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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914047/a-light-triggered-co2-breathing-foam-via-non-surfactant-high-internal-phase-emulsion
#1
Shiming Zhang, Dingguan Wang, Qianhao Pan, Qinyuan Gui, Shenglong Liao, Yapei Wang
Solid materials for CO2 capture and storage have attracted enormous attention for gaseous separation, environmental protection and climate governance. However, their preparation and recovery are meeting the problems of high energy and financial cost. Herein, a light-triggered CO2 capture and storage process is accomplished in an emulsion-templated polymer foam, in which CO2 is breathed-in at dark and breathed-out under light illumination. Such a process is likely to become a relay of natural CO2 capture by plants which on the contrary breathe out CO2 in nights...
September 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903796/measurement-of-fall-prevention-awareness-and-behaviours-among-older-adults-at-home
#2
Katherine Russell, Darcie Taing, Jacqueline Roy
This study surveyed awareness of, and adherence to, six national fall prevention recommendations among community-dwelling older adults (n = 1050) in Ottawa. Although 76 per cent of respondents agreed falling is a concern and preventable, fewer perceived susceptibility to falling (63%). Respondents had high awareness that home modifications and physical activity can prevent falls. Reported modifications included grab bars (50%), night lights (44%), and raised toilet seats (19%). Half met aerobic activity recommendations; 38 per cent met strength recommendations...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887137/effects-of-a-high-level-of-illumination-before-sleep-at-night-on-chorioretinal-thickness-and-ocular-biometry
#3
Jaemoon Ahn, Soh-Eun Ahn, Kyung-Sook Yang, Seong-Woo Kim, Jaeryung Oh
The choroid is affected by many factors. One of the factors, change in illumination has been suggested to influence choroidal thickness. However, the effects of bright light before sleep at night on the human eye are not well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a high level of illumination in the evening on ocular measurements. Twenty-seven men with myopia spent seven consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. During the first two nights, subjects were exposed to light at 150 lux between 20:00 and midnight...
September 5, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886600/outdoor-light-at-night-and-breast-cancer-incidence-in-the-nurses-health-study-ii
#4
Peter James, Kimberly A Bertrand, Jaime E Hart, Eva S Schernhammer, Rulla M Tamimi, Francine Laden
BACKGROUND: Animal and epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to light at night (LAN) may disrupt circadian patterns and decrease nocturnal secretion of melatonin, which may disturb estrogen regulation, leading to increased breast cancer risk. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer incidence using data from the nationwide U.S.-based Nurses' Health Study II cohort. METHODS: We followed 109,672 women from 1989 through 2013...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886533/artificial-light-at-night-affects-sleep-behaviour-differently-in-two-closely-related-songbird-species
#5
Jiachen Sun, Thomas Raap, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Artificial light at night (ALAN) or light pollution is an increasing and worldwide problem. There is growing concern that because of the disruption of natural light cycles, ALAN may pose serious risks for wildlife. While ALAN has been shown to affect many aspects of animal behaviour and physiology, few studies have experimentally studied whether individuals of different species in the wild respond differently to ALAN. Here, we investigated the effect of ALAN on sleep behaviour in two closely related songbird species inhabiting the same study area and roosting/breeding in similar nest boxes...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886232/what-type-of-rigorous-experiments-are-needed-to-investigate-the-impact-of-artificial-light-at-night-on-individuals-and-populations
#6
Jenny Qianni Ouyang, Maaike de Jong, Roy Ha van Grunsven, Kevin D Matson, Mark F Haussmann, Peter Meerlo, Marcel Visser, Kamiel Spoelstra
In our recent paper on how artificial light at night (ALAN) affects within-individual changes in physiology, we used a unique experimental setup of colored LED lights to show effects on nighttime activity levels and physiology in free-living great tits, Parus major (Ouyang et al., 2017). Raap et al's response, entitled: "Rigorous field experiments are essential to understand the genuine severity of light pollution and to identify possible solutions" lists issues with our analyses (Raap et al., 2017). Rather than go into a detailed response, we use this forum to address the major critiques by answering the bigger question of what types of rigorous field experiments are needed to evaluate ALAN's impact...
