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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811909/a-fourth-subtype-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-related-orphan-receptors-is-activated-by-oxidized-all-trans-retinoic-acid-in-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#1
Kotowa Sakai, Haruka Fukushima, Yuya Yamamoto, Toshitaka Ikeuchi
BACKGROUND: The three known subtypes of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) have been implicated in the control of immunity, brain function, and circadian rhythm in mammals. Here, we demonstrate by phylogenetic analysis that there were originally four subtypes of RORs in vertebrates. One of the novel ror paralogs, rord1 (rorca in the Ensembl database), is conserved among teleosts, but absent in mammals. Using medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a model teleost, we evaluated the expression pattern of this gene, its transactivational properties for endogenic chemicals, and its ability to activate the promoters of putative target genes...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810964/a-study-on-the-tactical-safety-of-endotracheal-intubation-under-darkness
#2
Sedat Bilge, Attila Aydin, Meltem Bilge, Cemile Aydin, Erdem Cevik, Mehmet Eryilmaz
OBJECTIVE: Strict blackout discipline is extremely important for all military units. To be able to effectively determine wound characteristics and perform the necessary interventions at nighttime, vision and light restrictions can be mitigated through the use of tactical night vision goggles (NVGs). The lamp of the classical laryngoscope (CL) can be seen with the naked eye; infrared light, on the other hand, cannot be perceived without the use of NVGs. The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety of endotracheal intubation (ETI) procedures in the dark under tactically safe conditions with modified laryngoscope (ML) model...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809958/a-cre1-regulated-cluster-is-responsible-for-light-dependent-production-of-dihydrotrichotetronin-in-trichoderma-reesei
#3
Alberto Alonso Monroy, Eva Stappler, Andre Schuster, Michael Sulyok, Monika Schmoll
Changing light conditions, caused by the rotation of earth resulting in day and night or growth on the surface or within a substrate, result in considerably altered physiological processes in fungi. For the biotechnological workhorse Trichoderma reesei, regulation of glycoside hydrolase gene expression, especially cellulase expression was shown to be a target of light dependent gene regulation. Analysis of regulatory targets of the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1 under cellulase inducing conditions revealed a secondary metabolite cluster to be differentially regulated in light and darkness and by photoreceptors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796893/singing-from-north-to-south-latitudinal-variation-in-timing-of-dawn-singing-under-natural-and-artificial-light-conditions
#4
Arnaud Da Silva, Bart Kempenaers
1. Animals breeding at northern latitudes experience drastic changes in daily light conditions during the breeding season with decreasing periods of darkness, whereas those living at lower latitudes are exposed to naturally dark nights throughout the year. Nowadays, many animals are also exposed to artificial night lighting (often referred to as light pollution). 2. Animals strongly rely on variation in light levels to time their daily and seasonal behaviour. Previous work on passerine birds showed that artificial night lighting leads to earlier onset of dawn song...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794459/multiple-excitatory-actions-of-orexins-upon-thalamo-cortical-neurons-in-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-implications-for-vision-modulation-by-arousal
#5
Lukasz Chrobok, Katarzyna Palus-Chramiec, Anna Chrzanowska, Mariusz Kepczynski, Marian Henryk Lewandowski
The orexinergic system of the lateral hypothalamus plays a crucial role in maintaining wakefulness and mediating arousal in a circadian time-dependent manner. Due to the extensive connections of orexinergic neurons, both orexins (OXA and OXB) exert mainly excitatory effects upon remote brain areas, including the thalamus. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (DLG) is a relay thalamic centre for the visual system. Its thalamo-cortical (TC) neurons convey photic information from the retina to the primary visual cortex...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794189/time-of-day-influences-on-respiratory-sequelae-following-maximal-electroshock-induced-seizures-in-mice
#6
Benton S Purnell, Michael A Hajek, Gordon F Buchanan
