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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214594/association-between-light-at-night-melatonin-secretion-sleep-deprivation-and-the-internal-clock-health-impacts-and-mechanisms-of-circadian-disruption
#1
REVIEW
Yvan Touitou, Alain Reinberg, David Touitou
Exposure to Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) results in a disruption of the circadian system, which is deleterious to health. In industrialized countries, 75% of the total workforce is estimated to have been involved in shift work and night work. Epidemiologic studies, mainly of nurses, have revealed an association between sustained night work and a 50-100% higher incidence of breast cancer.The potential and multifactorial mechanisms of the effects include the suppression of melatonin secretion by ALAN, sleep deprivation, and circadian disruption...
February 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214372/canonical-and-cellular-pathways-timing-gamete-release-in-acropora-digitifera-okinawa-japan
#2
Y Rosenberg, T Doniger, S Harii, F Sinniger, O Levy
Natural light cycles are important for synchronizing behavioral and physiological rhythms over varying time-periods in both plants and animals. An endogenous clock, regulated by positive and negative elements, interacting in feedback loops, control these rhythms. Many corals exhibit diel cycles of polyp expansion and contraction entrained by solar light patterns and monthly cycles of spawning or planulation that correspond to nocturnal lunar light cycles. However, despite considerable interest in studies of coral reproduction, there is currently not enough molecular information about the cellular pathways involved with synchronizing spawning/planulation in broadcast spawners and brooders...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212404/the-pineal-gland-a-model-for-adrenergic-modulation-of-ubiquitin-ligases
#3
Jerry Vriend, Wenjun Liu, Russel J Reiter
INTRODUCTION: A recent study of the pineal gland of the rat found that the expression of more than 3000 genes showed significant day/night variations (The Hartley dataset). The investigators of this report made available a supplemental table in which they tabulated the expression of many genes that they did not discuss, including those coding for components of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Herein we identify the genes of the ubiquitin proteasome system whose expression were significantly influenced by environmental lighting in the Hartley dataset, those that were stimulated by DBcAMP in pineal glands in culture, and those that were stimulated by norepinephrine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208235/warmer-night-time-temperature-promotes-microbial-heterotrophic-activity-and-modifies-stream-sediment-community
#4
Anna Freixa, Vicenç Acuña, Maria Casellas, Stoyana Pecheva, Anna M Romaní
Diel temperature patterns are changing because of global warming, with higher temperatures being predicted to be more pronounced at night. Biological reactions are temperature dependent, with some occurring only during the daylight hours (e.g., light photosynthesis) and other during the entire day (e.g., respiration). Consequently, we expect the modification of daily temperature cycles to alter microbial biological reactions in stream sediments. Here, we aimed to study the effect of warming and changes of the diel temperature patterns on stream sediment biofilm functions tied to organic carbon decomposition, as well as on biofilm meiofaunal community structure...
February 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203032/icelandic-herring-eating-killer-whales-feed-at-night
#5
Gaëtan Richard, Olga A Filatova, Filipa I P Samarra, Ivan D Fedutin, Marc Lammers, Patrick J Miller
Herring-eating killer whales debilitate herring with underwater tail slaps and likely herd herring into tighter schools using a feeding-specific low-frequency pulsed call ('herding' call). Feeding on herring may be dependent upon daylight, as the whales use their white underside to help herd herring; however, feeding at night has not been investigated. The production of feeding-specific sounds provides an opportunity to use passive acoustic monitoring to investigate feeding behaviour at different times of day...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193808/the-remarkable-visual-capacities-of-nocturnal-insects-vision-at-the-limits-with-small-eyes-and-tiny-brains
#6
REVIEW
Eric J Warrant
Nocturnal insects have evolved remarkable visual capacities, despite small eyes and tiny brains. They can see colour, control flight and land, react to faint movements in their environment, navigate using dim celestial cues and find their way home after a long and tortuous foraging trip using learned visual landmarks. These impressive visual abilities occur at light levels when only a trickle of photons are being absorbed by each photoreceptor, begging the question of how the visual system nonetheless generates the reliable signals needed to steer behaviour...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183865/compass-cues-used-by-a-nocturnal-bull-ant-myrmecia-midas
#7
Cody A Freas, Ajay Narendra, Ken Cheng
