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arthropod developmental genes

Peng-Lu Pan, Yu-Xuan Ye, Yi-Han Lou, Jia-Bao Lu, Chen Cheng, Yan Shen, Bernard Moussian, Chuan-Xi Zhang
Cuticle, mainly composed of chitin and cuticular proteins (CPs), is a multifunctional structure of arthropods. CPs usually account for >1% of the total insect proteins. Why does an insect encode so many different CP genes in the genome? In this study, we use comprehensive large-scale technologies to study the full complement of CPs (i.e., the CP-ome) of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens , a major rice plant pest. Eight CP families (CPR, CPF, TWDL, CPLCP, CPG, CPAP1, CPAP3, and CPAPn) including 140 proteins in BPH, in which CPAPn is a CP family that we discovered...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wai Hoong Chang, Alvina G Lai
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins represent a key group of transcription factors implicated in numerous eukaryotic developmental and signal transduction processes. Characterization of bHLHs from model species such as humans, fruit flies, nematodes and plants have yielded important information on their functions and evolutionary origin. However, relatively little is known about bHLHs in non-model organisms despite the availability of a vast number of high-throughput sequencing datasets, enabling previously intractable genome-wide and cross-species analyses to be now performed...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jordan D Poley, Laura M Braden, Amber M Messmer, Okechukwu O Igboeli, Shona K Whyte, Alicia Macdonald, Jose Rodriguez, Marta Gameiro, Lucien Rufener, Jacques Bouvier, Dorota W Wadowska, Ben F Koop, Barry C Hosking, Mark D Fast
Drug resistance in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a global issue for Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Multiple resistance has been described across most available compound classes with the exception of the benzoylureas. To target this gap in effective management of L. salmonis and other species of sea lice (e.g. Caligus spp.), Elanco Animal Health is developing an in-feed treatment containing lufenuron (a benzoylurea) to be administered prior to seawater transfer of salmon smolts and to provide long-term protection of salmon against sea lice infestations...
March 13, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Giovanni Benelli
The employment of nanoparticles obtained through various synthesis routes as novel pesticides recently attracted high research attention. An impressive number of studies have been conducted to test their toxic potential against a wide number of arthropod pests and vectors, with major emphasis on mosquitoes and ticks. However, precise information on the mechanisms of action of nanoparticles against insects and mites are limited, with the noteworthy exception of silica, alumina, silver, and graphene oxide nanoparticles on insects, while no information is available for mites...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yui Uchida, Masahiro Uesaka, Takayoshi Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Takeda, Naoki Irie
Background: Understanding the general trends in developmental changes during animal evolution, which are often associated with morphological diversification, has long been a central issue in evolutionary developmental biology. Recent comparative transcriptomic studies revealed that gene expression profiles of mid-embryonic period tend to be more evolutionarily conserved than those in earlier or later periods. While the hourglass-like divergence of developmental processes has been demonstrated in a variety of animal groups such as vertebrates, arthropods, and nematodes, the exact mechanism leading to this mid-embryonic conservation remains to be clarified...
2018: EvoDevo
Birgitte Nilsson, Benni Winding Hansen
Like 41 other calanoid copepods, Acartia tonsa, are capable of inducing embryonic quiescence when experiencing unfavorable environmental conditions. The ecdysone-signaling cascade is known to have a key function in developmental processes like embryogenesis and molting of arthropods, including copepods. We examined the role of ecdysteroid-phosphate phosphatase (EPPase), ecdysone receptor (EcR), ß fushi tarazu transcription factor 1 (ßFTZ-F1), and the ecdysteroid-regulated early gene E74 (E74), which represent different levels of the ecdysone-signaling cascade in our calanoid model organism...
2018: PloS One
Tomás Pais-de-Azevedo, Ramiro Magno, Isabel Duarte, Isabel Palmeirim
Segmentation is the partitioning of the body axis into a series of repeating units or segments. This widespread body plan is found in annelids, arthropods, and chordates, showing it to be a successful developmental strategy for growing and generating diverse morphology and anatomy. Segmentation has been extensively studied over the years. Forty years ago, Cooke and Zeeman published the Clock and Wavefront model, creating a theoretical framework of how developing cells could acquire and keep temporal and spatial information in order to generate a segmented pattern...
