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millipede development

William A Shear, Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira, Luiz Felipe Moretti Iniesta, Paul Marek
Dobrodesmus mirabilis n. gen., n. sp. is described from a limestone cave in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is unique among millipedes of the order Polydesmida in having 39+t rings in adult males, two rather than four spinnerets, and in its highly plesiomorphic gonopods, which resemble those of basal members of the orders Callipodida and Stemmiulida. The presence of 39 rings is notable because members of the Polydesmida, the most species rich order of millipedes (>5000 spp.) normally stop development at 19+t rings...
October 25, 2016: Zootaxa
Rosa Fernández, Gregory D Edgecombe, Gonzalo Giribet
Myriapods, including the diverse and familiar centipedes and millipedes, are one of the dominant terrestrial arthropod groups. Although molecular evidence has shown that Myriapoda is monophyletic, its internal phylogeny remains contentious and understudied, especially when compared to those of Chelicerata and Hexapoda. Until now, efforts have focused on taxon sampling (e.g., by including a handful of genes from many species) or on maximizing matrix size (e.g., by including hundreds or thousands of genes in just a few species), but a phylogeny maximizing sampling at both levels remains elusive...
September 2016: Systematic Biology
Ana Sofia P S Reboleira, Henrik Enghoff
The postembryonic development of millipedes includes a series of stadia separated by moults, a process known as anamorphosis. The moulting process and especially the moulting into maturity, i.e., with fully developed copulatory organs, remains unknown for most millipede species. We have kept specimens of Lusitanipus alternans (Verhoeff, 1893) in the laboratory for one year and studied its moulting process, including the first study of the maturation moult in the order Callipodida. Unlike the typical silk cocoon reported for other callipodidans, this species builds a new type of solid moulting chamber, using the available substrate reinforced by a silken web...
May 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Yachao Gao, Ye Zou, Yan Ma, Dan Wang, Ying Sun, Gang Ma
Amyloid fibrils are unique fibrous polypeptide aggregates. They have been associated with more than 20 serious human diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Besides their pathological significance, amyloid fibrils are also gaining increasing attention as emerging nanomaterials with novel functions. Structural characterization of amyloid fibril is no doubt fundamentally important for the development of therapeutics for amyloid-related diseases and for the rational design of amyloid-based materials...
February 2, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Tainá Scalfoni Fracaroli, Ludmilla Queirós Miranda, Juan Piñeiro Maceira, Carlos Baptista Barcaui
The millipedes (also known as "gongolos") are arthropods characterized by a cylindrical body consisting of rings. When threatened, they release chemicals that can cause erythema and hyperpigmentation. We report the case of a patient who developed a darkened macule on the plantar region after stepping on a millipede. Dermatoscopic examination showed a parallel-ridge pattern, which is considered typical for acral melanoma. A detailed history was essential for the diagnosis, as the clinical and dermatoscopic features suggested a malignant melanocytic lesion...
September 30, 2015: Journal of Dermatological Case Reports
Mohammad Dadashipour, Yuko Ishida, Kazunori Yamamoto, Yasuhisa Asano
Hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) catalyzes the degradation of cyanohydrins and causes the release of hydrogen cyanide (cyanogenesis). HNL can enantioselectively produce cyanohydrins, which are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and is used as an important biocatalyst in industrial biotechnology. Currently, HNLs are isolated from plants and bacteria. Because industrial biotechnology requires more efficient and stable enzymes for sustainable development, we must continuously explore other potential enzyme sources for the desired HNLs...
August 25, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jean-François David, Mathieu Coulis
Growth, development and life-cycle duration of the millipede Ommatoiulussabulosus (f.aimatopodus) were studied in a Mediterranean shrubland of southern France and compared with previous data from northwest Europe. Changes in the proportions of stadia during the course of the year were analysed in several generations. The results show that stadia VII and VIII are consistently reached after the first year of growth, and stadia IX and X after the second year. First reproduction may occur at the age of two years in males reaching maturity at stadium X, but not until the age of three in those reaching maturity at stadia XI and XII...
