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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536583/sediment-resuspension-and-deposition-on-seagrass-leaves-impedes-internal-plant-aeration-and-promotes-phytotoxic-h2s-intrusion
#1
Kasper E Brodersen, Kathrine J Hammer, Verena Schrameyer, Anja Floytrup, Michael A Rasheed, Peter J Ralph, Michael Kühl, Ole Pedersen
HIGHLIGHTS: Sedimentation of fine sediment particles onto seagrass leaves severely hampers the plants' performance in both light and darkness, due to inadequate internal plant aeration and intrusion of phytotoxic H2S. Anthropogenic activities leading to sediment re-suspension can have adverse effects on adjacent seagrass meadows, owing to reduced light availability and the settling of suspended particles onto seagrass leaves potentially impeding gas exchange with the surrounding water. We used microsensors to determine O2 fluxes and diffusive boundary layer (DBL) thickness on leaves of the seagrass Zostera muelleri with and without fine sediment particles, and combined these laboratory measurements with in situ microsensor measurements of tissue O2 and H2S concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535760/disparities-of-time-trends-and-birth-cohort-effects-on-invasive-breast-cancer-incidence-in-shanghai-and-hong-kong-pre-and-post-menopausal-women
#2
Feng Wang, Lap Ah Tse, Wing-Cheong Chan, Carol Chi-Hei Kwok, Siu-Lan Leung, Cherry Wu, Oscar Wai-Kong Mang, Roger Kai-Cheong Ngan, Mengjie Li, Wai-Cho Yu, Koon-Ho Tsang, Sze-Hong Law, Xiaoping Miao, Chunxiao Wu, Ying Zheng, Fan Wu, Xiaohong R Yang, Ignatius Tak-Sun Yu
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity among Shanghai and Hong Kong women, which contributes to 20-25% of new female cancer incidents. This study aimed to describe the temporal trend of breast cancer and interpret the potential effects on the observed secular trends. METHODS: Cancer incident data were obtained from the cancer registries. Age-standardized incidence rate was computed by the direct method using the World population of 2000...
May 23, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526480/human-seasonal-and-circadian-studies-in-antarctica-halley-75-0-s
#3
Josephine Arendt, Benita Middleton
Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75(0)S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer...
May 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525618/establishing-expanding-and-certifying-a-closed-colony-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-diptera-psychodidae-for-xenodiagnostic-studies-at-the-kala-azar-medical-research-center-muzaffarpur-bihar-india
#4
Puja Tiwary, Shakti Kumar Singh, Anurag Kumar Kushwaha, Edgar Rowton, David Sacks, Om Prakash Singh, Shyam Sundar, Phillip Lawyer
This pilot project was preliminary and essential to a larger effort to define the ability of certain human-subject groups across the infection spectrum to serve as reservoirs of Leishmania donovani infection to sand flies in areas of anthroponotic transmission such as in Bihar state, India. This is possible only via xenodiagnosis of well-defined subject groups using live vector sand flies. The objective was to establish at the Kala Azar Medical Research Center (KAMRC), Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India, a self-sustaining colony of Phlebotomus argentipes (Annandale & Brunneti), closed to infusion with wild-caught material and certified safe for human xenodiagnosis...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522814/daily-corticosterone-rhythm-modulates-pineal-function-through-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-related-gene-transcriptional-program
#5
Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Eduardo K Tamura, Claudia E Carvalho-Sousa, Vanderlei Amadeu Rocha, Luciana Pinato, Pedro A C Fernandes, Regina P Markus
Melatonin and glucocorticoids are key hormones in determining daily rhythmicity and modulating defense responses. In nocturnal animals, corticosterone peaks at light/dark transition,while melatonin peaks at the middle of the night in both nocturnal and diurnal animals. The crosstalk between adrenal and pineal glands under inflammatory conditions indicates that corticosterone potentiates nocturnal melatonin synthesis by reducing the activity of NFκB. This transcription factor, which modulates the expression of a key enzyme in melatonin synthesis, is sharply reduced at the entrance of darkness in the rat pineal gland...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522096/sleep-and-circadian-variability-in-people-with-delayed-sleep-wake-phase-disorder-versus-healthy-controls
#6
Helen J Burgess, Margaret Park, James K Wyatt, Muneer Rizvydeen, Louis F Fogg
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To compare sleep and circadian variability in adults with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) to healthy controls. PATIENTS/METHODS: Forty participants (22 DSWPD, 18 healthy controls) completed a ten-day protocol, consisting of DLMO assessments on two consecutive nights, a five-day study break, followed by two more DLMO assessments. All participants were instructed to sleep within one hour of their self-reported average sleep schedule for the last four days of the study break...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515171/mutualistic-damselfish-induce-higher-photosynthetic-rates-in-their-host-coral
#7
Nur Garcia-Herrera, Sebastian C A Ferse, Andreas Kunzmann, Amatzia Genin
Coral reefs are amongst the most diverse ecosystems on Earth where complex inter-specific interactions are ubiquitous. An example of such interactions is the mutualistic relationship between damselfishes and branching corals in the Northern Red Sea, where the fish use corals as shelter and provide them with nutrients, enhance the flow between their branches, and protect them from predators. By enhancing the flow between the coral branches, the fish ventilate the coral's inner zone, mitigating hypoxic conditions that otherwise develop within that zone during the night...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504274/link-between-light-triggered-mg-banding-and-chamber-formation-in-the-planktic-foraminifera-neogloboquadrina-dutertrei
#8
Jennifer S Fehrenbacher, Ann D Russell, Catherine V Davis, Alexander C Gagnon, Howard J Spero, John B Cliff, Zihua Zhu, Pamela Martin
