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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331411/tailoring-cyanobacterial-cell-factory-for-improved-industrial-properties
#1
REVIEW
Guodong Luan, Xuefeng Lu
Photosynthetic biomanufacturing provides a promising solution for sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals. Cyanobacteria are among the most promising microbial platforms for the construction of photosynthetic cell factories. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has enabled effective photosynthetic synthesis of diverse natural or non-natural metabolites, while commercialization of photosynthetic biomanufacturing is usually restricted by process and economic feasibilities. In actual outdoor conditions, active cell growth and product synthesis is restricted to narrow light exposure windows of the day-night cycles and is threatened by diverse physical, chemical, and biological environmental stresses...
January 10, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329428/perceived-environmental-barriers-to-physical-activity-in-young-adults-in-dhaka-city-bangladesh-does-gender-matter
#2
Riaz Uddin, Nicola W Burton, Asaduzzaman Khan
Background: Physical activity (PA) has demonstrated health benefits, but participation is low in many countries. Little is known about environmental barriers to PA among young Asian adults. The purpose of this study was to identify common perceived environmental barriers to PA in young adults in Dhaka, Bangladesh and to examine if these barriers differed by gender. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a self-administered survey and data collected from a convenience sample of 573 students aged 20...
January 10, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325109/estimating-adolescent-sleep-need-using-dose-response-modelling
#3
Michelle A Short, Nathan Weber, Chelsea Reynolds, Scott Coussens, Mary A Carskadon
Study Objectives: This study will, (a) estimate the nightly sleep need of human adolescents, (b) determine the time course and severity of sleep-related deficits when sleep is reduced below this optimal quantity, and (c) determine whether sleep restriction perturbs the circadian system as well as the sleep homeostat. Methods: Thirty-four adolescents aged 15 to 17 years spent 10 days and 9 nights in the sleep laboratory. Between two baseline nights and two recovery nights with 10-hours' time in bed (TIB) per night, participants experienced either severe sleep restriction (5-hr TIB), moderate sleep restriction (7...
January 6, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318587/new-perspectives-on-the-role-of-melatonin-in-human-sleep-circadian-rhythms-and-their-regulation
#4
REVIEW
N Zisapel
In mammals a central circadian clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus, tunes the innate circadian physiological rhythms to the ambient 24h light-dark cycle to invigorate and optimize the internal temporal order. The SCN-activated, light- inhibited production of melatonin conveys the message of darkness to the clock and induces night state in physiological function, e.g., sleep/wake blood pressure and metabolism. Clinically meaningful effects of melatonin treatment have been demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials in humans, particularly in disorders associated with diminished or misaligned melatonin rhythms, e...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316967/ecological-distribution-and-population-dynamics-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-mosquito-vectors-diptera-culicidae-in-senegal
#5
Biram Biteye, Assane G Fall, Mamadou Ciss, Momar T Seck, Andrea Apolloni, Moussa Fall, Annelise Tran, Geoffrey Gimonneau
BACKGROUND: Many zoonotic infectious diseases have emerged and re-emerged over the last two decades. There has been a significant increase in vector-borne diseases due to climate variations that lead to environmental changes favoring the development and adaptation of vectors. This study was carried out to improve knowledge of the ecology of mosquito vectors involved in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Senegal. METHODS: An entomological survey was conducted in three Senegalese agro-systems, Senegal River Delta (SRD), Senegal River Valley (SRV) and Ferlo, during the rainy season (July to November) of 2014 and 2015...
January 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316469/numerical-research-on-the-effects-the-skyglow-could-have-in-phytochromes-and-rqe-photoreceptors-of-plants
#6
H A Solano-Lamphar, M Kocifaj
The increase of artificial light at night has a terrible impact on organisms with nightlife patterns such as a migration, nutrition, reproduction and collective interaction. Plants are not free from this issue as they have life cycle events occurring not only yearly but also daily. Such events relate to daytime variations with seasons in which the flowers of deciduous trees bloom and the leaves of certain trees fall off and change color. A response of plants to artificial light at night still remains poorly quantified; but recent scientific research suggest that skyglow can disturb plants processes...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310656/comparative-evaluation-of-anopheline-sampling-methods-in-three-localities-in-indonesia
#7
Brandyce St Laurent, Supratman Sukowati, Timothy A Burton, David Bretz, Mulyadi Zio, Syah Firman, Sumardi, Heru Sudibyo, Amalia Safitri, Suwito, Puji B Asih, Sully Kosasih, Shinta, William A Hawley, Thomas R Burkot, Frank H Collins, Din Syafruddin, Neil F Lobo
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of vector control efforts can vary based on the interventions used and local mosquito behaviour and adaptability. In many settings, biting patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes can shift in response to interventions targeting indoor-biting mosquitoes, often resulting in higher proportions of mosquitoes feeding outside or at times when people are not protected. These behaviourally resistant mosquitoes have been shown to sustain residual malaria transmission and limit control efforts...
