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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448173/high-beam-headlamp-use-rates-effects-of-rurality-proximity-of-other-traffic-and-roadway-curvature
#1
Ian J Reagan, Matthew L Brumbelow, Michael J Flannagan, John M Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: The few observational studies of the prevalence of high beam use indicate the rate of high beam use is about 25% when vehicles are isolated from other vehicles on unlit roads. Recent studies were limited to two-lane rural roads and used measurement methods that likely overestimated use. The current study examined factors associated with the rate of high beam use of isolated vehicles on a variety of roadways in the Ann Arbor, Michigan, area. METHODS: Twenty observation sites were categorized as urban, rural, or on a rural/urban boundary and selected to estimate the effects of street lighting, road curvature, and direction of travel relative to the city on high beam use...
April 27, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440906/familial-longevity-is-characterized-by-high-circadian-rhythmicity-of-serum-cholesterol-in-healthy-elderly-individuals
#2
Rosa van den Berg, Raymond Noordam, Sander Kooijman, Steffy W M Jansen, Abimbola A Akintola, P Eline Slagboom, Hanno Pijl, Patrick C N Rensen, Nienke R Biermasz, Diana van Heemst
The biological clock, whose function deteriorates with increasing age, determines bodily circadian (i.e. 24h) rhythms, including that of cholesterol metabolism. Dampening of circadian rhythms has been associated with aging and disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that individuals with a familial predisposition for longevity have a higher amplitude circadian serum cholesterol concentration rhythm. The aim of this study was to investigate circadian rhythmicity of serum cholesterol concentrations in offspring of nonagenarian siblings and their partners...
April 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431191/timing-for-the-introduction-of-cycled-light-for-extremely-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Debra H Brandon, Susan G Silva, Jinhee Park, William Malcolm, Heba Kamhawy, Diane Holditch-Davis
Day-night cycled light improves health outcomes in preterm infants, yet the best time to institute cycled light is unclear. The hypothesis of this study was that extremely preterm infants receiving early cycled light would have better health and developmental outcomes than infants receiving late cycled light. Infants born at ≤28 weeks gestation were randomly assigned to early cycled light (ECL) starting at 28 weeks postmenstrual age [PMA] or late cycled light (LCL), starting at 36 weeks PMA. Daylight was 200-600 lux and night was 5-30 lux...
April 21, 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430105/switching-of-metabolic-programs-in-response-to-light-availability-is-an-essential-function-of-the-cyanobacterial-circadian-output-pathway
#4
Anna M Puszynska, Erin K O'Shea
The transcription factor RpaA is the master regulator of circadian transcription in cyanobacteria, driving genome-wide oscillations in mRNA abundance. Deletion of rpaA has no effect on viability in constant light conditions, but renders cells inviable in cycling conditions when light and dark periods alternate. We investigated the mechanisms underlying this viability defect, and demonstrate that the rpaA(-) strain cannot maintain appropriate energy status at night, does not accumulate carbon reserves during the day, and is defective in transcription of genes crucial for utilization of carbohydrate stores at night...
April 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429400/the-circadian-clock-component-lhy-tells-a-plant-when-to-respond-photosynthetically-to-light-in-nature
#5
Youngsung Joo, Variluska Fragoso, Felipe Yon, Ian T Baldwin, Sang-Gyu Kim
The circadian clock is known to increase plant growth and fitness, and thought to prepare plants for photosynthesis at dawn and dusk; whether this happens in nature was unknown. We transformed the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata to silence two core clock components, NaLHY (irLHY) and NaTOC1 (irTOC1). We characterized growth and light-and dark-adapted photosynthetic rates (Ac ) throughout a 24 h day in empty vector-transformed (EV), irLHY, and irTOC1 plants in the field, and in NaPhyA-and NaPhyB1-silenced plants in the glasshouse...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422269/wake-and-light-therapy-for-moderate-to-severe-depression-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
M Kragh, K Martiny, P Videbech, D N Møller, C S Wihlborg, T Lindhardt, E R Larsen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of using wake and light therapy as a supplement to standard treatment of hospitalized patients with depression. METHOD: In this randomized, controlled study, 64 patients with moderate-to-severe depression were allocated to standard treatment or to the intervention, which additionally consisted of three wake therapy sessions in one week, 30-min daily light treatment and sleep time stabilization over the entire nine-week study period...
April 19, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419724/a-reversed-photosynthesis-like-process-for-light-triggered-co2-capture-release-and-conversion
#7
Yapei Wang, Dingguan Wang, Shenglong Liao, Shiming Zhang
Materials for CO2 capture have been extensively exploited for climate governance and gaseous separation. However, their regeneration is facing the problems of high energy cost and secondary CO2 contamination. Herein, a reversed photosynthesis-like process is proposed, which absorbs CO2 in darkness while releases CO2 under light illumination. The process is likely supplementary to natural photosynthesis of plants which on the contrary release CO2 in nights. Remarkably, the material used in this work is able to capture 9...