2015: ZooKeys
Yasumasa Kuwahara, Yayoi Ichiki, Masashi Morita, Tsutomu Tanabe, Yasuhisa Asano
A mixture of defense compounds (benzaldehyde, benzoyl cyanide, benzoic acid, mandelonitrile, and mandelonitrile benzoate), found commonly in cyanogenic polydesmid millipedes, was identified in the non-cyanogenic millipede Niponia nodulosa. These compounds were major components in 1st-4th instars, but were absent in older instars and adults. Extracts of older instars and adults contained 1-octen-3-ol, 2-methyl-2-bornene, E-2-octen-1-ol, 2-methyl-isoborneol, and geosmin; these compounds were minor components in 1st-4th instars...
January 2015: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Vahid Khalilzad-Sharghi, Arunakumar Gangaplara, David Steffen, Shadi F Othman, Jay Reddy
Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, but only -10% of those affected show clinical manifestations of the disease. To study the immune events of myocardial injuries, various mouse models of myocarditis have been widely used. This study involved experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) induced with cardiac myosin heavy chain (Myhc)-α 334-352 in A/J mice; the affected animals develop lymphocytic myocarditis but with no apparent clinical signs. In this model, the utility of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) as a non-invasive modality to determine the cardiac structural and functional changes in animals immunized with Myhc-α 334-352 is shown...
2014: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ralf Janssen, Nico Posnien
The Wnt genes encode secreted glycoprotein ligands that are key players during animal development. Previous studies revealed the presence of 12 classes of Wnt genes in protostomes, although lineage specific losses of Wnt genes are common. So far, the gene expression profile of only two complete sets of arthropod Wnt genes has been studied; these are the Wnt genes of the fly Drosophila melanogaster and the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Insects, however, do not represent good models for the understanding of Wnt gene evolution because several Wnt genes have been lost in the lineage leading to the insects, or within the different orders of insects...
March 2014: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Michael S Brewer, Jason E Bond
BACKGROUND: The ancient and diverse, yet understudied arthropod class Diplopoda, the millipedes, has a muddled taxonomic history. Despite having a cosmopolitan distribution and a number of unique and interesting characteristics, the group has received relatively little attention; interest in millipede systematics is low compared to taxa of comparable diversity. The existing classification of the group comprises 16 orders. Past attempts to reconstruct millipede phylogenies have suffered from a paucity of characters and included too few taxa to confidently resolve relationships and make formal nomenclatural changes...
2013: PloS One
Ralf Janssen
This paper reports on an abnormally developed embryo (ADE) of the common pill millipede Glomeris marginata. This ADE represents a modified case of Duplicitas posterior, in which two posterior ends are present, but only one anterior end. While the major posterior germ band of the embryo appears almost normally developed, the minor posterior germ band is heavily malformed, has no clear correlation to the single head, little or no ventral tissue, and a minute amount of yolk. The anterior end of the minor germ band is fused to the ventral side of the major germ band between the first and second trunk segment...
2013: ZooKeys
Immacolata Iovinella, Francesco Bozza, Beniamino Caputo, Alessandra Della Torre, Paolo Pelosi
Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are a class of small proteins expressed only in arthropods and endowed with heterogeneous functions. Some of them are involved in chemical communications, others in development or other physiological roles. The numbers of CSPs in different species of insects range from 4 in Drosophila to at least 70 in locusts, whereas in other arthropods such as crustaceans and millipedes, only 2-3 very similar sequences have been reported in each species. We have expressed, in a bacterial system, 5 of the 8 CSPs predicted by the genome of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, 4 identified at the protein level (SAP1, SAP2, SAP3, and CSP3) and a fifth annotated as part of this work, obtaining the proteins with high yields and in their soluble forms...