September 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878629/higher-arc-nucleus-to-cytoplasm-ratio-during-sleep-in-the-superficial-layers-of-the-mouse-cortex
#7
Sakiko Honjoh, Luisa de Vivo, Hiroyuki Okuno, Haruhiko Bito, Giulio Tononi, Chiara Cirelli
The activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein Arc is strongly and quickly upregulated by neuronal activity, synaptic potentiation and learning. Arc entry in the synapse is followed by the endocytosis of glutamatergic AMPA receptors (AMPARs), and its nuclear accumulation has been shown in vitro to result in a small decline in the transcription of the GluA1 subunit of AMPARs. Since these effects result in a decline in synaptic strength, we asked whether a change in Arc dynamics may temporally correlate with sleep-dependent GluA1 down-regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874144/circadian-disruption-promotes-tumor-growth-by-anabolic-host-metabolism-experimental-evidence-in-a-rat-model
#8
Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Raful Navarro-Espíndola, Mara A Guzmán-Ruíz, María Del Carmen Basualdo, Estefania Espitia-Bautista, Ana López-Bago, Ricardo Lascurain, Cinthya Córdoba-Manilla, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
BACKGROUND: Light at night creates a conflicting signal to the biological clock and disrupts circadian physiology. In rodents, light at night increases the risk to develop mood disorders, overweight, disrupted energy metabolism, immune dysfunction and cancer. We hypothesized that constant light (LL) in rats may facilitate tumor growth via disrupted metabolism and increased inflammatory response in the host, inducing a propitious microenvironment for tumor cells. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to LL or a regular light-dark cycle (LD) for 5 weeks...
September 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870443/light-at-night-as-an-environmental-endocrine-disruptor
#9
REVIEW
Kathryn L G Russart, Randy J Nelson
Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are often consequences of human activity; however, the effects of EEDs are not limited to humans. A primary focus over the past ∼30years has been on chemical EEDs, but the repercussions of non-chemical EEDs, such as artificial light at night (LAN), are of increasing interest. The sensitivity of the circadian system to light and the influence of circadian organization on overall physiology and behavior make the system a target for disruption with widespread effects...
September 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868166/day-time-isoflurane-administration-suppresses-circadian-gene-expressions-in-both-the-brain-and-a-peripheral-organ-liver
#10
Necati Gökmen, İbrahim Barış, Elvan Öçmen, Osman Yılmaz, Ali Günerli, İbrahim Halil Kavaklı
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of light and administration time of isoflurane on circadian gene expression in the brains and liver tissues of rats kept in light-dark cycle. METHODS: Seventy two 15-days-old rats pups were divided into four groups. All animals were exposed to 1.5% concentration of isoflurane or to 6 L min(-1) O2 for six hours between Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 0-ZT06 (day-time administration) or ZT12-ZT18 (night-time administration)...
August 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864562/waiting-for-the-sun-the-circannual-program-of-reindeer-is-delayed-by-the-recurrence-of-rhythmical-melatonin-secretion-after-the-arctic-night
#11
David Hazlerigg, Arnoldus Schytte Blix, Karl-Arne Stokkan
At temperate latitudes, the annual cycle of day length synchronizes circannual rhythms, and, in mammals, this is mediated via nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin, proportional to the length of the night. Here, we studied circannual synchronization in an arctic species, the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), which ceases to produce a rhythmic melatonin signal when it is exposed to extended periods of continuous midwinter darkness, and continuous midsummer light. Using food intake, antler growth and moult as endpoints, we demonstrate that when animals living at 70°N are transferred from natural photoperiods in late autumn to either continuous light or continuous darkness, they undergo a conspicuous acceleration of the circannual program...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855103/disruptive-effects-of-light-pollution-on-sleep-in-free-living-birds-season-and-or-light-intensity-dependent
#12
Thomas Raap, Jiachen Sun, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing anthropogenic environmental pollutant posing an important potential threat for wildlife. Evidence of its effects on animal physiology and behaviour is accumulating. However, in order to effectively mitigate light pollution it is important to determine which factors contribute to the severity of effects of ALAN. In this experimental study we explored whether there are seasonal-dependent effects of ALAN on sleep in free-living great tits (Parus major), an important model species...
September 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845960/sleep-disorders-circadian-rhythm-sleep-wake-disorders
#13
Deepa Burman
Shift work sleep disorder is a common problem in industrialized countries because of the need for occupations and services to continue to function 24 hours/day. Approximately 20% of employed adults in the United States are engaged in shift work. Shift work sleep disorder is diagnosed if there is a report of insomnia or excessive sleepiness for at least 3 months associated with a recurring work schedule that overlaps the usual time for sleep. Shift work is associated with an increased occurrence of metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, and it has been implicated in weight gain and cognitive impairment...
September 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845384/disruption-of-circadian-rhythms-by-light-during-day-and-night
#14
Mariana G Figueiro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to discuss possible reasons why research to date has not forged direct links between light at night, acute melatonin suppression or circadian disruption, and risks for disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Data suggest that irregular light-dark patterns or light exposures at the wrong circadian time can lead to circadian disruption and disease risks. However, there remains an urgent need to: (1) specify light stimulus in terms of circadian rather than visual response; (2) when translating research from animals to humans, consider species-specific spectral and absolute sensitivities to light; (3) relate the characteristics of photometric measurement of light at night to the operational characteristics of the circadian system; and (4) examine how humans may be experiencing too little daytime light, not just too much light at night...