April 16, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409386/nocturnal-oviposition-behavior-of-blowflies-diptera-calliphoridae-in-the-southern-hemisphere-south-africa-and-australia-and-its-forensic-implications
#8
Kirstin A Williams, James F Wallman, Bryan D Lessard, Christopher R J Kavazos, D Nkosinathi Mazungula, Martin H Villet
Published research has offered contradictory evidence of the occurrence of nocturnal oviposition by carrion-breeding blowflies, a behavior that can affect the interpretation of forensic estimates of a minimum post mortem interval (minPMI) by up to 12 hours, depending on latitude and season. The majority of published studies are from the northern hemisphere. Field experiments were conducted in South Africa and Australia that extend observations to species of the southern hemisphere. Various vertebrate carrion was exposed at night in summer under different lunar phases and/or artificial lighting, and in woodland and pasture areas...
April 13, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407161/preliminary-evidence-of-successful-near-vision-enhancement-with-a-new-technique-presbyopic-allogenic-refractive-lenticule-pearl-corneal-inlay-using-a-smile-lenticule
#9
Soosan Jacob, Dhivya Ashok Kumar, Amar Agarwal, Athiya Agarwal, Ramalingam Aravind, A I Saijimol
PURPOSE: To describe a new technique (PrEsbyopic Allogenic Refractive Lenticule [PEARL] inlay) using an allogenic corneal inlay prepared from a small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) lenticule. METHODS: A SMILE lenticule of specified thickness (mean: 61.5 ± 3.32 µm) was trephined at the center to 1-mm diameter and implanted in the cornea on the coaxially sighted light reflex under a femtosecond laser-created cap of 120 µm in the nondominant eye of presbyopic patients...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405608/circadian-phase-resetting-by-a-single-short-duration-light-exposure
#10
Shadab A Rahman, Melissa A St Hilaire, Anne-Marie Chang, Nayantara Santhi, Jeanne F Duffy, Richard E Kronauer, Charles A Czeisler, Steven W Lockley, Elizabeth B Klerman
BACKGROUND. In humans, a single light exposure of 12 minutes and multiple-millisecond light exposures can shift the phase of the circadian pacemaker. We investigated the response of the human circadian pacemaker to a single 15-second or 2-minute light pulse administered during the biological night. METHODS. Twenty-six healthy individuals participated in a 9-day inpatient protocol that included assessment of dim light melatonin onset time (DLMO time) before and after exposure to a single 15-second (n = 8) or 2-minute (n = 12) pulse of bright light (9,500 lux; 4,100 K fluorescent) or control background dim light (<3 lux; n = 6)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402136/survey-of-discomfort-glare-from-the-headlamps-of-cars-widely-used-in-iran
#11
Ahmad Mehri, Somayeh Farhang Dehghan, Roohalah Hajizadeh, Seyed Abolfazl Zakerian, Hamzeh Mohammadi, Milad Abbasi
OBJECTIVE: In two-lane roads, a discomfort glare can cause annoyance, discomfort and inconvenience, stress and fatigue to drivers on the front line. This can cause accidents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the discomfort glare from the headlamps of cars widely used in Iran. METHODS: The discomfort glare of new vehicles including Pride Saba model GTX, Pride Model 131SL, Samand Soren, Peugeot 405, Megan, and Peugeot Pars was examined at distances of 5 to 100 metres and in background luminance of 50 cd/m(2) (late twilight / early dawn lighting) and 1 cd/m(2) (night time) by Schmidt-Clausen and Bindels model and de Boer subjective scale...
April 12, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398346/chemical-microenvironments-and-single-cell-carbon-and-nitrogen-uptake-in-field-collected-colonies-of-trichodesmium-under-different-pco2
#12
Meri J Eichner, Isabell Klawonn, Samuel T Wilson, Sten Littmann, Martin J Whitehouse, Matthew J Church, Marcel Mm Kuypers, David M Karl, Helle Ploug
Gradients of oxygen (O2) and pH, as well as small-scale fluxes of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and O2 were investigated under different partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in field-collected colonies of the marine dinitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Microsensor measurements indicated that cells within colonies experienced large fluctuations in O2, pH and CO2 concentrations over a day-night cycle. O2 concentrations varied with light intensity and time of day, yet colonies exposed to light were supersaturated with O2 (up to ~200%) throughout the light period and anoxia was not detected...
April 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396831/cryptochrome-2-extensively-regulates-transcription-of-the-chloroplast-genome-in-tomato
#13
Paolo Facella, Fabrizio Carbone, Antonio Placido, Gaetano Perrotta
Light plays a key role in the regulation of many physiological processes required for plant and chloroplast development. Plant cryptochromes (crys) play an important role in monitoring, capturing, and transmitting the light stimuli. In this study, we analyzed the effects of CRY2 overexpression on transcription of tomato chloroplast genome by a tiling array, containing about 90 000 overlapping probes (5-nucleotide resolution). We profiled transcription in leaves of wild-type and CRY2-overexpressing plants grown in a diurnal cycle, to generate a comprehensive map of chloroplast transcription and to monitor potential specific modulations of the chloroplast transcriptome induced by the overexpression of CRY2...