January 8, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290184/efficacy-of-intense-pulse-light-therapy-and-tripple-combination-cream-versus-intense-pulse-light-therapy-and-tripple-combination-cream-alone-in-epidermal-melasma-treatment
#8
Nafila Shakeeb, Sahibzada Mahmood Noor, Ghafoor Ullah, Mohammand Majid Paracha
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of intense pulse light therapy (IPL) and triple combination cream (TCC) versus intense pulse light therapy and triple combination cream alone in epidermal melasma treatment, downgrading MASI score to more than 10. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Dermatology Department, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from August 2014 to January 2015. METHODOLOGY: Patients of 18-45 years were included in the study with Fitzpatrick skin type II-V...
January 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247841/time-of-the-day-dictates-the-variability-of-biomarkers-of-exposure-to-disinfection-byproducts
#9
Stephanie Gängler, Pantelis Charisiadis, Ratanesh Seth, Saurabh Chatterjee, Konstantinos C Makris
Non-persistent environmental chemicals (NOPEC) are xenobiotics with short half-lives of elimination (<7h). Similar to chronopharmacokinetics, NOPEC metabolism may follow diurnal patterns of cytochrome P450 activity. The role of circadian liver clock in shaping NOPEC metabolism and their concomitant measurements of biomarkers of exposure and effect remains poorly understood in real-life human settings. Metabolic activation (toxication) by CYP2E1 converts trihalomethanes (THM) to harmful metabolites. We investigated the diurnal variation of urinary THM exposures and their metabolism patterns as catalyzed by CYP2E1 redox activity, using the surrogate marker of 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE)...
December 13, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247541/nocturnal-activation-of-melatonin-receptor-type-1-signaling-modulates-diurnal-insulin-sensitivity-via-regulation-of-pi3k-activity
#10
Sharon Owino, Aida Sánchez-Bretaño, Cynthia Tchio, Erika Cecon, Angeliki Karamitri, Julie Dam, Ralf Jockers, Giuseppe Piccione, Hye Lim Noh, Taekyoon Kim, Jason K Kim, Kenkichi Baba, Gianluca Tosini
Recent genetic studies have highlighted the potential involvement of melatonin receptor 1 (MT1 ) and melatonin receptor 2 (MT2 ) in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Here we report that mice lacking MT1 (MT1 KO) tend to accumulate more fat mass than WT mice and exhibit marked systemic insulin resistance. Additional experiments revealed that the main insulin signaling pathway affected by the loss of MT1 was the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). Transcripts of both catalytic and regulatory subunits of PI3K were strongly down-regulated within MT1 KO mice...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235907/a-validation-study-of-fitbit-charge-2%C3%A2-compared-with-polysomnography-in-adults
#11
Massimiliano de Zambotti, Aimee Goldstone, Stephanie Claudatos, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker
We evaluated the performance of a consumer multi-sensory wristband (Fitbit Charge 2™), against polysomnography (PSG) in measuring sleep/wake state and sleep stage composition in healthy adults. In-lab PSG and Fitbit Charge 2™ data were obtained from a single overnight recording at the SRI Human Sleep Research Laboratory in 44 adults (19-61 years; 26 women; 25 Caucasian). Participants were screened to be free from mental and medical conditions. Presence of sleep disorders was evaluated with clinical PSG...
December 13, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227939/influence-of-a-large-urban-park-on-the-local-urban-thermal-environment
#12
Hai Yan, Fan Wu, Li Dong
Green areas in the city can greatly improve the outdoor thermal environment, as well as mitigate the urban heat island effect by reducing summer air temperature. In a context of climate change, with the expected increase in temperature and intensity of heat waves, cooling by green areas is set to become increasingly important. In this study, field observations were carried out to investigate the thermal performance of a large urban vegetated park and its influence on thermal environment of the surrounding urban areas in Beijing, China...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225767/pink-cricket-balls-through-rose-tinted-glasses-enhancing-interceptive-timing
#13
Joshua M Adie, Derek H Arnold
Cricket is a popular but potentially dangerous sport. It is played with a hard ball that can travel at great speeds. Serious injuries, including fatalities, have occurred when balls have struck participants. The game is traditionally played during daylight with a dark red ball, but recent games have been played during the day and at night using a 'pink' ball. We have reported data that seemed to justify concerns raised regarding the visibility of these new pink balls, as they were revealed to have a very low luminance contrast against pertinent backgrounds during twilight...
