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millipede development

Ralf Janssen, Emil Andersson, Ellinor Betnér, Sifra Bijl, Will Fowler, Lars Höök, Jake Leyhr, Alexander Mannelqvist, Virginia Panara, Kate Smith, Sydney Tiemann
BACKGROUND: Sox (Sry-related high-mobility-group box) genes represent important factors in animal development. Relatively little, however, is known about the embryonic expression patterns and thus possible function(s) of Sox genes during ontogenesis in panarthropods (Arthropoda+Tardigrada+Onychophora). To date, studies have been restricted exclusively to higher insects, including the model system Drosophila melanogaster, with no comprehensive data available for any other arthropod group, or any tardigrade or onychophoran...
June 8, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Petra De Block, Franck Rakotonasolo, Salvator Ntore, Sylvain G Razafimandimbison, Steven Janssens
The taxonomic positions and phylogenetic relationships of six Pavetteae species endemic to Madagascar were tested with a phylogenetic study of the Afro-Madagascan representatives of the tribe Pavetteae based on sequence data from six markers rps16 , trnT-F , petD , accD - psa1 , PI and ITS. The six species were resolved into four well-supported and morphologically distinct clades which we here formally recognise at generic level. The new genera are the monospecific Exallosperma and Pseudocoptosperma , each with a single species, and Helictosperma and Tulearia , each with two species...
2018: PhytoKeys
Rosa Fernández, Gregory D Edgecombe, Gonzalo Giribet
The interrelationships of the four classes of Myriapoda have been an unresolved question in arthropod phylogenetics and an example of conflict between morphology and molecules. Morphology and development provide compelling support for Diplopoda (millipedes) and Pauropoda being closest relatives, and moderate support for Symphyla being more closely related to the diplopod-pauropod group than any of them are to Chilopoda (centipedes). In contrast, several molecular datasets have contradicted the Diplopoda-Pauropoda grouping (named Dignatha), often recovering a Symphyla-Pauropoda group (named Edafopoda)...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Henrik Enghoff, Laura Mark Jensen, Elena V Mikhaljova
A unique pattern of missing defence glands on certain body rings is described for two species of the millipede family Mongoliulidae, order Julida: Ussuriiulus pilifer Golovatch, 1980, and Koiulus interruptus Enghoff et al., 2017. Based on the patterns of missing glands observed in recently collected samples of the two species, numbers of podous and apodous body rings in successive stadia of the postembryonic development can be inferred for each individual millipede, which in turn allows the reconstruction of pathways of anamorphosis in these species...
January 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Josh Douglas, Sarina Macfadyen, Ary Hoffmann, Paul Umina
The isopod, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae), and the millipede, Ommatoiulus moreletii (Lucas) (Diplopoda: Iulidae), are increasingly being reported as pests of emerging broadacre crop seedlings in southern Australia. This is thought to be due to the increased adoption of stubble retention practices, leading to increased abundance of these soil-dwelling organisms. Here, we evaluate the propensity of A. vulgare and O. moreletii to damage a range of crop seedlings. Through the combined analysis of a controlled feeding trial and field reports, we show A...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
E Amstad, D A Weitz
This reply to the comment by Nakajima on our article that appeared in Lab on a Chip (E. Amstad, M. Chemama, M. Eggersdorfer, L. R. Arriaga, M. Brenner and D. A. Weitz, Lab Chip, 2016, 16, 4163-4172) highlights the differences between the microchannel step emulsification devices developed by the Nakajima group and the millipede device reported by us in Lab on a Chip.
June 27, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Ralf Janssen
Evolution of segmented limbs is one of the key innovations of Arthropoda, allowing development of functionally specific specialized head and trunk appendages, a major factor behind their unmatched evolutionary success. Proximodistal limb patterning is controlled by two regulatory networks in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, and other insects. The first is represented by the function of the morphogens Wingless (Wg) and Decapentaplegic (Dpp); the second by the EGFR-signaling cascade. While the role of Wg and Dpp has been studied in a wide range of arthropods representing all main branches, that is, Pancrustacea (= Hexapoda + Crustacea), Myriapoda and Chelicerata, investigation of the potential role of EGFR-signaling is restricted to insects (Hexapoda)...
