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arthropod developmental genes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432834/molecular-control-of-gut-formation-in-the-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum
#1
Natália Martins Feitosa, Matthias Pechmann, Evelyn E Schwager, Vitória Tobias-Santos, Alistair P McGregor, Wim G M Damen, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca
The development of a digestive system is an essential feature of bilaterians. Studies of the molecular control of gut formation in arthropods have been studied in detail in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, little is known in other arthropods, especially in noninsect arthropods. To better understand the evolution of arthropod alimentary system, we investigate the molecular control of gut development in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum (Pt), the primary chelicerate model species for developmental studies...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257485/deep-sequencing-of-the-prothoracic-gland-transcriptome-reveals-new-players-in-insect-ecdysteroidogenesis
#2
Takayoshi Nakaoka, Masatoshi Iga, Tetsuya Yamada, Ikumi Koujima, Mika Takeshima, Xiangying Zhou, Yutaka Suzuki, Mari H Ogihara, Hiroshi Kataoka
Ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that induce molting and determine developmental timing in arthropods. In insect larva, the prothoracic gland (PG) is a major organ for ecdysone synthesis and release. Released ecdysone is converted into the active form, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the peripheral tissues. All processes from ecdysone synthesis and release from the PG to its conversion to 20E are called ecdysteroidogenesis and are under the regulation of numerous factors expressed in the PG and peripheral tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238736/evolutionary-variation-in-neural-gene-expression-in-the-developing-sense-organs-of-the-crustacean-daphnia-magna
#3
Marleen Klann, Angelika Stollewerk
Arthropods have numerous sense organs, which are adapted to their habitat. While some sense organs are similar in structure and function in all arthropod groups, structural differences in functionally related sense organs have been described, as well as the absence of particular sense organ subtypes in individual arthropod groups. Here we address the question of how the diverse structures of arthropod sense organs have evolved by analysing the underlying molecular developmental processes in a crustacean, an arthropod group that has been neglected so far...
April 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225068/relish2-mediates-bursicon-homodimer-induced-prophylactic-immunity-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#4
Hongwei Zhang, Shengzhang Dong, Xi Chen, David Stanley, Brenda Beerntsen, Qili Feng, Qisheng Song
Bursicon is a neuropeptide hormone consisting of two cystine-knot proteins (burs α and burs β), responsible for cuticle tanning and other developmental processes in insects. Recent studies show that each bursicon subunit forms homodimers that induce prophylactic immunity in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that bursicon homodimers act in prophylactic immunity in insects, and possibly arthropods, generally, using the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. We found that burs α and burs β are expressed in larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191025/from-egg-to-no-body-an-overview-and-revision-of-developmental-pathways-in-the-ancient-arthropod-lineage-pycnogonida
#5
REVIEW
Georg Brenneis, Ekaterina V Bogomolova, Claudia P Arango, Franz Krapp
BACKGROUND: Arthropod diversity is unparalleled in the animal kingdom. The study of ontogeny is pivotal to understand which developmental processes underlie the incredible morphological disparity of arthropods and thus to eventually unravel evolutionary transformations leading to their success. Work on laboratory model organisms has yielded in-depth data on numerous developmental mechanisms in arthropods. Yet, although the range of studied taxa has increased noticeably since the advent of comparative evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), several smaller groups remain understudied...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158242/de-novo-characterization-of-micrornas-in-oriental-fruit-moth-grapholita-molesta-and-selection-of-reference-genes-for-normalization-of-microrna-expression
#6
Xiu Wang, Yisong Li, Jing Zhang, Qingwen Zhang, Xiaoxia Liu, Zhen Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that have critical regulatory functions in almost all known biological processes at the post-transcriptional level in a variety of organisms. The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the most serious pests in orchards worldwide and threatens the production of Rosacea fruits. In this study, a de novo small RNA library constructed from mixed stages of G. molesta was sequenced through Illumina sequencing platform and a total of 536 mature miRNAs consisting of 291 conserved and 245 novel miRNAs were identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939724/wafs-lead-molting-retardation-of-naupliar-stages-with-down-regulated-expression-profiles-of-chitin-metabolic-pathway-and-related-genes-in-the-copepod-tigriopus-japonicus
#7
Dae-Sik Hwang, Min-Chul Lee, Do-Hyun Kyung, Hui-Su Kim, Jeonghoon Han, Il-Chan Kim, Jayesh Puthumana, Jae-Seong Lee
Oil pollution is considered being disastrous to marine organisms and ecosystems. As molting is critical in the developmental process of arthropods in general and copepods, in particular, the impact will be adverse if the target of spilled oil is on molting. Thus, we investigated the harmful effects of water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil with an emphasis on inhibition of chitin metabolic pathways related genes and developmental retardation in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Also, we analysed the ontology and domain of chitin metabolic pathway genes and mRNA expression patterns of developmental stage-specific genes...