April 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394943/sleep-continuity-is-positively-correlated-with-sleep-duration-in-laboratory-nighttime-sleep-recordings
#14
Akifumi Kishi, Hans P A Van Dongen, Benjamin H Natelson, Amy M Bender, Luciana O Palombini, Lia Bittencourt, Sergio Tufik, Indu Ayappa, David M Rapoport
Sleep duration varies widely across individuals and appears to be trait-like. Differences in the stability of underlying sleep processes may underlie this phenomenon. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we examined the relationship between sleep duration and sleep continuity in baseline polysomnography (PSG) recordings from three independently collected datasets: 1) 134 healthy controls (ages 37 ± 13 years) from the São Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study, who spent one night in a sleep laboratory, 2) 21 obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients who were treated with continuous positive airway pressure for at least 2 months (45 ± 12 years, respiratory disturbance index <15), who spent one night in a sleep laboratory with previous experience of multiple PSG studies, and 3) 62 healthy controls (28 ± 6 years) who, as part of larger experiments, spent 2 consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394397/development-of-perching-behavior-in-3-strains-of-pullets-reared-in-furnished-cages
#15
A M Habinski, L J Caston, T M Casey-Trott, M E Hunniford, T M Widowski
Furnished rearing cages are becoming more widely available to replace conventional systems for pullets. To date, there is little information on how pullets develop perching behavior in furnished cages or how this varies among strains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of perches and a platform in a commercial furnished rearing "Combi-Cage" system by 3 pure-bred heritage strains of pullets (Rhode Island Red, Columbian Rock, and White Leghorn). Each cage had 4 elevated locations: one platform and 3 perches of differing heights and positions in the cage...
March 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385173/novel-augmentation-strategies-in-major-depression
#16
Klaus Martiny
Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition, and with minor side effects, thus improving the short- and medium-term outcome in major depression. Procedures Study design The basic study design has been the double blind randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the light therapy study, all patients were treated with sertraline for the whole of the study duration...
April 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382017/disrupted-ultradian-activity-rhythms-and-differential-expression-of-several-clock-genes-in-interleukin-6-deficient-mice
#17
Francisco J Monje, Ana Cicvaric, Juan Pablo Acevedo Aguilar, Immanuel Elbau, Orsolya Horvath, Weifei Diao, Micaela Glat, Daniela D Pollak
The characteristics of the cycles of activity and rest stand out among the most intensively investigated aspects of circadian rhythmicity in humans and experimental animals. Alterations in the circadian patterns of activity and rest are strongly linked to cognitive and emotional dysfunctions in severe mental illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and major depression (MDD). The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been prominently associated with the pathogenesis of AD and MDD. However, the potential involvement of IL-6 in the modulation of the diurnal rhythms of activity and rest has not been investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380756/improvements-of-mesopic-luminance-for-light-emitting-diode-based-outdoor-light-sources-via-tuning-scotopic-photopic-ratios
#18
Tingzhu Wu, Yijun Lu, Ziquan Guo, Lili Zheng, Honghui Zhu, Yao Xiao, Tien-Mo Shih, Yue Lin, Zhong Chen
Outdoor light sources must guarantee excellent mesopic luminance (Lmes) for traffic safety at night. Here, we propose a solution to improve mesopic-related parameters, which include especially the scotopic/photopic ratio and the Lmes, of multi-chip light-emitting diode (LED) light sources. Generally, these sources are driven by pulse-width-modulation currents, and possess readily-controlled spectral power distributions (SPDs). An updated version of the optical power ratio algorithm developed in this article can select suitable overall SPDs and yield corresponding duty cycles to drive individual chips at different correlated-color temperatures and operating temperatures...
March 6, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378363/impact-of-sleep-inertia-on-visual-selective-attention-for-rare-targets-and-the-influence-of-chronotype
#19
Hannah K Ritchie, Tina M Burke, Tristan B Dear, Andrew W Mchill, John Axelsson, Kenneth P Wright
Sleep inertia is affected by circadian phase, with worse performance upon awakening from sleep during the biological night than biological day. Visual search/selective visual attention performance is known to be sensitive to sleep inertia and circadian phase. Individual differences exist in the circadian timing of habitual wake time, which may contribute to individual differences in sleep inertia. Because later chronotypes awaken at an earlier circadian phase, we hypothesized that later chronotypes would have worse visual search performance during sleep inertia than earlier chronotypes if awakened at habitual wake time...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377415/circadian-disruption-and-prostate-cancer-risk-an-updated-review-of-epidemiological-evidences
#20
Méyomo G Wendeu-Foyet, Florence Menegaux
Since the publication of the IARC Monograph in 2007 classifying night shift work leading to a disruption of circadian rhythm as probably carcinogenic to humans, there is an increasingly growing interest in understanding how circadian disruption may play a role in cancer development. This systematic review provides a comprehensive update on epidemiological evidences on circadian disruption and prostate cancer since the last review published in 2012. We identified 12 new studies evaluating the effects of several circadian disruptors such as night shift work, sleep patterns, and circadian genes in prostate cancer risk...
April 4, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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