The relationship between seawater temperature and the average Mg/Ca ratios in planktic foraminifera is well established, providing an essential tool for reconstructing past ocean temperatures. However, many species display alternating high and low Mg-bands within their shell walls that cannot be explained by temperature alone. Recent experiments demonstrate that intrashell Mg variability in Orbulina universa, which forms a spherical terminal shell, is paced by the diurnal light/dark cycle. Whether Mg-heterogeneity is also diurnally paced in species with more complex shell morphologies is unknown...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499963/neither-artificial-light-at-night-anthropogenic-noise-nor-distance-from-roads-are-associated-with-oxidative-status-of-nestlings-in-an-urban-population-of-songbirds
#9
Giulia Casasole, Thomas Raap, David Costantini, Hamada AbdElgawad, Han Asard, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Increasing urbanization is responsible for road-related pollutants and causes an unprecedented increase in light and noise pollution, with potential detrimental effects for individual animals, communities and ecosystems. These stressors rarely act in isolation but studies dissecting the effects of these multiple stressors are lacking. Moreover, studies on urban stressors have mainly focused on adults, while exposure in early-life may be detrimental but is largely ignored. To fill this important knowledge gap, we studied if artificial light at night, anthropogenic noise and road-related pollution (using distance from roads as a proxy) explain variation in oxidative status in great tit nestlings (Parus major) in an urban population...
May 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499591/chronic-exposure-to-dim-artificial-light-at-night-decreases-fecundity-and-adult-survival-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
L K McLay, M P Green, T M Jones
The presence of artificial light at night is expanding in geographical range and increasing in intensity to such an extent that species living in urban environments may never experience natural darkness. The negative ecological consequences of artificial night lighting have been identified in several key life history traits across multiple taxa (albeit with a strong vertebrate focus); comparable data for invertebrates is lacking. In this study, we explored the effect of chronic exposure to different night-time lighting intensities on growth, reproduction and survival in Drosophila melanogaster...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495465/the-effect-of-blue-enriched-white-light-on-cognitive-performances-and-sleepiness-of-night-shift-workers-a-field-study
#11
Majid Motamedzadeh, Rostam Golmohammadi, Reza Kazemi, Rashid Heidarimoghadam
INTRODUCTION: Night-shift works are basically accompanied by reduced cognitive performance, sleepiness, and higher possibility for human error and related incidents. It is therefore crucial to improve individuals' performance and alertness in sensitive places like industries' control room with the ultimate goal of increasing efficiency and reducing the number of possible incidents. Previous research has indicated that blue light is a critical cue for entraining circadian rhythm. As a result, the present study was an attempt to investigate whether blue-enriched white light illumination was a practical strategy to decrease sleepiness and improve cognitive performance during night shifts...
May 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490646/a-missense-mutation-in-grm6-reduces-but-does-not-eliminate-mglur6-expression-or-rod-depolarizing-bipolar-cell-function
#12
Neal S Peachey, Nazarul Hasan, Bernard FitzMaurice, Samantha Burrill, Gobinda Pangeni, Son Yong Karst, Laura Reinholdt, Melissa L Berry, Marge Strobel, Ronald George Gregg, Maureen A McCall, Bo Chang
GRM6 encodes the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) used by retinal depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs). Mutations in GRM6 lead to DBC dysfunction, and underlie the human condition autosomal recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness. Mouse mutants for Grm6 are important models for this condition. Here we report a new Grm6 mutant, identified in an electroretinogram (ERG) screen of mice maintained at The Jackson Laboratory. The Grm6(nob8) mouse has a reduced amplitude b-wave component of the ERG, which reflects light-evoked DBC activity...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489935/indoor-residual-spraying-with-micro-encapsulated-pirimiphos-methyl-actellic%C3%A2-300cs-against-malaria-vectors-in-the-lake-victoria-basin-tanzania
#13
Fabian M Mashauri, Alphaxard Manjurano, Safari Kinung'hi, Jackline Martine, Eric Lyimo, Coleman Kishamawe, Chacha Ndege, Mahdi M Ramsan, Adeline Chan, Charles D Mwalimu, John Changalucha, Stephen Magesa
BACKGROUND: The indoor residual spraying programme for malaria vectors control was implemented in four districts of the Lake Victoria basin of Tanzania namely Ukerewe, Sengerema, Rorya andSerengeti. Entomological monitoring activities were implemented in one sentinel village in each district to evaluate the efficacy of pirimiphos-methyl 300 CS sprayed on different wall surfaces and its impact against malaria vectors post-IRS intervention. METHODS: The residual decay rate of p-methyl 300 CS applied at a target dosage of 1g a...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488860/flexible-and-highly-photosensitive-electrolyte-gated-organic-transistors-with-ionogel-silver-nanowire-membranes
#14
Haihua Xu, Qingqing Zhu, Ying Lv, Kan Deng, Yinghua Deng, Qiaoliang Li, Suwen Qi, Wenwen Chen, Huisheng Zhang
Flexible and low-voltage photosensors with high near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity are critical for the realization of interacting humans with robots and environments by thermal imaging or night vision techniques. In this work, we for the first time develop an easy and cost-effective process to fabricate flexible and ultra-thin electrolyte-gated organic phototransistors (EGOPTs) with high transparent nanocomposite membranes involved of high-conductivity silver nanowire (AgNW) networks and large-capacitance iontronic films...
