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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148844/circadian-phase-circadian-period-and-chronotype-are-reproducible-over-months
#1
Thomas Kantermann, Charmane I Eastman
The timing of the circadian clock, circadian period and chronotype varies among individuals. To date, not much is known about how these parameters vary over time in an individual. We performed an analysis of the following five common circadian clock and chronotype measures: 1) the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO, a measure of circadian phase), 2) phase angle of entrainment (the phase the circadian clock assumes within the 24-h day, measured here as the interval between DLMO and bedtime/dark onset), 3) free-running circadian period (tau) from an ultradian forced desynchrony protocol (tau influences circadian phase and phase angle of entrainment), 4) mid-sleep on work-free days (MSF from the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire; MCTQ) and 5) the score from the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ)...
November 17, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147469/non-pharmacologic-interventions-to-improve-sleep-of-medicine-inpatients-a-controlled-study
#2
Selina Dobing, Anita Dey, Finlay McAlister, Jennifer Ringrose
Background: Sleep quality in hospitalized medicine patients is poor, with environmental factors among the most frequently cited reasons. Objective: We tested the efficacy of a non-pharmacologic intervention on the sleep quality of medicine inpatients. Design/Methods: A controlled study to evaluate our non-pharmacologic multidisciplinary 'TUCK-in' protocol (which includes timed lights-off periods, minimizing night-time noise, distribution of earplugs at bedtime, cued toileting before bedtime, and identification and reduction of modifiable interruptions) was deployed on two of five identical medicine wards...
2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146445/interplay-between-daily-rhythmic-serum-mediated-bacterial-killing-activity-and-immune-defence-factors-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#3
Carlo C Lazado, Manuel Gesto, Lone Madsen, Alfred Jokumsen
Circadian rhythm is emerging as an important regulator of immune functions. However, there is a paucity of information on the influence of this biological phenomenon in the antimicrobial factors in teleost fish. This study investigated the dynamics and interplay of serum-mediated bacterial killing activity and immune defence factors throughout the light:dark (LD) cycle in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The juvenile fish came from two different emergence time fractions (i.e., late and early) that were believed to exhibit behavioural and physiological differences...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144171/circadian-gene-methylation-in-rotating-shift-nurses-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Edyta Reszka, Edyta Wieczorek, Monika Przybek, Ewa Jabłońska, Paweł Kałużny, Agnieszka Bukowska-Damska, Shanbeh Zienolddiny, Beata Pepłońska
Investigating the methylation status of the circadian genes may contribute to a better understanding of the shift work-related circadian disruption in individuals exposed to artificial light at night. In the present study, we determined the methylation status of the circadian genes associated with a shift work pattern among nurses and midwives participating in a cross-sectional study in Lodz, Poland. Quantitative methylation polymerase chain reaction assays were used to assess promoter CpG methylation in PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, CRY2, BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 in genomic DNA from whole blood of 347 women having a rotating-shift work schedule and 363 women working days only...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144169/bright-light-exposure-during-daytime-sleeping-affects-nocturnal-melatonin-secretion-after-simulated-night-work
#5
Shunsuke Nagashima, Madoka Osawa, Hiroto Matsuyama, Wataru Ohoka, Aemi Ahn, Tomoko Wakamura
The guidelines for night and shift workers recommend that after night work, they should sleep in a dark environment during the daytime. However, staying in a dark environment during the daytime reduces nocturnal melatonin secretion and delays its onset. Daytime bright-light exposure after night work is important for melatonin synthesis the subsequent night and for maintaining the circadian rhythms. However, it is not clear whether daytime sleeping after night work should be in a dim- or a bright-light environment for maintaining melatonin secretion...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138967/mice-lacking-egr1-have-impaired-clock-gene-bmal1-oscillation-locomotor-activity-and-body-temperature
#6
Casper Schwartz Riedel, Birgitte Georg, Henrik L Jørgensen, Jens Hannibal, Jan Fahrenkrug
Early growth response transcription factor 1 (EGR1) is expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) after light stimulation. We used EGR1-deficient mice to address the role of EGR1 in the clock function and light-induced resetting of the clock. The diurnal rhythms of expression of the clock genes BMAL1 and PER1 in the SCN were evaluated by semi-quantitative in situ hybridization. We found no difference in the expression of PER1 mRNA between wildtype and EGR1-deficient mice; however, the daily rhythm of BMAL1 mRNA was completely abolished in the EGR1-deficient mice...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129611/effect-of-sleep-curtailment-on-dietary-behavior-and-physical-activity-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#7
Eri Tajiri, Eiichi Yoshimura, Yoichi Hatamoto, Hiroaki Tanaka, Seiya Shimoda
Our objective was to clarify the effect of sleep curtailment on energy intake (EI) and physical activity under free-living conditions. Participants were 16 healthy women aged 21-22years. A randomized crossover trial design was used to compare a short sleep condition (SS): 4h/night (2:00-6:00) and a control sleep condition (CS): 7h/night (23:00-6:00). Each condition comprised 3 consecutive nights. Sleep duration was assessed using a wristwatch-type accelerometer at home. All living activities except sleeping were free-living...
