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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905928/perceptions-on-the-effect-of-small-electric-fans-on-comfort-inside-bed-nets-in-southern-ghana-a-qualitative-study
#1
Mulako S Jaeger, Olivier J T Briët, Joseph Keating, Collins K Ahorlu, Joshua O Yukich, Samuel Oppong, Peter Nardini, Constanze Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are known to be highly effective in reducing malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality. However, among those owning an LLIN, use rates are often suboptimal. A reported barrier to bed net use is discomfort due to heat. This qualitative study was part of a larger evaluation conducted in communities without electricity in rural Ghana to assess whether 0.8 W solar powered net fans can increase net use. METHODS: Twenty-three key informant interviews with household heads in the study communities in Shai-Osudoku District, southern Ghana, were conducted from July to August 2015...
December 1, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905666/spectral-electroencephalography-profile-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-at-sleep-onset-in-narcolepsy-type-1
#2
F Pizza, R Ferri, S Vandi, F Rundo, M Iloti, G Neccia, G Plazzi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) period (SOREMP), the hallmark of narcolepsy, may be a specific state and not the simple anticipation of REM sleep. METHODS: We analyzed the electroencephalographic spectral content in untreated patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) during the sleep-onset period (SOP) and during nocturnal REM sleep in two consecutive nocturnal recordings from 31 patients with NT1 (mean age 34 ± 15 years, 18 males) and a single nocturnal recording from 36 controls (mean age 38 ± 13 years, 21 males)...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899698/illuminating-a-risk-for-breast-cancer-a-preliminary-ecological-study-on-the-association-between-streetlight-and-breast-cancer
#3
Atalya Keshet-Sitton, Keren Or-Chen, Eran Huber, Abraham Haim
Artificial light at night (ALAN) for elongating photophase is a new source of pollution. We examined the association between measured ALAN levels and breast cancer (BC) standard morbidity ratio (SMR) at a statistical area (SA) level in an urban environment. Sample size consisted of 266 new BC cases ages 35-74. Light measurements (lux) were performed in 11 SAs. A new calculated variable of morbidity per SA size (SMR35-74/km(2)) was correlated with the light variables per road length, using Pearson correlations (P < ...
November 29, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895890/sex-and-age-related-differences-in-arterial-pressure-and-albuminuria-in-mice
#4
Giannie Barsha, Kate M Denton, Katrina M Mirabito Colafella
BACKGROUND: Animal models have become valuable experimental tools for understanding the pathophysiology and therapeutic interventions in cardiovascular disease. Yet to date, few studies document the age- and sex-related differences in arterial pressure, circadian rhythm, and renal function in normotensive mice under basal conditions, across the life span. We hypothesized that mice display similar sex- and age-related differences in arterial pressure and renal function to humans. METHODS: Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and circadian rhythm of arterial pressure were measured over 3 days via radiotelemetry, in 3- and 5-month-old (adult) and 14- and 18-month-old (aged) FVB/N and in 5-month-old (adult) C57BL/6 male and female normotensive mice...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892680/artificial-light-at-night-and-cancer-global-study
#5
Redhwan Ahmed Al-Naggar, Shirin Anil
Background: Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been linked to increased risk of cancers in body sites like the breast and colorectum. However exposure of ALAN as an environmental risk factor and its relation to cancers in humans has never been studied in detail. Objective: To explore the association of ALAN with all forms of cancers in 158 countries. Materials and Methods: An ecological study encompassing global data was conducted from January to June 2015, with age-standardized rates (ASR) of cancers as the outcome measure...
January 10, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887910/assessment-of-serum-level-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-primary-nocturnal-enuresis
#6
Ayat A Motawie, Amany M Abd Al-Aziz, Hanan M Hamed, Amany A A Fatouh, Mona A M Awad, Amany Abd El-Ghany
INTRODUCTION: Primary nocturnal enuresis is one of the sleep related phenomena characterized by disruption in the relationship between arousal and urination. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurohormone released from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus into the median eminence to elicit release of adrenocorticotrophin from the anterior pituitary. It may act to modulate autonomic function and behavior in concert with the endocrine effects. Conflicting animal studies about the role of CRF in micturition, either facilitating or inhibiting, have been raised...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883065/cycles-of-circadian-illuminance-are-sufficient-to-entrain-and-maintain-circadian-locomotor-rhythms-in-drosophila
#7
Eunjoo Cho, Ji Hye Oh, Euna Lee, Young Rag Do, Eun Young Kim
Light at night disrupts the circadian clock and causes serious health problems in the modern world. Here, we show that newly developed four-package light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can provide harmless lighting at night. To quantify the effects of light on the circadian clock, we employed the concept of circadian illuminance (CIL). CIL represents the amount of light weighted toward the wavelengths to which the circadian clock is most sensitive, whereas visual illuminance (VIL) represents the total amount of visible light...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871746/a-practical-model-for-sunlight-disinfection-of-a-subtropical-maturation-pond
#8
N W Dahl, P L Woodfield, C J Lemckert, H Stratton, A Roiko
Maturation ponds are a type of waste stabilisation pond (WSP) designed to reduce carbon, nutrients and pathogens in the final stages of a WSP wastewater treatment system. In this study, a one-dimensional plug-flow pond model is proposed to predict temperature and E. coli concentration distributions and overall pond disinfection performance. The model accounts for the effects of vertical mixing and ultraviolet light-dependent die-off rate kinetics. Measurements of radiation, wind-speed, humidity and air temperature are recorded for model inputs and good agreement with measured vertical temperature distributions and outlet E...
