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arthropod developmental genes

Subhash Rajpurohit, Robert Hanus, Vladimír Vrkoslav, Emily L Behrman, Alan O Bergland, Dmitri Petrov, Josef Cvačka, Paul S Schmidt
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are hydrophobic compounds deposited on the arthropod cuticle that are of functional significance with respect to stress tolerance, social interactions, and mating dynamics. We characterized CHC profiles in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster at five levels: across a latitudinal transect in the eastern U.S., as a function of developmental temperature during culture, across seasonal time in replicate years, and as a function of rapid evolution in experimental mesocosms in the field...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Savvas J Constantinou, Ryan M Pace, A J Stangl, Lisa M Nagy, Terri A Williams
Wnt genes are a family of conserved glycoprotein ligands that play a role in a wide variety of cell and developmental processes, from cell proliferation to axis elongation. There are 13 Wnt subfamilies found among metazoans. Eleven of these appear conserved in arthropods with a pattern of loss during evolution of as many as six subfamilies among hexapods. Here we report on Wnt genes in the branchiopod crustacean, Thamnocephalus platyurus, including the first documentation of the expression of the complete Wnt gene family in a crustacean...
October 3, 2016: Evolution & Development
R Taylor Raborn, Ken Spitze, Volker P Brendel, Michael Lynch
Large-scale transcription start site (TSS) profiling produces a high-resolution, quantitative picture of transcription initiation and core promoter locations within a genome. However, application of TSS profiling to date has largely been restricted to a small set of prominent model systems. We sought to characterize the cis-regulatory landscape of the water flea Daphnia pulex, an emerging model arthropod that reproduces both asexually (via parthenogenesis) and sexually (via meiosis). We performed Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) with RNA isolated from D...
October 2016: Genetics
Bruno C Vellutini, Andreas Hejnol
The diverse and complex developmental mechanisms of segmentation have been more thoroughly studied in arthropods, vertebrates and annelids-distantly related animals considered to be segmented. Far less is known about the role of "segmentation genes" in organisms that lack a segmented body. Here we investigate the expression of the arthropod segment polarity genes engrailed, wnt1 and hedgehog in the development of brachiopods-marine invertebrates without a subdivided trunk but closely related to the segmented annelids...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kodai Kusakisako, Remil Linggatong Galay, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Hiroki Maeda, Melbourne Rio Talactac, Naotoshi Tsuji, Masami Mochizuki, Kozo Fujisaki, Tetsuya Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods that feed on vertebrate blood that contains iron. Ticks also concentrate host blood with iron; this concentration of the blood leads to high levels of iron in ticks. The host-derived iron reacts with oxygen in the tick body and this may generate high levels of reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). High levels of H2O2 cause oxidative stress in organisms and therefore, antioxidant responses are necessary to regulate H2O2...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Huipeng Pan, Linghua Xu, Jeffrey E Noland, Hu Li, Blair D Siegfried, Xuguo Zhou
RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Markus Friedrich, Tiffany Cook, Andrew C Zelhof
The origin of the Drosophila compound eye predates the ancestor of Pancrustacea, the arthropod clade that includes insects and Crustaceans. Recent studies in emerging model systems for pancrustacean development-the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and water flea Daphnia pulex-have begun to shed light on the evolutionary conservation of transcriptional mechanisms found for the Drosophila compound eye. Here, we discuss the conserved roles of the transcription factors Otd and Pph13, which complement each other in two terminal events of photoreceptor differentiation: rhabdomere morphogenesis and transcriptional default activation of opsin gene expression...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Matthew A Benton, Matthias Pechmann, Nadine Frey, Dominik Stappert, Kai H Conrads, Yen-Ta Chen, Evangelia Stamataki, Anastasios Pavlopoulos, Siegfried Roth
One of the key morphogenetic processes used during development is the controlled intercalation of cells between their neighbors. This process has been co-opted into a range of developmental events, and it also underlies an event that occurs in each major group of bilaterians: elongation of the embryo along the anterior-posterior axis [1]. In Drosophila, a novel component of this process was recently discovered by Paré et al., who showed that three Toll genes function together to drive cell intercalation during germband extension [2]...
