Deng, Z Jeffrey Chen
Heterosis is widely applied in agriculture; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms for superior performance are not well understood. Ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes are shown to be down-regulated in Arabidopsis interspecific hybrids. Ethylene is a plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening and maturation but inhibits hypocotyl elongation. Here we report that application of exogenous ethylene could eliminate biomass vigor in Arabidopsis thaliana F1 hybrids, suggesting a negative role of ethylene in heterosis...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733537/dim-artificial-light-at-night-affects-mating-reproductive-output-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Lucy Katherine McLay, Venkatesh Nagarajan-Radha, Mark Philip Green, Therésa Melanie Jones
Humans are lighting the night-time environment with ever increasing extent and intensity, resulting in a variety of negative ecological effects in individuals and populations. Effects of light at night on reproductive fitness traits are demonstrated across taxa however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are largely untested. One possible mechanism is that light at night may result in perturbed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress levels. Here, we reared Drosophila melanogaster under either dim (10 lx) light or no light (0 lx) at night for three generations and then compared mating and lifetime oviposition patterns...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723414/fast-reactivation-of-photosynthesis-in-arctic-phytoplankton-during-the-polar-night
#15
Ane Cecilie Kvernvik, Clara Jule Marie Hoppe, Evelyn Lawrenz, Ondřej Prášil, Michael Greenacre, Józef Maria Wiktor, Eva Leu
Arctic microalgae experience long periods of continuous darkness during the polar night, where they are unable to photosynthesize. Despite numerous studies on overwintering strategies, such as utilization of stored energy products, formation of resting stages, reduction of metabolic rate and heterotrophic lifestyles, there have been few attempts to assess the in situ physiological state and restoration of the photosynthetic apparatus upon re-illumination. In this study, we found diverse and active marine phytoplankton communities during the polar night at 78° N...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722167/artificial-light-pollution-shifting-spectral-wavelengths-to-mitigate-physiological-and-health-consequences-in-a-nocturnal-marsupial-mammal
#16
Alicia M Dimovski, Kylie A Robert
The focus of sustainable lighting tends to be on reduced CO2 emissions and cost savings, but not on the wider environmental effects. Ironically, the introduction of energy-efficient lighting, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), may be having a great impact on the health of wildlife. These white LEDs are generated with a high content of short-wavelength 'blue' light. While light of any kind can suppress melatonin and the physiological processes it regulates, these short wavelengths are potent suppressors of melatonin...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696544/a-facile-method-to-prepare-translucent-anatase-thin-films-in-monolithic-structures-for-gas-stream-purification
#17
Caio Rodrigues-Silva, Ricardo A R Monteiro, Márcia Dezotti, Adrián M T Silva, Eugénia Pinto, Rui A R Boaventura, Vítor J P Vilar
In the present work, a facile method to prepare translucent anatase thin films on cellulose acetate monolithic (CAM) structures was developed. A simple sol-gel method was applied to synthesize photoactive TiO2 anatase nanoparticles using tetra-n-butyl titanium as precursor. The immobilization of the photocatalyst on CAM structures was performed by a simple dip-coating method. The translucent anatase thin films allow the UV light penetration through the CAM internal walls. The photocatalytic activity was tested on the degradation of n-decane (model volatile organic compound-VOC) in gas phase, using a tubular lab-scale (irradiated by simulated solar light) and pilot-scale (irradiated by natural solar light or UVA light) reactors packed with TiO2 -CAM structures, both equipped with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs)...
April 26, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690042/description-of-the-male-of-antodice-quadrimaculata-martins-galileo-2003-coleoptera-cerambycidae-lamiinae-with-new-country-record-for-the-species
#18
Rafael C de Barros, Bianca Piraccini Silva, Carlos E de Alvarenga Julio
The genus Antodice Thomson, 1864 was revised by Martins Galileo (1998) and currently includes 27 species (Tavakilian Chevillotte 2017), distributed from Mexico to southern South America. Based on a single female specimen collected in Arroyo Cristal, Ka'azapá, Paraguay, the species Antodice quadrimaculata was first described by Martins Galileo in 2003. The holotype specimen was collected on 20 November 1999 by J. Jensen and is deposited in the Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. With the help of Carlos Aguilar, from Paraguay's National Museum of Natural History, we were able to determine the exact location where the holotype was collected...
February 5, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688088/constant-light-during-lactation-programs-circadian-and-metabolic-systems
#19
Palma-Gómez Madahi, Osnaya Ivan, Balderas Adriana, Ortega Diana, Escobar Carolina
Exposure to light at night is a disruptive condition for the adult circadian system, leading to arrhythmicity in nocturnal rodents. Circadian disruption is a risk factor for developing physiological and behavioral alterations, including weight gain and metabolic disease. During early stages of development, the circadian system undergoes a critical period of adjustment, and it is especially vulnerable to altered lighting conditions that may program its function, leading to long-term effects. We hypothesized that during lactation a disrupted light-dark cycle due to light at night may disrupt the circadian system and in the long term induce metabolic disorders...
April 24, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687979/evaluating-the-association-between-artificial-light-at-night-exposure-and-breast-and-prostate-cancer-risk-in-spain-mcc-spain-study
#20
Ariadna Garcia-Saenz, Alejandro Sánchez de Miguel, Ana Espinosa, Antonia Valentin, Núria Aragonés, Javier Llorca, Pilar Amiano, Vicente Martín Sánchez, Marcela Guevara, Rocío Capelo, Adonina Tardón, Rosana Peiró-Perez, José Juan Jiménez-Moleón, Aina Roca-Barceló, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos, Tania Fernández-Villa, Conchi Moreno-Iribas, Victor Moreno, Javier García-Pérez, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Marina Pollán, Martin Aubé, Manolis Kogevinas
BACKGROUND: Night shift work, exposure to light at night (ALAN) and circadian disruption may increase the risk of hormone-dependent cancers. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association of exposure to ALAN during sleeping time with breast and prostate cancer in a population based multicase-control study (MCC-Spain), among subjects who had never worked at night. We evaluated chronotype, a characteristic that may relate to adaptation to light at night. METHODS: We enrolled 1,219 breast cancer cases, 1,385 female controls, 623 prostate cancer cases, and 879 male controls from 11 Spanish regions in 2008-2013...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
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