October 29, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867660/corneal-aberrations-contrast-sensitivity-and-light-distortion-in-orthokeratology-patients-1-year-results
#9
Elena Santolaria-Sanz, Alejandro Cerviño, José M González-Méijome
Purpose. To evaluate the corneal higher-order aberrations (HOA), contrast sensitivity function (CSF), and light distortion (LD) in patients undergoing orthokeratology (OK). Methods. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age: 21.40 ± 8 years) with mean spherical equivalent refractive error M = -2.19 ± 0.97 D were evaluated at 1 day, 1 month, and 1 year after starting OK treatment. Monocular LD, photopic monocular CSF, and corneal HOA for 6 mm pupil size were measured. Results. LD showed an increase after the first night (p < 0...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859195/energetic-costs-of-mange-in-wolves-estimated-from-infrared-thermography
#10
P C Cross, E S Almberg, C G Haase, P J Hudson, S K Maloney, M C Metz, A J Munn, P Nugent, O Putzeys, D R Stahler, A C Stewart, D W Smith
Parasites, by definition, extract energy from their hosts and thus affect trophic and food web dynamics even when the parasite may have limited effects on host population size. We studied the energetic costs of mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) in wolves (Canis lupus) using thermal cameras to estimate heat losses associated with compromised insulation during the winter. We combined the field data of known, naturally infected wolves with a data set on captive wolves with shaved patches of fur as a positive control to simulate mange-induced hair loss...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859082/inactive-trout-come-out-at-night-behavioral-variation-circadian-activity-and-fitness-in-the-wild
#11
Libor Závorka, David Aldvén, Joacim Näslund, Johan Höjesjö, Jörgen I Johnsson
Theory suggests that high activity levels in animals increase growth at the cost of increased mortality. This growth-mortality tradeoff has recently been incorporated into the wider framework of the pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis. However, activity is often quantified only in the laboratory and on a diurnal basis, leaving open the possibility that animals manage predation risk and feeding efficiency in the wild by modulating their circadian activity rhythms. Here we investigate how laboratory activity in wild brown trout parr (Salmo trutta L...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853572/anthropogenic-disruption-of-the-night-sky-darkness-in-urban-and-rural-areas
#12
Salvador Bará
The growing emissions of artificial light to the atmosphere are producing, among other effects, a significant increase of the night sky brightness (NSB) above its expected natural values. A permanent sensor network has been deployed in Galicia (northwest of Iberian peninsula) to monitor the anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in a countrywide area. The network is composed of 14 detectors integrated in automated weather stations of MeteoGalicia, the Galician public meteorological agency. Zenithal NSB readings are taken every minute and the results are openly available in real time for researchers, interested stakeholders and the public at large through a dedicated website...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853179/spatial-analysis-of-pahs-in-soils-along-an-urban-suburban-rural-gradient-scale-effect-distribution-patterns-diffusion-and-influencing-factors
#13
Chi Peng, Meie Wang, Weiping Chen
Spatial statistical methods including Cokriging interpolation, Morans I analysis, and geographically weighted regression (GWR) were used for studying the spatial characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) accumulation in urban, suburban, and rural soils of Beijing. The concentrations of PAHs decreased spatially as the level of urbanization decreased. Generally, PAHs in soil showed two spatial patterns on the regional scale: (1) regional baseline depositions with a radius of 16.5 km related to the level of urbanization and (2) isolated pockets of soil contaminated with PAHs were found up to around 3...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851868/pharmacotherapies-for-sleep-disturbances-in-dementia
#14
REVIEW
Jenny McCleery, Daniel A Cohen, Ann L Sharpley
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances, including reduced nocturnal sleep time, sleep fragmentation, nocturnal wandering, and daytime sleepiness are common clinical problems in dementia, and are associated with significant caregiver distress, increased healthcare costs, and institutionalisation. Drug treatment is often sought to alleviate these problems, but there is significant uncertainty about the efficacy and adverse effects of the various hypnotic drugs in this vulnerable population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects, including common adverse effects, of any drug treatment versus placebo for sleep disorders in people with dementia, through identification and analysis of all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
November 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835724/a-systematic-review-of-bright-light-therapy-for-eating-disorders
#15
Marshall T Beauchamp, Jennifer D Lundgren
Objective: Bright light therapy is a noninvasive biological intervention for disorders with nonnormative circadian features. Eating disorders, particularly those with binge-eating and night-eating features, have documented nonnormative circadian eating and mood patterns, suggesting that bright light therapy may be an efficacious stand-alone or adjunctive intervention. The purpose of this systematic literature review, using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, was (1) to evaluate the state of the empirical treatment outcome literature on bright light therapy for eating disorders and (2) to explore the timing of eating behavior, mood, and sleep-related symptom change so as to understand potential mechanisms of bright light therapy action in the context of eating disorder treatment...