June 2013: Chemical Senses
Ralf Janssen
Abnormally developing embryos (ADEs) of the common pill millipede Glomeris marginata have been investigated by means of nuclear staining and mRNA in situ hybridization. It showed that all ADEs represent cases of Duplicitas posterior, which means that the posterior body pole is duplicated. The severity of the duplication ranges from duplicated posterior trunk segments in one specimen to an almost completely duplicated specimen that only shares the very anterior head region. Remarkably, none of the encountered ADEs represents a case of Duplicitas anterior (duplicated anterior pole) or a case of Duplicitas cruciata (cruciate duplication with two anterior and two posterior poles)...
January 2013: Die Naturwissenschaften
M R Warburg
The structure of the millipede female reproductive system is described, discussed and reviewed. The different reproductive systems of female millipedes are illustrated, some of them for the first time. The various families appear to have developed several different structures of this organ. Nevertheless, more detailed studies on the female reproductive systems, especially the changes taking place during the oogenetic cycle, are needed in all millipede orders. Only this way can it be ascertained, whether ovarian structures observed are not only a transitional phase...
August 2012: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
Ralf Janssen, Wim G M Damen, Graham E Budd
BACKGROUND: A hallmark of Drosophila segmentation is the stepwise subdivision of the body into smaller and smaller units, and finally into the segments. This is achieved by the function of the well-understood segmentation gene cascade. The first molecular sign of a segmented body appears with the action of the pair rule genes, which are expressed as transversal stripes in alternating segments. Drosophila development, however, is derived, and in most other arthropods only the anterior body is patterned (almost) simultaneously from a pre-existing field of cells; posterior segments are added sequentially from a posterior segment addition zone...
2012: BMC Developmental Biology
Michaela Bodner, Günther Raspotnig
The secretions from serial defensive glands of the Austrian diplopod Allajulus dicentrus (Julidae, Cylindroiulini) were extracted and analyzed by means of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. In adults, 13 components from two chemical classes were detected: 1) The common juliform benzoquinones were represented by four compounds (2-hydroxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone, and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone). From this series, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone was most abundant, comprising about 40 % of the whole secretion...
May 2012: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jean-Francois David, Jean-Jacques Geoffroy
The number of stadia during post-embryonic development is supposed to be fixed in most species of the millipede order Polydesmida. For the first time since 1928, additional moults were observed in two males of Polydesmus angustus Latzel, 1884 reared in the laboratory. These 'elongatus' males sensu Verhoeff reached stadium IX instead of stadium VIII, with addition of a further podous ring (32 pairs of legs). One male had well-developed gonopods at stadium VIII, which regressed at stadium IX; the other had no gonopods at stadium VIII, which developed at stadium IX...
2011: ZooKeys
Natdanai Likhitrakarn, Sergei I Golovatch, Somsak Panha
The large genus Orthomorpha is rediagnosed and is shown to currently comprise 51 identifiable species ranging from northern Myanmar and Thailand in the Northwest to Lombok Island, Indonesia in the Southeast. Of them, 20 species have been revised and/or abundantly illustrated, based on a restudy of mostly type material; further 12 species are described as new: Orthomorpha atypicasp. n., Orthomorpha communissp. n., Orthomorpha isarankuraisp. n., Orthomorpha picturatasp. n., Orthomorpha similanensissp. n., Orthomorpha suberectasp...
2011: ZooKeys
Ralf Janssen
The body of arthropods is subdivided in serially homologous units, the so-called segments. In many arthropods, ventral and dorsal segmental tissue typically is aligned in parallel, but is dependent on different genetic inputs. In the pill millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda), ventral and dorsal segmental patterning is clearly decoupled providing an excellent model for the investigation of ventral versus dorsal segmentation mechanisms. This paper reports on the finding of a single embryo that lacks dorsal segmental and extraembryonic tissue...
December 2011: Development Genes and Evolution
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