May 2017: Evolution & Development
Takeshi Kano, Kazuhiko Sakai, Kotaro Yasui, Dai Owaki, Akio Ishiguro
Legged animals exhibit adaptive and resilient locomotion through interlimb coordination. The long-term goal of this study is to clarify the relationship between the number of legs and the inherent decentralized control mechanism for interlimb coordination. As a preliminary step, the study focuses on millipedes as they represent the species with the greatest number of legs among various animal species. A decentralized control mechanism involving local force feedback was proposed based on the qualitative findings of behavioural experiments in which responses to the removal of part of the terrain and leg amputation were observed...
April 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Ning Luan, Chunling Zhou, Pengpeng Li, Rose Ombati, Xiuwen Yan, Guoxiang Mo, Mingqiang Rong, Ren Lai, Zilei Duan, Ruiqiang Zheng
The repugnatorial glands of millipedes release various defensive chemical secretions. Although varieties of such defensive secretions have been studied, none of them is protein or peptide. Herein, a novel factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor named joannsin was identified and characterised from repugnatorial glands of Prospirobolus joannsi. Joannsin is composed of 72 amino acid residues including six cysteines, which form three intra-molecular disulfide bridges. It is a member of Kunitz-type protease inhibitor family, members of which are also found in the secretory glands of other arthropods...
March 9, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
William A Shear, Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira, Luiz Felipe Moretti Iniesta, Paul Marek
Dobrodesmus mirabilis n. gen., n. sp. is described from a limestone cave in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is unique among millipedes of the order Polydesmida in having 39+t rings in adult males, two rather than four spinnerets, and in its highly plesiomorphic gonopods, which resemble those of basal members of the orders Callipodida and Stemmiulida. The presence of 39 rings is notable because members of the Polydesmida, the most species rich order of millipedes (>5000 spp.) normally stop development at 19+t rings...
October 25, 2016: Zootaxa
Rosa Fernández, Gregory D Edgecombe, Gonzalo Giribet
Myriapods, including the diverse and familiar centipedes and millipedes, are one of the dominant terrestrial arthropod groups. Although molecular evidence has shown that Myriapoda is monophyletic, its internal phylogeny remains contentious and understudied, especially when compared to those of Chelicerata and Hexapoda. Until now, efforts have focused on taxon sampling (e.g., by including a handful of genes from many species) or on maximizing matrix size (e.g., by including hundreds or thousands of genes in just a few species), but a phylogeny maximizing sampling at both levels remains elusive...
September 2016: Systematic Biology
Ana Sofia P S Reboleira, Henrik Enghoff
The postembryonic development of millipedes includes a series of stadia separated by moults, a process known as anamorphosis. The moulting process and especially the moulting into maturity, i.e., with fully developed copulatory organs, remains unknown for most millipede species. We have kept specimens of Lusitanipus alternans (Verhoeff, 1893) in the laboratory for one year and studied its moulting process, including the first study of the maturation moult in the order Callipodida. Unlike the typical silk cocoon reported for other callipodidans, this species builds a new type of solid moulting chamber, using the available substrate reinforced by a silken web...
May 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Yachao Gao, Ye Zou, Yan Ma, Dan Wang, Ying Sun, Gang Ma
Amyloid fibrils are unique fibrous polypeptide aggregates. They have been associated with more than 20 serious human diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Besides their pathological significance, amyloid fibrils are also gaining increasing attention as emerging nanomaterials with novel functions. Structural characterization of amyloid fibril is no doubt fundamentally important for the development of therapeutics for amyloid-related diseases and for the rational design of amyloid-based materials...