June 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844643/dopamine-regulation-of-gabaa-receptors-contributes-to-light-dark-modulation-of-the-on-cone-bipolar-cell-receptive-field-surround-in-the-retina
#15
Antoine Chaffiol, Masaaki Ishii, Yu Cao, Stuart C Mangel
Cone bipolar cells are interneurons that receive synaptic input from cone photoreceptor cells and provide the output of the first synaptic layer of the retina. These cells exhibit center-surround receptive fields, a prototype of lateral inhibition between neighboring sensory cells in which stimulation of the receptive field center excites the cell whereas stimulation of the surrounding region laterally inhibits the cell. This fundamental sensory coding mechanism facilitates spatial discrimination and detection of stimulus edges...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842922/surveillance-of-biting-midges-culicoides-spp-in-northern-ireland-influence-of-seasonality-surrounding-habitat-and-livestock-housing
#16
S Jess, G M Thompson, S Clawson, I W N Forsythe, I Rea, A W Gordon, A K Murchie
Biting midges, Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are important vectors of viral pathogens. Following the outbreak of bluetongue serotype 8 in Europe between 2006 and 2009, many Culicoides surveillance programmes were initiated to identify vector-active periods, in accordance with European Commission regulation 2007/1266/EC. This study utilized surveillance data from 4 years of continuous light-trapping at 14 sites in Northern Ireland. The number of captured Culicoides varied from none during the vector-free period (December-April) to more than 36 000 per night during peak activity in the summer...
August 26, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830569/comparative-study-on-the-nocturnal-activity-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-in-a-highland-and-lowland-foci-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-north-western-ethiopia-with-special-reference-to-phlebotomus-orientalis
#17
Esayas Aklilu, Araya Gebresilassie, Solomon Yared, Mizan Kindu, Habte Tekie, Meshesha Balkew, Alon Warburg, Asrat Hailu, Teshome Gebre-Michael
BACKGROUND: Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is most probably vectored by Phlebotomus orientalis in north-western Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the nocturnal activity patterns of Ph. orientalis in VL endemic foci of Libo-Kemkem (highland) and Metema (lowland) districts of north-western Ethiopia. METHODS: Sampling of sand flies was conducted bimonthly from January-May 2012 in the highland and from March-June 2013 in the lowland...
August 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829375/circadian-and-light-regulated-expression-of-cbfs-and-their-upstream-signalling-genes-in-barley
#18
Krisztián Gierczik, Aliz Novák, Mohamed Ahres, András Székely, Alexandra Soltész, Ákos Boldizsár, Zsolt Gulyás, Balázs Kalapos, István Monostori, László Kozma-Bognár, Gábor Galiba, Attila Vágújfalvi
CBF (C-repeat binding factor) transcription factors show high expression levels in response to cold; moreover, they play a key regulatory role in cold acclimation processes. Recently, however, more and more information has led to the conclusion that, apart from cold, light-including its spectra-also has a crucial role in regulating CBF expression. Earlier, studies established that the expression patterns of some of these regulatory genes follow circadian rhythms. To understand more of this complex acclimation process, we studied the expression patterns of the signal transducing pathways, including signal perception, the circadian clock and phospholipid signalling pathways, upstream of the CBF gene regulatory hub...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821732/light-color-importance-for-circadian-entrainment-in-a-diurnal-octodon-degus-and-a-nocturnal-rattus-norvegicus-rodent
#19
Maria Angeles Bonmati-Carrion, Beatriz Baño-Otalora, Juan Antonio Madrid, Maria Angeles Rol
The central circadian pacemaker (Suprachiasmatic Nuclei, SCN) maintains the phase relationship with the external world thanks to the light/dark cycle. Light intensity, spectra, and timing are important for SCN synchronisation. Exposure to blue-light at night leads to circadian misalignment that could be avoided by using less circadian-disruptive wavelengths. This study tests the capacity of a diurnal Octodon degus and nocturnal Rattus norvegicus to synchronise to different nocturnal lights. Animals were subjected to combined red-green-blue lights (RGB) during the day and to: darkness; red light (R); combined red-green LED (RG) lights; and combined red-green-violet LED (RGV) lights during the night...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811909/a-fourth-subtype-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-related-orphan-receptors-is-activated-by-oxidized-all-trans-retinoic-acid-in-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#20
Kotowa Sakai, Haruka Fukushima, Yuya Yamamoto, Toshitaka Ikeuchi
BACKGROUND: The three known subtypes of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) have been implicated in the control of immunity, brain function, and circadian rhythm in mammals. Here, we demonstrate by phylogenetic analysis that there were originally four subtypes of RORs in vertebrates. One of the novel ror paralogs, rord1 (rorca in the Ensembl database), is conserved among teleosts, but absent in mammals. Using medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a model teleost, we evaluated the expression pattern of this gene, its transactivational properties for endogenic chemicals, and its ability to activate the promoters of putative target genes...
2017: Zoological Letters
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