March 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890717/ecdysone-receptor-ecr-and-ultraspiracle-usp-genes-from-the-cyclopoid-copepod-paracyclopina-nana-identification-and-expression-in-response-to-water-accommodated-fractions-wafs
#8
Jayesh Puthumana, Min-Chul Lee, Jeonghoon Han, Hui-Su Kim, Dae-Sik Hwang, Jae-Seong Lee
Ecdysteroid hormones are pivotal in the development, growth, and molting of arthropods, and the hormone pathway is triggered by binding ecdysteroid to a heterodimer of the two nuclear receptors; ecdysone receptors (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP). We have characterized EcR and USP genes, and their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) from the copepod Paracyclopina nana, and studied mRNA transcription levels in post-embryonic stages and in response to water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil. The open reading frames (ORF) of EcR and USP were 1470 and 1287bp that encoded 490 and 429 amino acids with molecular weight of 121...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815278/molecular-evidence-of-chlamydia-like-organisms-in-the-feces-of-myotis-daubentonii-bats
#9
K Hokynar, E J Vesterinen, T M Lilley, A T Pulliainen, S J Korhonen, J Paavonen, M Puolakkainen
Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs) are recently identified members of the Chlamydiales order. CLOs share intracellular lifestyles and biphasic developmental cycles, and they have been detected in environmental samples as well as in various hosts such as amoebae and arthropods. In this study, we screened bat feces for the presence of CLOs by molecular analysis. Using pan-Chlamydiales PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene, Chlamydiales DNA was detected in 54% of the specimens. PCR amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes were used to classify positive specimens and infer their phylogenetic relationships...
January 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718537/adaptive-dynamics-of-cuticular-hydrocarbons-in-drosophila
#10
S Rajpurohit, R Hanus, V Vrkoslav, E L Behrman, A O Bergland, D Petrov, J Cvačka, P S Schmidt
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are hydrophobic compounds deposited on the arthropod cuticle that are of functional significance with respect to stress tolerance, social interactions and mating dynamics. We characterized CHC profiles in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster at five levels: across a latitudinal transect in the eastern United States, as a function of developmental temperature during culture, across seasonal time in replicate years, and as a function of rapid evolution in experimental mesocosms in the field...
January 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696666/wnt-repertoire-and-developmental-expression-patterns-in-the-crustacean-thamnocephalus-platyurus
#11
Savvas J Constantinou, Ryan M Pace, A J Stangl, Lisa M Nagy, Terri A Williams
Wnt genes are a family of conserved glycoprotein ligands that play a role in a wide variety of cell and developmental processes, from cell proliferation to axis elongation. There are 13 Wnt subfamilies found among metazoans. Eleven of these appear conserved in arthropods with a pattern of loss during evolution of as many as six subfamilies among hexapods. Here we report on Wnt genes in the branchiopod crustacean, Thamnocephalus platyurus, including the first documentation of the expression of the complete Wnt gene family in a crustacean...
December 2016: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585846/promoter-architecture-and-sex-specific-gene-expression-in-daphnia-pulex
#12
R Taylor Raborn, Ken Spitze, Volker P Brendel, Michael Lynch
Large-scale transcription start site (TSS) profiling produces a high-resolution, quantitative picture of transcription initiation and core promoter locations within a genome. However, application of TSS profiling to date has largely been restricted to a small set of prominent model systems. We sought to characterize the cis-regulatory landscape of the water flea Daphnia pulex, an emerging model arthropod that reproduces both asexually (via parthenogenesis) and sexually (via meiosis). We performed Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) with RNA isolated from D...