February 2, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Tainá Scalfoni Fracaroli, Ludmilla Queirós Miranda, Juan Piñeiro Maceira, Carlos Baptista Barcaui
The millipedes (also known as "gongolos") are arthropods characterized by a cylindrical body consisting of rings. When threatened, they release chemicals that can cause erythema and hyperpigmentation. We report the case of a patient who developed a darkened macule on the plantar region after stepping on a millipede. Dermatoscopic examination showed a parallel-ridge pattern, which is considered typical for acral melanoma. A detailed history was essential for the diagnosis, as the clinical and dermatoscopic features suggested a malignant melanocytic lesion...
September 30, 2015: Journal of Dermatological Case Reports
Mohammad Dadashipour, Yuko Ishida, Kazunori Yamamoto, Yasuhisa Asano
Hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) catalyzes the degradation of cyanohydrins and causes the release of hydrogen cyanide (cyanogenesis). HNL can enantioselectively produce cyanohydrins, which are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and is used as an important biocatalyst in industrial biotechnology. Currently, HNLs are isolated from plants and bacteria. Because industrial biotechnology requires more efficient and stable enzymes for sustainable development, we must continuously explore other potential enzyme sources for the desired HNLs...
August 25, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jean-François David, Mathieu Coulis
Growth, development and life-cycle duration of the millipede Ommatoiulussabulosus (f.aimatopodus) were studied in a Mediterranean shrubland of southern France and compared with previous data from northwest Europe. Changes in the proportions of stadia during the course of the year were analysed in several generations. The results show that stadia VII and VIII are consistently reached after the first year of growth, and stadia IX and X after the second year. First reproduction may occur at the age of two years in males reaching maturity at stadium X, but not until the age of three in those reaching maturity at stadia XI and XII...
2015: ZooKeys
Yasumasa Kuwahara, Yayoi Ichiki, Masashi Morita, Tsutomu Tanabe, Yasuhisa Asano
A mixture of defense compounds (benzaldehyde, benzoyl cyanide, benzoic acid, mandelonitrile, and mandelonitrile benzoate), found commonly in cyanogenic polydesmid millipedes, was identified in the non-cyanogenic millipede Niponia nodulosa. These compounds were major components in 1st-4th instars, but were absent in older instars and adults. Extracts of older instars and adults contained 1-octen-3-ol, 2-methyl-2-bornene, E-2-octen-1-ol, 2-methyl-isoborneol, and geosmin; these compounds were minor components in 1st-4th instars...
January 2015: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Vahid Khalilzad-Sharghi, Arunakumar Gangaplara, David Steffen, Shadi F Othman, Jay Reddy
Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, but only -10% of those affected show clinical manifestations of the disease. To study the immune events of myocardial injuries, various mouse models of myocarditis have been widely used. This study involved experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) induced with cardiac myosin heavy chain (Myhc)-α 334-352 in A/J mice; the affected animals develop lymphocytic myocarditis but with no apparent clinical signs. In this model, the utility of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) as a non-invasive modality to determine the cardiac structural and functional changes in animals immunized with Myhc-α 334-352 is shown...
2014: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ralf Janssen, Nico Posnien
The Wnt genes encode secreted glycoprotein ligands that are key players during animal development. Previous studies revealed the presence of 12 classes of Wnt genes in protostomes, although lineage specific losses of Wnt genes are common. So far, the gene expression profile of only two complete sets of arthropod Wnt genes has been studied; these are the Wnt genes of the fly Drosophila melanogaster and the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Insects, however, do not represent good models for the understanding of Wnt gene evolution because several Wnt genes have been lost in the lineage leading to the insects, or within the different orders of insects...
March 2014: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Michael S Brewer, Jason E Bond
BACKGROUND: The ancient and diverse, yet understudied arthropod class Diplopoda, the millipedes, has a muddled taxonomic history. Despite having a cosmopolitan distribution and a number of unique and interesting characteristics, the group has received relatively little attention; interest in millipede systematics is low compared to taxa of comparable diversity. The existing classification of the group comprises 16 orders. Past attempts to reconstruct millipede phylogenies have suffered from a paucity of characters and included too few taxa to confidently resolve relationships and make formal nomenclatural changes...
2013: PloS One
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