2018: F1000Research
Junbo Luan, Xuepeng Sun, Zhangjun Fei, Angela E Douglas
Bacteriocytes are insect cells harboring symbiotic bacteria that are required by their insect host and are transmitted vertically via the female ovary [1]. In most insect groups, the bacteria are released from the bacteriocytes and transferred to the ovary [2, 3], but in whiteflies, maternal bacteriocytes migrate to each egg [4-6], where they have been reported to lyse, releasing the symbionts [1]. To investigate bacteriocyte inheritance in whiteflies further, we applied microsatellite genotyping and genomic analysis to a genetically diverse population of Bemisia tabaci, and we observed the fate of the bacteriocyte in embryos...
February 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Tian Liu, Weixing Zhu, Jing Wang, Yong Zhou, Yanwei Duan, Mingbo Qu, Qing Yang
The glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases degrade or alter chitin. Multiple catalytic domains in a glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinase function synergistically during chitin degradation. Here, an insect group III chitinase from the agricultural pest Ostrinia furnacalis (OfChtIII) is revealed to be an arthropod-conserved chitinase that contains two nonsynergistic GH18 domains according to its catalytic properties. Both GH18 domains are active towards single-chained chitin substrates, but are inactive towards insoluble chitin substrates...
January 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
B Gschloessl, F Dorkeld, H Berges, G Beydon, O Bouchez, M Branco, A Bretaudeau, C Burban, E Dubois, P Gauthier, E Lhuillier, J Nichols, S Nidelet, S Rocha, L Sauné, R Streiff, M Gautier, C Kerdelhué
The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) is the main pine defoliator in the Mediterranean region. Its urticating larvae cause severe human and animal health concerns in the invaded areas. This species shows a high phenotypic variability for various traits, such as phenology, fecundity and tolerance to extreme temperatures. This study presents the construction and analysis of extensive genomic and transcriptomic resources, which are an obligate prerequisite to understand their underlying genetic architecture...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Zhe Qu, William G Bendena, Wenyan Nong, Kenneth W Siggens, Fernando G Noriega, Zhen-Peng Kai, Yang-Yang Zang, Alex C Koon, Ho Yin Edwin Chan, Ting Fung Chan, Ka Hou Chu, Hon Ming Lam, Michael Akam, Stephen S Tobe, Jerome Ho Lam Hui
Arthropods comprise the majority of all described animal species, and understanding their evolution is a central question in biology. Their developmental processes are under the precise control of distinct hormonal regulators, including the sesquiterpenoids juvenile hormone (JH) and methyl farnesoate. The control of the synthesis and mode of action of these hormones played important roles in the evolution of arthropods and their adaptation to diverse habitats. However, the precise roles of non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), controlling arthropod hormonal pathways are unknown...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Moises Zotti, Ericmar Avila Dos Santos, Deise Cagliari, Olivier Christiaens, Clauvis Nji Tizi Taning, Guy Smagghe
Scientists have made significant progress in understanding and unraveling several aspects of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing during the last two decades. Now that the RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism is well understood, it is time to consider how to apply the acquired knowledge to agriculture and crop protection. Some RNAi-based products are already available for farmers and more are expected to reach the market soon. Tailor-made dsRNA as an active ingredient for biopesticide formulations is considered a raw material that can be used for diverse purposes, from pest control and bee protection against viruses to pesticide resistance management...
November 30, 2017: Pest Management Science
Nathan I Morehouse, Elke K Buschbeck, Daniel B Zurek, Mireille Steck, Megan L Porter
Spiders are among the world's most species-rich animal lineages, and their visual systems are likewise highly diverse. These modular visual systems, composed of four pairs of image-forming "camera" eyes, have taken on a huge variety of forms, exhibiting variation in eye size, eye placement, image resolution, and field of view, as well as sensitivity to color, polarization, light levels, and motion cues. However, despite this conspicuous diversity, our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of these visual systems remains shallow...