November 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129126/chronic-circadian-misalignment-without-circadian-arrhythmicity-or-sleep-deprivation-does-not-impair-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#8
Phan Q Duy, Samer Hattar
Artificial light in modern society has led to the ubiquity of light exposure at night as individuals work night shifts and use light-emitting electronic devices before bedtime. These aberrant light conditions have detrimental consequences on cognitive and mental health, compelling the need to understand the mechanisms by which light affects brain functions. Although it was believed that aberrant light impairs health by first disrupting circadian rhythms and sleep, we showed that chronic exposure to a light cycle termed T7 (3...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124824/why-artificial-light-at-night-should-be-a-focus-for-global-change-research-in-the-21st-century
#9
Thomas W Davies, Tim Smyth
The environmental impacts of artificial light at night have been a rapidly growing field of global change science in recent years. Yet, light pollution has not achieved parity with other global change phenomena in the level of concern and interest it receives from the scientific community, government and nongovernmental organizations. This is despite the globally widespread, expanding and changing nature of night-time lighting and the immediacy, severity and phylogenetic breath of its impacts. In this opinion piece, we evidence 10 reasons why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century...
November 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122177/ascospore-release-in-apple-scab-underlies-infrared-sensation
#10
Katja Ehlert, Meike Piepenbring, Andreas Kollar
The agent of apple scab disease (Venturia inaequalis) is the most common pathogen in apple cultivation. Its ascospores are released in spring, mainly during daylight hours and triggered by rain events. To investigate the causes of diurnal rhythm of ascospore dissemination of the apple scab fungus ascospore releases were examined continuously with spore traps in the orchard and with laboratory assays. One of the spore traps was illuminated at night with different light sources in each year during 2011-2015. The laboratory assays were performed with different light sources with varying wavelengths and intensities...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121122/photosensitive-atopic-dermatitis-exacerbated-by-uvb-exposure
#11
Veronica L Rutt, Kelly X Reed, Xuehui Liu, Elisabeth G Richard, Stephen M Purcell
Photosensitive atopic dermatitis (AD) is a rare disease entity that many physicians are not familiar with, thus it often is misdiagnosed. It can be life altering, as patients often strictly avoid the sun and may only leave the house at night. Effective treatments are available, and therefore diagnosis is key to improve quality of life for these patients. We describe a case of photosensitive AD exacerbated by UVB exposure. The diagnosis was made with phototesting, and the patient was able to begin treatment with narrowband UVB (NB-UVB) hardening while on immunosuppression...
September 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119397/specific-features-of-electrolyte-excretion-at-the-early-stages-of-arterial-hypertension-in-shr-rats
#12
M L Blagonravov, E V Medvedeva, A A Bryk, V A Goryachev, M M Azova, E V Velichko
Daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic BP was recorded in 23-week-old SHR and Wistar rats by telemetric monitoring. Urine concentrations of sodium, potassium, and calcium were determined in SHR rats during of light (07.00-19.00 h) and dark hours (19.00-07.00 h) at the age of 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 23 week; 23-week-old Wistar rats were used as the control. At early stages of the experiment, urine sodium concentration was elevated in SHR rats both at daytime and at night. Thereafter, this value declined and by 22-23 week was significantly lower than in normotensive Wistar rats, but only during daytime...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117235/variability-of-surface-and-underwater-nocturnal-spectral-irradiance-with-the-presence-of-clouds-in-urban-and-peri-urban-wetlands
#13
Jean Secondi, Valentin Dupont, Aurélie Davranche, Nathalie Mondy, Thierry Lengagne, Marc Théry
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing phenomenon worldwide. It causes a wealth of biological and ecological effects that may eventually affect populations and ecosystems. Despite the growing concern about ALAN, little is known about the light levels species are exposed to at night, especially for wetlands and underwater habitats. We determined nocturnal irradiance in urban and peri-urban wetlands above and under water, and assessed the effect of cloud cover on the variability of ALAN across the urban gradient...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112195/face-and-predictive-validity-of-the-clock%C3%AE-19-mouse-as-an-animal-model-for-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
M Kristensen, A A Nierenberg, S D Østergaard
Mice carrying the circadian locomotor output cycles Kaput delta 19 N-ethyl-N-nitrosoure (ENU) mutation (ClockΔ19) are used as an animal model for bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to systematically review the face validity (phenotypical and pathophysiological resemblance with BD) and predictive validity (responsiveness to treatments used in BD) of this model in adherence with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. We carried out a systematic search of the databases PubMed and Embase, combining search terms covering BD and ClockΔ19...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111816/comparing-the-response-to-acute-and-chronic-exposure-to-short-wavelength-lighting-emitted-from-computer-screens
#15
A Green, M Cohen-Zion, A Haim, Y Dagan
The use of electronic devices with light-emitting screens has increased exponentially in the last decade. As a result, humans are continuously exposed to unintentional artificial light. We explored the effects of acute and chronic exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) via screen illumination on sleep, circadian rhythms, and related functional outcomes. Nineteen participants (11 female and 8 males, mean age 28.1 ± 7.2 years) underwent a six-night study with three experimental conditions using a repeated-measures design: baseline (first night, no light exposure), acute ALAN exposure (second night), and chronic ALAN exposure (third to sixth nights)...