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in refractory epilepsy patients. While specific mechanisms underlying SUDEP are not well understood, evidence suggests most SUDEP occurs due to seizure-induced respiratory arrest. SUDEP also tends to happen at night. While this may be due to circumstances humans find themselves in at night, such as being alone without supervision or sleeping prone, or due to independent influences of sleep state, there are a number of reasons why the night (i...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791684/sleep-characteristics-light-at-night-and-breast-cancer-risk-in-a-prospective-cohort
#7
Alexandra J White, Clarice R Weinberg, Yong-Moon Park, Aimee A D'Aloisio, Emily Vogtmann, Hazel B Nichols, Dale P Sandler
Increasing numbers of women in the US are getting too little sleep. Inadequate sleep has been associated with impaired metabolic function and endocrine disruption. Sister Study cohort participants (n=50,884), completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires on sleep patterns. Incident breast cancers estrogen receptor (ER) status of the tumor were ascertained from questionnaires and medical records. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Analyses of sleep characteristics reported at the first follow-up interview included only participants who were breast cancer-free at time of follow-up interview...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783730/artificial-light-at-night-as-a-new-threat-to-pollination
#8
Eva Knop, Leana Zoller, Remo Ryser, Christopher Gerpe, Maurin Hörler, Colin Fontaine
Pollinators are declining worldwide and this has raised concerns for a parallel decline in the essential pollination service they provide to both crops and wild plants. Anthropogenic drivers linked to this decline include habitat changes, intensive agriculture, pesticides, invasive alien species, spread of pathogens and climate change. Recently, the rapid global increase in artificial light at night has been proposed to be a new threat to terrestrial ecosystems; the consequences of this increase for ecosystem function are mostly unknown...
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774755/human-seasonal-and-circadian-studies-in-antarctica-halley-75-0-s
#9
Josephine Arendt, Benita Middleton
Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75(0)S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer...
July 31, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770653/simple-lighting-manipulations-facilitate-behavioral-entrainment-of-mice-to-18-h-days
#10
Thijs J Walbeek, Michael R Gorman
In an invariantly rhythmic world, a robust and stable mammalian circadian clock is presumed to confer fitness advantages. In shift-work or after rapid transmeridian travel, however, a stable clock might be maladaptive and a more flexibly resettable clock may have advantages. The rate at which rodents can adjust to simulated time zone travel and the range of entrainment can be markedly increased through simple light manipulations, namely, by exposing animals to extremely dim light (<0.01 lux) at night or by bifurcating rhythms under 24-h light-dark-light-dark (LDLD) cycles...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770538/night-shift-work-and-risk-of-breast-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Johnni Hansen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Night work is increasingly common and a necessity in certain sectors of the modern 24-h society. The embedded exposure to light-at-night, which suppresses the nocturnal hormone melatonin with oncostatic properties and circadian disruption, i.e., misalignment between internal and external night and between cells and organs, are suggested as main mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis. In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans based on limited evidence from eight epidemiologic studies on breast cancer, in addition to sufficient evidence from animal experiments...
August 2, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759227/molecular-chemistry-of-atmospheric-brown-carbon-inferred-from-a-nationwide-biomass-burning-event
#12
Peng Lin, Nir Bluvshtein, Yinon Rudich, Sergey A Nizkorodov, Julia Laskin, Alexander Laskin
Lag Ba'Omer, a nationwide bonfire festival in Israel, was chosen as a case study to investigate the influence of a major biomass burning event on the light absorption properties of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC). The chemical composition and optical properties of BrC chromophores were investigated using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) platform coupled to photo diode array (PDA) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) detectors. Substantial increase of BrC light absorption coefficient was observed during the night-long biomass burning event...