June 20, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Becky Cheng, Nitin Kuppanda, John C Aldrich, Omar S Akbari, Patrick M Ferree
Numerous arthropods harbor maternally transmitted bacteria that induce the preferential death of males [1-7]. This sex-specific lethality benefits the bacteria because males are "dead ends" regarding bacterial transmission, and their absence may result in additional resources for their viable female siblings who can thereby more successfully transmit the bacteria [5]. Although these symbionts disrupt a range of developmental processes [8-10], the underlying cellular mechanisms are largely unknown. It was previously shown that mutations in genes of the dosage compensation pathway of Drosophila melanogaster suppressed male killing caused by the bacterium, Spiroplasma [10]...
May 23, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Florent Masson, Anna Zaidman-Rémy, Abdelaziz Heddi
Many insects sustain long-term relationships with intracellular symbiotic bacteria that provide them with essential nutrients. Such endosymbiotic relationships likely emerged from ancestral infections of the host by free-living bacteria, the genomes of which experience drastic gene losses and rearrangements during the host-symbiont coevolution. While it is well documented that endosymbiont genome shrinkage results in the loss of bacterial virulence genes, whether and how the host immune system evolves towards the tolerance and control of bacterial partners remains elusive...
May 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
André Fernando Ditondo Micas, Germano Aguiar Ferreira, Helen Julie Laure, José Cesar Rosa, Márcia Maria Gentile Bitondi
The integument of insects and other arthropods is composed of an inner basal lamina coated by the epidermis, which secretes the bulk of the outer integument layer, the cuticle. The genome sequencing of several insect species has allowed predicting classes of proteins integrating the cuticle. However, only a small proportion of them, as well as other proteins in the integumentary system, have been validated. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 45 different proteins in a total of 112 selected gel spots derived from thoracic integument samples of developing honeybee workers, including 14 cuticular proteins (AmelCPR 3, AmelCPR 12, AmelCPR 16, AmelCPR 27, apidermin 2, apidermin 3, endocuticle structural glycoprotein SgAbd-8-like, LOC100577363, LOC408365, LOC413679, LOC725454, LOC100576916, LOC725838, and peritrophin 3-C analogous)...
September 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Yao Zhao, Shuai Zhang, Jun-Yu Luo, Chun-Yi Wang, Li-Min Lv, Xiao-Ping Wang, Jin-Jie Cui, Chao-Liang Lei
Plant varieties expressing the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) insecticidal proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab have potential commercialization prospects in China. However, their potential effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) remain uncharacterized. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii is a worldwide pest that damages various important crops. The ladybeetle Propylea japonica is a common and abundant natural enemy in many cropping systems in East Asia. In the present study, the effects of Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins on A. gossypii and P...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mingliang Chen, Chenying Wang, Wei Wang, Gubiao Ji, Bin Hu, Mi Du, Guosheng Liu, Zengpeng Li, Weiyi Wang, Xiangzhi Lin, Weibing Zheng, Jianming Chen
The horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus is a unique marine species and a potential model for marine invertebrate. Limited genomic and transcriptional data are currently available to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the embryonic development of T. tridentatus. Here, we reported for the first time the de novo transcriptome assembly for T. tridentatus at embryonic developmental stage using Illumina RNA-seq platform. Approximate 38 million reads were obtained and further assembled into 133,212 unigenes...
2016: PloS One
Simon Jenni, Yogesh Goyal, Marcin von Grotthuss, Stanislav Y Shvartsman, Daryl E Klein
In insects, brain-derived Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) activates the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Torso to initiate metamorphosis through the release of ecdysone. We have determined the crystal structure of silkworm PTTH in complex with the ligand-binding region of Torso. Here we show that ligand-induced Torso dimerization results from the sequential and negatively cooperative formation of asymmetric heterotetramers. Mathematical modeling of receptor activation based upon our biophysical studies shows that ligand pulses are "buffered" at low receptor levels, leading to a sustained signal...