Ants use both terrestrial landmarks and cues derived from path integration to navigate to and from their nest location. These cues persist even as light levels drop during the twilight/night. Here we determined the compass cues used by a nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas, in which the majority of the individuals begin foraging during the evening twilight period. Foragers of M. midas with vectors of≤5 m when displaced to unfamiliar locations did not follow the home vector, but instead showed random heading directions...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178352/exposure-of-tropical-ecosystems-to-artificial-light-at-night-brazil-as-a-case-study
#8
Juliana Ribeirão de Freitas, Jon Bennie, Waldir Mantovani, Kevin J Gaston
Artificial nighttime lighting from streetlights and other sources has a broad range of biological effects. Understanding the spatial and temporal levels and patterns of this lighting is a key step in determining the severity of adverse effects on different ecosystems, vegetation, and habitat types. Few such analyses have been conducted, particularly for regions with high biodiversity, including the tropics. We used an intercalibrated version of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) images of stable nighttime lights to determine what proportion of original and current Brazilian vegetation types are experiencing measurable levels of artificial light and how this has changed in recent years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178297/the-flashlight-fish-anomalops-katoptron-uses-bioluminescent-light-to-detect-prey-in-the-dark
#9
Jens Hellinger, Peter Jägers, Marcel Donner, Franziska Sutt, Melanie D Mark, Budiono Senen, Ralph Tollrian, Stefan Herlitze
Bioluminescence is a fascinating phenomenon occurring in numerous animal taxa in the ocean. The reef dwelling splitfin flashlight fish (Anomalops katoptron) can be found in large schools during moonless nights in the shallow water of coral reefs and in the open surrounding water. Anomalops katoptron produce striking blink patterns with symbiotic bacteria in their sub-ocular light organs. We examined the blink frequency in A. katoptron under various laboratory conditions. During the night A. katoptron swims in schools roughly parallel to their conspecifics and display high blink frequencies of approximately 90 blinks/minute with equal on and off times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178236/photovoltage-field-effect-transistors
#10
Valerio Adinolfi, Edward H Sargent
The detection of infrared radiation enables night vision, health monitoring, optical communications and three-dimensional object recognition. Silicon is widely used in modern electronics, but its electronic bandgap prevents the detection of light at wavelengths longer than about 1,100 nanometres. It is therefore of interest to extend the performance of silicon photodetectors into the infrared spectrum, beyond the bandgap of silicon. Here we demonstrate a photovoltage field-effect transistor that uses silicon for charge transport, but is also sensitive to infrared light owing to the use of a quantum dot light absorber...
February 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162893/circadian-entrainment-to-the-natural-light-dark-cycle-across-seasons-and-the-weekend
#11
Ellen R Stothard, Andrew W McHill, Christopher M Depner, Brian R Birks, Thomas M Moehlman, Hannah K Ritchie, Jacob R Guzzetti, Evan D Chinoy, Monique K LeBourgeois, John Axelsson, Kenneth P Wright
Reduced exposure to daytime sunlight and increased exposure to electrical lighting at night leads to late circadian and sleep timing [1-3]. We have previously shown that exposure to a natural summer 14 hr 40 min:9 hr 20 min light-dark cycle entrains the human circadian clock to solar time, such that the internal biological night begins near sunset and ends near sunrise [1]. Here we show that the beginning of the biological night and sleep occur earlier after a week's exposure to a natural winter 9 hr 20 min:14 hr 40 min light-dark cycle as compared to the modern electrical lighting environment...
February 2, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159659/day-night-expression-of-mt1-and-mt2-receptors-in-hypothalamic-nuclei-of-the-primate-sapajus-apella
#12
Luciana Pinato, Dayane Ramos, Alessandre Hataka, Patricia S Rossignoli, Marcos Donisete Granado, Marina Cardoso Mazzetto, Leila M G Campos
Melatonin is involved in the temporal organization of several physiological and behavioral events, controlled by hypothalamic nuclei, like sleep, feeding, reproduction and metabolic modulation and acts through two types of high-affinity G protein-coupled membrane receptors: MT1 and MT2. This study aimed to investigate the expression of MT1 and MT2 receptors proteins in four hypothalamic nuclei, i.e., SCN, supraoptic (SON), paraventricular (PVN) and anteroventral periventricular nuclei (AVPV), of the diurnal primate Sapajus apella using immunohistochemistry...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156158/the-transition-from-day-to-night-activity-is-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-cns-oxygen-toxicity-in-the-diurnal-fat-sand-rat-psammomys-obesus
#13
Mirit Eynan, Adi Biram, Michael Mullokandov, Noga Kronfeld-Schor, Rotem Paz-Cohen, Dvir Menajem, Yehuda Arieli
Performance and safety are impaired in employees engaged in shift work. Combat divers who use closed-circuit oxygen diving apparatus undergo part of their training during the night hours. The greatest risk involved in diving with such apparatus is the development of central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT). We investigated whether the switch from day-to-night activity may be a risk factor for the development of CNS-OT using a diurnal animal model, the fat sand rat (Psammomys obesus). Animals were kept on a 12:12 light-dark schedule (6 a...