November 7, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107707/time-of-day-but-not-aging-regulates-5-ht7-receptor-binding-sites-in-the-hamster-hippocampus
#16
Marilyn J Duncan, J Tyler Smith, Kathleen M Franklin
Activation of 5-HT7 receptors influences memory as well as circadian rhythms and other processes. This study investigated the regulation of the 5-HT7 receptors in the hippocampus, a likely substrate for the effects of 5-HT7 receptor compounds on memory. Because endogenous serotonin release is higher during the active phase, and chronic treatment with a serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor down-regulates 5-HT7 receptors, we hypothesized that 5-HT7 receptors exhibit 24-h variations. We also hypothesized that aging decreases 5-HT7 receptors in the hippocampus, as it does in the dorsal raphe nucleus, a brain site for serotonergic resetting of circadian rhythms...
October 28, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101797/blocking-nocturnal-blue-light-for-insomnia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Ari Shechter, Elijah Wookhyun Kim, Marie-Pierre St-Onge, Andrew J Westwood
The use of light-emitting electronic devices before bedtime may contribute to or exacerbate sleep problems. Exposure to blue-wavelength light in particular from these devices may affect sleep by suppressing melatonin and causing neurophysiologic arousal. We aimed to determine if wearing amber-tinted blue light-blocking lenses before bedtime improves sleep in individuals with insomnia. Fourteen individuals (n = 8 females; age ± SD 46.6 ± 11.5 y) with insomnia symptoms wore blue light-blocking amber lenses or clear placebo lenses in lightweight wraparound frames for 2 h immediately preceding bedtime for 7 consecutive nights in a randomized crossover trial (4-wk washout)...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100153/outdoor-light-at-night-and-the-prevalence-of-depressive-symptoms-and-suicidal-behaviors-a-cross-sectional-study-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-korean-adults
#18
Jin-Young Min, Kyoung-Bok Min
BACKGROUND: Outdoor light at night (LAN) is an increasingly prevalent type of environmental pollution. Studies have demonstrated that outdoor LAN can disrupt circadian rhythms, potentially contributing to insomnia, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic changes in humans. We investigated the association of outdoor LAN with depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in South Korean adults. METHODS: This study used data from the 2009 Korean Community Health Survey, a representative sample dataset...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099875/daily-rhythms-and-enrichment-patterns-in-the-transcriptome-of-the-behavior-manipulating-parasite-ophiocordyceps-kimflemingiae
#19
Charissa de Bekker, Ian Will, David P Hughes, Andreas Brachmann, Martha Merrow
Various parasite-host interactions that involve adaptive manipulation of host behavior display time-of-day synchronization of certain events. One example is the manipulated biting behavior observed in Carpenter ants infected with Ophiocordyceps unilateralis sensu lato. We hypothesized that biological clocks play an important role in this and other parasite-host interactions. In order to identify candidate molecular clock components, we used two general strategies: bioinformatics and transcriptional profiling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097992/circadian-and-metabolic-effects-of-light-implications-in-weight-homeostasis-and-health
#20
REVIEW
Santiago A Plano, Leandro P Casiraghi, Paula García Moro, Natalia Paladino, Diego A Golombek, Juan J Chiesa
Daily interactions between the hypothalamic circadian clock at the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral circadian oscillators regulate physiology and metabolism to set temporal variations in homeostatic regulation. Phase coherence of these circadian oscillators is achieved by the entrainment of the SCN to the environmental 24-h light:dark (LD) cycle, coupled through downstream neural, neuroendocrine, and autonomic outputs. The SCN coordinate activity and feeding rhythms, thus setting the timing of food intake, energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and active and basal metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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