December 17, 2015: Molecular Cell
J Wang, F Y Zhang, W Song, Y B Fang, J H Hu, M Zhao, K J Jiang, L B Ma
Hemocyanin is an important respiratory protein in many arthropod and mollusk species. Here, four cDNAs (SpHc1, SpHc2, SpHc3, and SpHc4), encoding distinct hemocyanin subunits from Scylla paramamosain were cloned using EST analyses and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The four full-length cDNA fragments (SpHc1-4) were 2281, 2002, 2184, and 2069 bp, respectively, and they encoded four putative proteins (570-676 amino acids) with a molecular mass of ~65.0-76.8 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that the four genes were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas, testis, and hemocytes...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Chunxiao Yang, Huipeng Pan, Jeffrey Edward Noland, Deyong Zhang, Zhanhong Zhang, Yong Liu, Xuguo Zhou
Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression across various biological processes, of which requires a set of suited reference genes to normalize the expression data. Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the most extensively used biological control agents in the field to manage arthropod pest species. In this study, expression profiles of 16 housekeeping genes selected from C. maculata were cloned and investigated...
2015: Scientific Reports
Soo Rin Lee, Ji-Hyun Lee, Ah Ran Kim, Sanghee Kim, Hyun Park, Hea Ja Baek, Hyun-Woo Kim
Three full-length cDNAs encoding lipoprotein homologs were identified in Tigriopus kingsejongensis, a newly identified copepod from Antarctica. Structural and transcriptional analyses revealed homology with two vitellogenin-like proteins, Tik-Vg1 and Tik-Vg2, which were 1855 and 1795 amino acids in length, respectively, along with a third protein, Tik-MEP, which produced a 1517-residue protein with similarity to a melanin engaging protein (MEP) in insects Phylogenetic analysis showed that Vgs in Maxillopods including two Tik-Vgs belong to the arthropod vitellogenin-like clade, which includes clottable proteins (CPs) in decapod crustaceans and vitellogenins in insects...
February 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Nicholas J Strausfeld, Frank Hirth
The origin of brains and central nervous systems (CNSs) is thought to have occurred before the Palaeozoic era 540 Ma. Yet in the absence of tangible evidence, there has been continued debate whether today's brains and nervous systems derive from one ancestral origin or whether similarities among them are due to convergent evolution. With the advent of molecular developmental genetics and genomics, it has become clear that homology is a concept that applies not only to morphologies, but also to genes, developmental processes, as well as to behaviours...
January 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Julia M Serano, Arnaud Martin, Danielle M Liubicich, Erin Jarvis, Heather S Bruce, Konnor La, William E Browne, Jane Grimwood, Nipam H Patel
Hox genes play crucial roles in establishing regional identity along the anterior-posterior axis in bilaterian animals, and have been implicated in generating morphological diversity throughout evolution. Here we report the identification, expression, and initial genomic characterization of the complete set of Hox genes from the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. Parhyale is an emerging model system that is amenable to experimental manipulations and evolutionary comparisons among the arthropods. Our analyses indicate that the Parhyale genome contains a single copy of each canonical Hox gene with the exception of fushi tarazu, and preliminary mapping suggests that at least some of these genes are clustered together in the genome...
January 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
Andreas Hejnol, Christopher J Lowe
Molecular biology has provided a rich dataset to develop hypotheses of nervous system evolution. The startling patterning similarities between distantly related animals during the development of their central nervous system (CNS) have resulted in the hypothesis that a CNS with a single centralized medullary cord and a partitioned brain is homologous across bilaterians. However, the ability to precisely reconstruct ancestral neural architectures from molecular genetic information requires that these gene networks specifically map with particular neural anatomies...
December 19, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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