February 3, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151557/a-global-review-of-seabird-mortality-caused-by-land-based-artificial-lights
#14
REVIEW
Airam Rodríguez, Nick D Holmes, Peter G Ryan, Kerry-Jayne Wilson, Lucie Faulquier, Yovana Murillo, André F Raine, Jay Penniman, Verónica Neves, Beneharo Rodríguez, Juan J Negro, André Chiaradia, Peter Dann, Tracy Anderson, Benjamin Metzger, Masaki Shirai, Lorna Deppe, Jennifer Wheeler, Peter Hodum, Catia Gouveia, Vanda Carmo, Gilberto P Carreira, Luis Delgado-Alburqueque, Carlos Guerra-Correa, François-Xavier Couzi, Marc Travers, Matthieu Le Corre
Artificial lights at night cause high mortality of seabirds, one of the most endangered groups of birds globally. Fledglings of burrow-nesting seabirds, and to a lesser extent adults, are grounded by lights when they fly at night. We review the current state of knowledge of light attraction, identify information gaps and propose measures to address the problem. Although other avian families such as Alcidae and Anatidae can be involved, the most affected seabirds are petrels and shearwaters: at least 56 species, more than one-third of them (24) threatened, are grounded by lights...
February 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144950/cold-acclimation-in-warmer-extended-autumns-impairs-freezing-tolerance-of-perennial-ryegrass-lolium-perenne-and-timothy-phleum-pratense
#15
Sigridur Dalmannsdottir, Marit Jørgensen, Marcin Rapacz, Liv Østrem, Arild Larsen, Rolf Rødven, Odd Arne Rognli
The effect of variable autumn temperatures in combination with decreasing irradiance and daylength on photosynthesis, growth cessation and freezing tolerance was investigated in northern- and southern-adapted populations of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and timothy (Phleum pratense) intended for use in regions at northern high latitudes. Plants were subjected to three different acclimation temperatures; 12 °C, 6 °C and 9/3 °C (day/night) for four weeks, followed by one week of cold acclimation at 2 °C under natural light conditions...
February 1, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141890/transcriptome-dynamics-over-a-lunar-month-in-a-broadcast-spawning-acroporid-coral
#16
Matthew J Oldach, Matthew Workentine, Mikhail V Matz, T-Y Fan, Peter D Vize
On one night per year, at a specific point in the lunar cycle, one of the most extraordinary reproductive events on the planet unfolds as hundreds of millions of broadcast spawning corals release their trillions of gametes into the waters of the tropical seas. Each species spawns on a specific night within the lunar cycle, typically from full moon to third quarter moon, and in a specific time window after sunset. This accuracy is essential to achieve efficient fertilization in the vastness of the oceans. In this report we use transcriptome sequencing at noon and midnight across an entire lunar cycle to explore how Acroporid corals interpret lunar signals...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140399/timing-of-light-exposure-affects-mood-and-brain-circuits
#17
REVIEW
T A Bedrosian, R J Nelson
Temporal organization of physiology is critical for human health. In the past, humans experienced predictable periods of daily light and dark driven by the solar day, which allowed for entrainment of intrinsic circadian rhythms to the environmental light-dark cycles. Since the adoption of electric light, however, pervasive exposure to nighttime lighting has blurred the boundaries of day and night, making it more difficult to synchronize biological processes. Many systems are under circadian control, including sleep-wake behavior, hormone secretion, cellular function and gene expression...
January 31, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135281/dispersal-of-male-and-female-culex-quinquefasciatus-and-aedes-albopictus-mosquitoes-using-stable-isotope-enrichment
#18
Matthew C I Medeiros, Emily C Boothe, E Brendan Roark, Gabriel L Hamer
The dispersal patterns of mosquito vectors are important drivers of vector-borne infectious disease dynamics and understanding movement patterns is pivotal to devise successful intervention strategies. Here, we investigate the dispersal patterns of two globally important mosquito vectors, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus, by marking naturally-occurring larvae with stable isotopes (13C or 15N). Marked individuals were captured with 32 CDC light trap, 32 gravid trap, and 16 BG Sentinel at different locations within two-kilometer radii of six larval habitats enriched with either 13C or 15N...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129406/diurnal-and-seasonal-variations-in-the-net-ecosystem-co2-exchange-of-a-pasture-in-the-three-river-source-region-of-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#19
Bin Wang, Haiyan Jin, Qi Li, Dongdong Chen, Liang Zhao, Yanhong Tang, Tomomichi Kato, Song Gu
Carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange between the atmosphere and grassland ecosystems is very important for the global carbon balance. To assess the CO2 flux and its relationship to environmental factors, the eddy covariance method was used to evaluate the diurnal cycle and seasonal pattern of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of a cultivated pasture in the Three-River Source Region (TRSR) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from January 1 to December 31, 2008. The diurnal variations in the NEE and ecosystem respiration (Re) during the growing season exhibited single-peak patterns, the maximum and minimum CO2 uptake observed during the noon hours and night; and the maximum and minimum Re took place in the afternoon and early morning, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109907/circadian-gene-variants-and-breast-cancer
#20
Edyta Reszka, Monika Przybek, Olav Muurlink, Beata Pepłonska
The endogenous and self-sustained circadian rhythm generated and maintained in suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral tissues can coordinate various molecular, biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms resulting in the adaptation to environmental cues, e.g. light. Multifactorial breast cancer etiology also involves circadian gene alterations, especially among individuals exposed to light at night. Indeed, shift work that causes circadian disruption has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A...
April 1, 2017: Cancer Letters
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