May 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487255/disruption-of-adolescents-circadian-clock-the-vicious-circle-of-media-use-exposure-to-light-at-night-sleep-loss-and-risk-behaviors
#15
Yvan Touitou, David Touitou, Alain Reinberg
Although sleep is a key element in adolescent development, teens are spending increasing amounts of time online with health risks related to excessive use of electronic media (computers, smartphones, tablets, consoles…) negatively associated with daytime functioning and sleep outcomes. Adolescent sleep becomes irregular, shortened and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and early waking time due to early school starting times on weekdays which results in rhythm desynchronization and sleep loss. In addition, exposure of adolescents to the numerous electronic devices prior to bedtime has become a great concern because LEDs emit much more blue light than white incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent bulbs and have therefore a greater impact on the biological clock...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481301/convolutional-neural-network-based-human-detection-in-nighttime-images-using-visible-light-camera-sensors
#16
Jong Hyun Kim, Hyung Gil Hong, Kang Ryoung Park
Because intelligent surveillance systems have recently undergone rapid growth, research on accurately detecting humans in videos captured at a long distance is growing in importance. The existing research using visible light cameras has mainly focused on methods of human detection for daytime hours when there is outside light, but human detection during nighttime hours when there is no outside light is difficult. Thus, methods that employ additional near-infrared (NIR) illuminators and NIR cameras or thermal cameras have been used...
May 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480549/small-larvae-in-large-rivers-observations-on-downstream-movement-of-european-grayling-thymallus-thymallus-during-early-life-stages
#17
C H A Van Leeuwen, T Dokk, T O Haugen, P M Kiffney, J Museth
Behaviour of early life stages of the salmonid European grayling Thymallus thymallus was investigated by assessing the timing of larval downstream movement from spawning areas, the depth at which larvae moved and the distribution of juvenile fish during summer in two large connected river systems in Norway. Trapping of larvae moving downstream and electrofishing surveys revealed that T. thymallus larvae emerging from the spawning gravel moved downstream predominantly during the night, despite light levels sufficient for orientation in the high-latitude study area...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473745/metabolic-profiling-identifies-trehalose-as-an-abundant-and-diurnally-fluctuating-metabolite-in-the-microalga-ostreococcus-tauri
#18
Matthias Hirth, Silvia Liverani, Sebastian Mahlow, François-Yves Bouget, Georg Pohnert, Severin Sasso
INTRODUCTION: The picoeukaryotic alga Ostreococcus tauri (Chlorophyta) belongs to the widespread group of marine prasinophytes. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the metabolism of this alga. OBJECTIVES: In this work, changes in the metabolome were quantified when O. tauri was grown under alternating cycles of 12 h light and 12 h darkness. METHODS: Algal metabolism was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472667/the-effects-of-spectral-tuning-of-evening-ambient-light-on-melatonin-suppression-alertness-and-sleep
#19
Shadab A Rahman, Melissa A St Hilaire, Steven W Lockley
We compared the effects of bedroom-intensity light from a standard fluorescent and a blue- (i.e., short-wavelength) depleted LED source on melatonin suppression, alertness, and sleep. Sixteen healthy participants (8 females) completed a 4-day inpatient study. Participants were exposed to blue-depleted circadian-sensitive (C-LED) light and a standard fluorescent light (FL, 4100K) of equal illuminance (50lx) for 8h prior to a fixed bedtime on two separate days in a within-subject, randomized, cross-over design...
May 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468769/an-animal-like-cryptochrome-controls-the-chlamydomonas-sexual-cycle
#20
Yong Zou, Sandra Wenzel, Nico Müller, Katja Prager, Elke-Martina Jung, Erika Kothe, Tilman Kottke, Maria Mittag
Cryptochromes are known as flavin-binding blue light receptors in bacteria, fungi, plants and insects. The animal-like cryptochrome (aCRY) of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has extended our view on cryptochromes, because it responds also to other wavelengths of the visible spectrum, including red light. Here, we have investigated if aCRY is involved in the regulation of the sexual life cycle of C. reinhardtii, which is controlled by blue and red light at both, the step of gametogenesis and of germination...
May 3, 2017: Plant Physiology
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