October 27, 2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829252/association-between-high-ambient-temperature-and-acute-work-related-injury-a-case-crossover-analysis-using-workers-compensation-claims-data
#16
Judith A McInnes, Muhammad Akram, Ewan M MacFarlane, Tessa Keegel, Malcolm R Sim, Peter Smith
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between high ambient temperature and acute work-related injury, expanding on previous research in this area. Specifically we examined the relationship between both daytime and overnight temperatures and injury risk and disentangled physically demanding occupational exposures from exposure to outdoor working conditions. METHODS: A time-stratified case-crossover study design was used to examine the association between ambient temperatures and acute work-related injuries in Melbourne, Australia, 2002-2012, using workers' compensation claims to identify work-related injuries...
November 9, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827445/decrease-in-fmri-brain-activation-during-working-memory-performed-after-sleeping-under-10-lux-light
#17
Seung-Gul Kang, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Chul-Hyun Cho, Soonwook Kwon, June Kang, Young-Min Park, Eunil Lee, Leen Kim, Heon-Jeong Lee
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) when sleeping on functional brain activation during a working-memory tasks. We conducted the brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis on 20 healthy male subjects. All participants slept in a polysomnography laboratory without light exposure on the first and second nights and under a dim-light condition of either 5 or 10 lux on the third night. The fMRI scanning was conducted during n-back tasks after second and third nights...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821737/quasimodo-mediates-daily-and-acute-light-effects-on-drosophila-clock-neuron-excitability
#18
Edgar Buhl, Adam Bradlaugh, Maite Ogueta, Ko-Fan Chen, Ralf Stanewsky, James J L Hodge
We have characterized a light-input pathway regulating Drosophila clock neuron excitability. The molecular clock drives rhythmic electrical excitability of clock neurons, and we show that the recently discovered light-input factor Quasimodo (Qsm) regulates this variation, presumably via an Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) and the Shaw K(+) channel (dKV3.1). Because of light-dependent degradation of the clock protein Timeless (Tim), constant illumination (LL) leads to a breakdown of molecular and behavioral rhythms...
November 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806480/a-faunistic-study-on-scorpions-and-the-epidemiology-of-scorpionism-in-bam-southeast-of-iran
#19
Mansour Nazari, Mohsen Hajizadeh
BACKGROUND: Scorpions are arthropods of medical importance which are classified in Arachnida and commonly found in hot and dry environments. Notably, no extensive study has been conducted in Bam County in relation to research involving scorpions. METHODS: The study was piloted from May to November 2013 in the identification of scorpion fauna and epidemiological survey of scorpions sting cases were completed from April 2008 to March 2012. Scorpion specimens were collected at night using UV light...
June 30, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805028/bioluminescence-as-an-ecological-factor-during-high-arctic-polar-night
#20
Heather A Cronin, Jonathan H Cohen, Jørgen Berge, Geir Johnsen, Mark A Moline
Bioluminescence commonly influences pelagic trophic interactions at mesopelagic depths. Here we characterize a vertical gradient in structure of a generally low species diversity bioluminescent community at shallower epipelagic depths during the polar night period in a high Arctic fjord with in situ bathyphotometric sampling. Bioluminescence potential of the community increased with depth to a peak at 80 m. Community composition changed over this range, with an ecotone at 20-40 m where a dinoflagellate-dominated community transitioned to dominance by the copepod Metridia longa...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
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