July 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751661/imaging-and-mapping-the-impact-of-clouds-on-skyglow-with-all-sky-photometry
#13
Andreas Jechow, Zoltán Kolláth, Salvador J Ribas, Henk Spoelstra, Franz Hölker, Christopher C M Kyba
Artificial skyglow is constantly growing on a global scale, with potential ecological consequences ranging up to affecting biodiversity. To understand these consequences, worldwide mapping of skyglow for all weather conditions is urgently required. In particular, the amplification of skyglow by clouds needs to be studied, as clouds can extend the reach of skyglow into remote areas not affected by light pollution on clear nights. Here we use commercial digital single lens reflex cameras with fisheye lenses for all-sky photometry...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747629/clownfish-in-hypoxic-anemones-replenish-host-o2-at-only-localised-scales
#14
N A Herbert, S Bröhl, K Springer, A Kunzmann
The clownfish-anemone association exemplifies a symbiosis where both members benefit from nutrient exchange and protection from predators. Clownfish also perform aeration-like behaviour in their host anemones at night, but it is not yet known whether this is stimulated by the onset of hypoxia, and whether both members benefit from O2 replenishment. Oxygen at 3 distances above the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor (0.2, 1.2 and 2.2 cm) therefore was measured under 3 light levels (photon flux density = 0, 55 and 110 µmol m(-2) s(-1)), with and without the anemonefish Amphiprion frenatus...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746741/rigorous-field-experiments-are-essential-to-understand-the-genuine-severity-of-light-pollution-and-to-identify-possible-solutions
#15
Thomas Raap, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Ouyang et al. (2017; hereafter O2017) claim to have offered evidence that light pollution affects the health of free-living great tits (Parus major). Since 2012, they illuminated forests with either white, green, red or no artificial light at night (ALAN; Figure 1). Individuals in the white light treatment showed an increase in nightly activity in March 2014, which was linked to changes in health and physiology from March to May 2014. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745147/early-birds-by-light-at-night-effects-of-light-color-and-intensity-on-daily-activity-patterns-in-blue-tits
#16
Maaike de Jong, Samuel P Caro, Phillip Gienapp, Kamiel Spoelstra, Marcel E Visser
Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of green, red, or white light at night. Birds advanced their onset of activity in the morning under all light colors but more under red and white light than under green light. Offset of activity was slightly delayed in all light colors...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734045/effectiveness-of-light-therapy-in-cognitively-impaired-persons-a-metaanalysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Huei-Ling Chiu, Pi-Tuan Chen, Hsin Chu, Shu-Tai Sheen Hsiao, Doresses Liu, Chueh-Ho Lin, Kuei-Ru Chou
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of light therapy on behavioral disturbances (BDs), sleep quality, and depression. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. SETTING: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and clinicaltrials.gov of selected randomized controlled trials and previous systematic reviews were searched. PARTICIPANTS: Cognitively impaired persons. MEASUREMENTS: Information was extracted on study characteristics, quality assessment, and outcomes...
July 22, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731695/how-rhodopsin-tunes-the-equilibrium-between-protonated-and-deprotonated-forms-of-the-retinal-chromophore
#18
Siri C van Keulen, Alicia Solano, Ursula Rothlisberger
Rhodopsin is a photoactive G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that converts dim light into a signal for the brain, leading to eyesight. Full activation of this GPCR is achieved after passing through several steps of the protein's photoactivation pathway. Key events of rhodopsin activation are the initial cis-trans photoisomerization of the covalently bound retinal moiety followed by conformational rearrangements and deprotonation of the chromophore's protonated Schiff base (PSB), which ultimately lead to full activation in the meta II state...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729868/the-c4-model-grass-setaria-is-a-short-day-plant-with-secondary-long-day-genetic-regulation
#19
Andrew N Doust, Margarita Mauro-Herrera, John G Hodge, Jessica Stromski
The effect of photoperiod (day:night ratio) on flowering time was investigated in the wild species, Setaria viridis, and in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between foxtail millet (S. italica) and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis). Photoperiods totaled 24 h, with three trials of 8:16, 12:12 and 16:8 light:dark hour regimes for the RIL population, and these plus 10:14 and 14:10 for the experiments with S. viridis alone. The response of S. viridis to light intensity as well as photoperiod was assessed by duplicating photoperiods at two light intensities (300 and 600 μmol...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724450/variation-in-species-composition-and-infection-rates-of-anopheles-mosquitoes-at-different-altitudinal-transects-and-the-risk-of-malaria-in-the-highland-of-dirashe-woreda-south-ethiopia
#20
Taye Yohannes Daygena, Fekadu Massebo, Bernt Lindtjørn
BACKGROUND: The transmission of malaria is heterogeneous, and varies due to altitude. The information on whether the transmission of malaria is indigenous or imported to highland areas is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the species composition and infection rates of Anopheles at different altitudinal transects, and the risk of malaria if any in the highland of Dirashe Woreda, South Ethiopia. METHODS: This study was conducted in Gato (low altitude; average elevation of 1273 m), Onota (mid-altitude; average elevation of 1707 m) and Layignaw-Arguba (high altitude; average elevation of 2337 m) from August 2015 to April 2016...
July 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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