October 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561213/expression-of-segment-polarity-genes-in-brachiopods-supports-a-non-segmental-ancestral-role-of-engrailed-for-bilaterians
#13
Bruno C Vellutini, Andreas Hejnol
The diverse and complex developmental mechanisms of segmentation have been more thoroughly studied in arthropods, vertebrates and annelids-distantly related animals considered to be segmented. Far less is known about the role of "segmentation genes" in organisms that lack a segmented body. Here we investigate the expression of the arthropod segment polarity genes engrailed, wnt1 and hedgehog in the development of brachiopods-marine invertebrates without a subdivided trunk but closely related to the segmented annelids...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542835/2-cys-peroxiredoxin-is-required-in-successful-blood-feeding-reproduction-and-antioxidant-response-in-the-hard-tick-haemaphysalis-longicornis
#14
Kodai Kusakisako, Remil Linggatong Galay, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Hiroki Maeda, Melbourne Rio Talactac, Naotoshi Tsuji, Masami Mochizuki, Kozo Fujisaki, Tetsuya Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods that feed on vertebrate blood that contains iron. Ticks also concentrate host blood with iron; this concentration of the blood leads to high levels of iron in ticks. The host-derived iron reacts with oxygen in the tick body and this may generate high levels of reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). High levels of H2O2 cause oxidative stress in organisms and therefore, antioxidant responses are necessary to regulate H2O2...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471512/assessment-of-potential-risks-of-dietary-rnai-to-a-soil-micro-arthropod-sinella-curviseta-brook-collembola-entomobryidae
#15
Huipeng Pan, Linghua Xu, Jeffrey E Noland, Hu Li, Blair D Siegfried, Xuguo Zhou
RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436551/ancient-default-activators-of-terminal-photoreceptor-differentiation-in-the-pancrustacean-compound-eye-the-homeodomain-transcription-factors-otd-and-pph13
#16
REVIEW
Markus Friedrich, Tiffany Cook, Andrew C Zelhof
The origin of the Drosophila compound eye predates the ancestor of Pancrustacea, the arthropod clade that includes insects and Crustaceans. Recent studies in emerging model systems for pancrustacean development-the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and water flea Daphnia pulex-have begun to shed light on the evolutionary conservation of transcriptional mechanisms found for the Drosophila compound eye. Here, we discuss the conserved roles of the transcription factors Otd and Pph13, which complement each other in two terminal events of photoreceptor differentiation: rhabdomere morphogenesis and transcriptional default activation of opsin gene expression...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27212406/toll-genes-have-an-ancestral-role-in-axis-elongation
#17
Matthew A Benton, Matthias Pechmann, Nadine Frey, Dominik Stappert, Kai H Conrads, Yen-Ta Chen, Evangelia Stamataki, Anastasios Pavlopoulos, Siegfried Roth
One of the key morphogenetic processes used during development is the controlled intercalation of cells between their neighbors. This process has been co-opted into a range of developmental events, and it also underlies an event that occurs in each major group of bilaterians: elongation of the embryo along the anterior-posterior axis [1]. In Drosophila, a novel component of this process was recently discovered by Paré et al., who showed that three Toll genes function together to drive cell intercalation during germband extension [2]...
June 20, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161498/male-killing-spiroplasma-alters-behavior-of-the-dosage-compensation-complex-during-drosophila-melanogaster-embryogenesis
#18
Becky Cheng, Nitin Kuppanda, John C Aldrich, Omar S Akbari, Patrick M Ferree
Numerous arthropods harbor maternally transmitted bacteria that induce the preferential death of males [1-7]. This sex-specific lethality benefits the bacteria because males are "dead ends" regarding bacterial transmission, and their absence may result in additional resources for their viable female siblings who can thereby more successfully transmit the bacteria [5]. Although these symbionts disrupt a range of developmental processes [8-10], the underlying cellular mechanisms are largely unknown. It was previously shown that mutations in genes of the dosage compensation pathway of Drosophila melanogaster suppressed male killing caused by the bacterium, Spiroplasma [10]...
May 23, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160600/antimicrobial-peptides-and-cell-processes-tracking-endosymbiont-dynamics
#19
REVIEW
Florent Masson, Anna Zaidman-Rémy, Abdelaziz Heddi
Many insects sustain long-term relationships with intracellular symbiotic bacteria that provide them with essential nutrients. Such endosymbiotic relationships likely emerged from ancestral infections of the host by free-living bacteria, the genomes of which experience drastic gene losses and rearrangements during the host-symbiont coevolution. While it is well documented that endosymbiont genome shrinkage results in the loss of bacterial virulence genes, whether and how the host immune system evolves towards the tolerance and control of bacterial partners remains elusive...
May 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160491/proteins-of-the-integumentary-system-of-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#20
André Fernando Ditondo Micas, Germano Aguiar Ferreira, Helen Julie Laure, José Cesar Rosa, Márcia Maria Gentile Bitondi
The integument of insects and other arthropods is composed of an inner basal lamina coated by the epidermis, which secretes the bulk of the outer integument layer, the cuticle. The genome sequencing of several insect species has allowed predicting classes of proteins integrating the cuticle. However, only a small proportion of them, as well as other proteins in the integumentary system, have been validated. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 45 different proteins in a total of 112 selected gel spots derived from thoracic integument samples of developing honeybee workers, including 14 cuticular proteins (AmelCPR 3, AmelCPR 12, AmelCPR 16, AmelCPR 27, apidermin 2, apidermin 3, endocuticle structural glycoprotein SgAbd-8-like, LOC100577363, LOC408365, LOC413679, LOC725454, LOC100576916, LOC725838, and peritrophin 3-C analogous)...
September 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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