November 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224121/high-definition-infrared-thermography-of-ice-nucleation-and-propagation-in-wheat-under-natural-frost-conditions-and-controlled-freezing
#14
David P Livingston, Tan D Tuong, J Paul Murphy, Lawrence V Gusta, Ian Willick, Micheal E Wisniewski
An extremely high resolution infrared camera demonstrated various freezing events in wheat under natural conditions. Many of those events shed light on years of misunderstanding regarding freezing in small grains. Infrared thermography has enhanced our knowledge of ice nucleation and propagation in plants through visualization of the freezing process. The majority of infrared analyses have been conducted under controlled conditions and often on individual organs instead of whole plants. In the present study, high-definition (1280 × 720 pixel resolution) infrared thermography was used under natural conditions to visualize the freezing process of wheat plants during freezing events in 2016 and 2017...
December 9, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218413/do-free-ranging-rattlesnakes-use-thermal-cues-to-evaluate-prey
#15
Hannes A Schraft, Colin Goodman, Rulon W Clark
Rattlesnakes use infrared radiation to detect prey animals such as small mammals and lizards. Because ectotherm locomotor performance depends on temperature, rattlesnakes could use prey temperature to evaluate the potential of lizards to evade attacks. Here, we tested whether hunting rattlesnakes use infrared information to (1) detect and (2) evaluate prey before attack. We expected thermal contrast between prey and background to be the best predictor of predatory behaviour under the prey detection hypothesis, and absolute prey temperature under the prey evaluation hypothesis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217196/short-term-exposure-to-dim-light-at-night-disrupts-rhythmic-behaviors-and-causes-neurodegeneration-in-fly-models-of-tauopathy-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Mari Kim, Manivannan Subramanian, Yun-Ho Cho, Gye-Hyeong Kim, Eunil Lee, Joong-Jean Park
The accumulation and aggregation of phosphorylated tau proteins in the brain are the hallmarks for the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, disruptions in circadian rhythms (CRs) with altered sleep-wake cycles, dysregulation of locomotion, and increased memory defects have been reported in patients with AD. Drosophila flies that have an overexpression of human tau protein in neurons exhibit most of the symptoms of human patients with AD, including locomotion defects and neurodegeneration. Using the fly model for tauopathy/AD, we investigated the effects of an exposure to dim light at night on AD symptoms...
December 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215778/declines-in-moth-populations-stress-the-need-for-conserving-dark-nights
#17
Frank van Langevelde, Marijke Braamburg-Annegarn, Martinus E Huigens, Rob Groendijk, Olivier Poitevin, Jurriën R van Deijk, Willem N Ellis, Roy H A van Grunsven, Rob de Vos, Rutger A Vos, Markus Franzén, Michiel F Wallis DeVries
Given the global continuous rise, artificial light at night is often considered a driving force behind moth population declines. Although negative effects on individuals have been shown, there is no evidence for effects on population sizes to date. Therefore, we compared population trends of Dutch macro-moth fauna over the period 1985-2015 between moth species that differ in phototaxis and adult circadian rhythm. We found that moth species that show positive phototaxis or are nocturnally active have stronger negative population trends than species that are not attracted to light or are diurnal species...
December 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208228/pheromones-based-sexual-selection-in-a-rapidly-changing-world
#18
REVIEW
Jessica Henneken, Therésa M Jones
Insects utilise chemical cues for a range of different purposes and the complexity and degree of specificity of these signals is arguably unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Chemical signals are particularly important for insect reproduction and the selective pressures driving their evolution and maintenance have been the subject of previous reviews. However, the world in which chemical cues evolved and are maintained is changing at an unprecedented rate. How (or indeed whether) chemical signals used in sexual selection will respond is largely unknown...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204752/monitoring-circadian-rhythms-of-individual-cells-in-plants
#19
Tomoaki Muranaka, Tokitaka Oyama
The circadian clock is an endogenous timing system based on the self-sustained oscillation in individual cells. These cellular circadian clocks compose a multicellular circadian system working at respective levels of tissue, organ, plant body. However, how numerous cellular clocks are coordinated within a plant has been unclear. There was little information about behavior of circadian clocks at a single-cell level due to the difficulties in monitoring circadian rhythms of individual cells in an intact plant...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203320/characterization-of-basal-gene-expression-trends-over-a-diurnal-cycle-in-xiphophorus-maculatus-skin-brain-and-liver
#20
Yuan Lu, Jose Reyes, Sean Walter, Trevor Gonzalez, Geraldo Medrano, Mikki Boswell, William Boswell, Markita Savage, Ronald Walter
Evolutionarily conserved diurnal circadian mechanisms maintain oscillating patterns of gene expression based on the day-night cycle. Xiphophorus fish have been used to evaluate transcriptional responses after exposure to various light sources and it was determined that each source incites distinct genetic responses in skin tissue. However, basal expression levels of genes that show oscillating expression patterns in day-night cycle, may affect the outcomes of such experiments, since basal gene expression levels at each point in the circadian path may influence the profile of identified light responsive genes...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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