August 2017: Biological Bulletin
Susanne Thümecke, Anke Beermann, Martin Klingler, Reinhard Schröder
BACKGROUND: Unlike Drosophila but similar to other arthropod and vertebrate embryos, the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum develops everted limb buds during embryogenesis. However, the molecular processes directing the evagination of epithelia are only poorly understood. RESULTS: Here we show that the newly discovered genes Tc-flipflop1 and Tc-flipflop2 are involved in regulating the directional budding of appendages. RNAi-knockdown of Tc-flipflop results in a variety of phenotypic traits...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
Markus Friedrich
Pax6 transcription factors are essential upstream regulators in the developing anterior brain and peripheral visual system of most bilaterian animals. While a single homolog is in charge of these functions in vertebrates, two Pax6 genes are in Drosophila: eyeless (ey) and twin of eyeless (toy). At first glance, their co-existence seems sufficiently explained by their differential involvement in the specification of two types of insect visual organs: the lateral compound eyes (ey) and the dorsal ocelli (toy)...
December 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
Sarah M Tweedt
The arthropod body plan is widely believed to have derived from an ancestral form resembling Cambrian-aged fossil lobopodians, and interpretations of morphological and molecular data have long favored this hypothesis. It is possible, however, that appendages and other morphologies observed in extinct and living panarthropods evolved independently. The key to distinguishing between morphological homology and homoplasy lies in the study of developmental gene regulatory networks (GRNs), and specifically, in determining the unique genetic circuits that construct characters...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Prashant P Sharma
The internal phylogeny of Chelicerata and the attendant evolutionary scenario of arachnid terrestrialization have a long and contentious history. Previous studies of developmental gene expression data have suggested that respiratory systems of spiders, crustaceans, and insects are all serially homologous structures derived from the epipods (outer appendage rami) of the arthropod ancestor, corresponding to an ancestral gill. A separate body of evidence has suggested that the respiratory systems of arachnids are modified, inverted telopods (inner rami, or legs)...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Erik Clark
Drosophila segmentation is a well-established paradigm for developmental pattern formation. However, the later stages of segment patterning, regulated by the "pair-rule" genes, are still not well understood at the system level. Building on established genetic interactions, I construct a logical model of the Drosophila pair-rule system that takes into account the demonstrated stage-specific architecture of the pair-rule gene network. Simulation of this model can accurately recapitulate the observed spatiotemporal expression of the pair-rule genes, but only when the system is provided with dynamic "gap" inputs...
September 2017: PLoS Biology
Chunying Gong, Wenhui Zeng, Tianyang Zhang, Rongpeng Liu, Yao Ou, Junwen Ai, Zhonghuai Xiang, Hanfu Xu
Diapause is a state of developmental arrest that is most often observed in arthropods, especially insects. The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a typical insect that enters diapause at an early embryonic stage. Previous studies have revealed that the diapause hormone (DH) signaling molecules, especially the core members DH and DH receptor 1 (DHR1), are crucial for the determination of embryonic diapause in diapause silkworm strains. However, whether they function in non-diapause silkworm strains remains largely unknown...
December 2017: Transgenic Research
Jan Hubert, Tomas Erban, Jan Kopecky, Bruno Sopko, Marta Nesvorna, Martina Lichovnikova, Sabine Schicht, Christina Strube, Olivier Sparagano
Blood feeding red poultry mites (RPM) serve as vectors of pathogenic bacteria and viruses among vertebrate hosts including wild birds, poultry hens, mammals, and humans. The microbiome of RPM has not yet been studied by high-throughput sequencing. RPM eggs, larvae, and engorged adult/nymph samples obtained in four poultry houses in Czechia were used for microbiome analyses by Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V4 region. A laboratory RPM population was used as positive control for transcriptome analysis by pyrosequencing with identification of sequences originating from bacteria...
November 2017: Microbial Ecology
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