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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453332/step-wise-evolution-of-complex-chemical-defenses-in-millipedes-a-phylogenomic-approach
#1
Juanita Rodriguez, Tappey H Jones, Petra Sierwald, Paul E Marek, William A Shear, Michael S Brewer, Kevin M Kocot, Jason E Bond
With fossil representatives from the Silurian capable of respiring atmospheric oxygen, millipedes are among the oldest terrestrial animals, and likely the first to acquire diverse and complex chemical defenses against predators. Exploring the origin of complex adaptive traits is critical for understanding the evolution of Earth's biological complexity, and chemical defense evolution serves as an ideal study system. The classic explanation for the evolution of complexity is by gradual increase from simple to complex, passing through intermediate "stepping stone" states...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445093/hydroxynitrile-lyases-from-cyanogenic-millipedes-molecular-cloning-heterologous-expression-and-whole-cell-biocatalysis-for-the-production-of-r-mandelonitrile
#2
Takuya Yamaguchi, Aem Nuylert, Atsutoshi Ina, Tsutomu Tanabe, Yasuhisa Asano
Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs), which are key enzymes in cyanogenesis, catalyze the cleavage of cyanohydrins into carbonyl compounds and hydrogen cyanide. Since HNLs also catalyze the reverse reaction, they are used industrially for the asymmetric synthesis of cyanohydrins, which are valuable building blocks of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. HNLs have been isolated from cyanogenic plants and bacteria. Recently, an HNL from the cyanogenic millipede Chamberlinius hualienensis was shown to have the highest specific activity for (R)-mandelonitrile synthesis, along with high stability and enantioselectivity...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355708/juvenile-hormone-and-sesquiterpenoids-in-arthropods-biosynthesis-signaling-and-role-of-microrna
#3
REVIEW
Zhe Qu, William G Bendena, Stephen S Tobe, Jerome H L Hui
Arthropod molting and reproduction are precisely controlled by the levels of sesquiterpenoids, a class of C15 hormones derived from three isoprene units. The two major functional arthropod sesquiterpenoids are juvenile hormone (JH) and methyl farnesoate (MF). In hemimetabolous insects (such as the aphids, bugs, and cockroaches) and holometabolous insects (such as beetles, bees, butterflies, and flies), dramatic decrease in the titers of JH and/or MF promote metamorphosis from larvae to adults either directly or through an intermediate pupal stage, respectively...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311682/phylogenomics-illuminates-the-backbone-of-the-myriapoda-tree-of-life-and-reconciles-morphological-and-molecular-phylogenies
#4
Rosa Fernández, Gregory D Edgecombe, Gonzalo Giribet
The interrelationships of the four classes of Myriapoda have been an unresolved question in arthropod phylogenetics and an example of conflict between morphology and molecules. Morphology and development provide compelling support for Diplopoda (millipedes) and Pauropoda being closest relatives, and moderate support for Symphyla being more closely related to the diplopod-pauropod group than any of them are to Chilopoda (centipedes). In contrast, several molecular datasets have contradicted the Diplopoda-Pauropoda grouping (named Dignatha), often recovering a Symphyla-Pauropoda group (named Edafopoda)...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285562/phenological-cues-intrinsic-in-indigenous-knowledge-systems-for-forecasting-seasonal-climate-in-the-delta-state-of-nigeria
#5
Jennifer M Fitchett, Eromose Ebhuoma
Shifts in the timing of phenological events in plants and animals are cited as one of the most robust bioindicators of climate change. Much effort has thus been placed on the collection of phenological datasets, the quantification of the rates of phenological shifts and the association of these shifts with recorded meteorological data. These outputs are of value both in tracking the severity of climate change and in facilitating more robust management approaches in forestry and agriculture to changing climatic conditions...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245581/a-new-genus-and-species-of-haplobainosomatidae-diplopoda-chordeumatida-from-the-mss-of-the-sierra-de-guadarrama-national-park-central-spain
#6
José D Gilgado, Enrique Ledesma, Henrik Enghoff, Jean-Paul Mauriès, Vicente M Ortuño
The chordeumatidan fauna of the Iberian Peninsula is far from being well known, but recent efforts are improving that knowledge. Samplings carried out in the Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (also known as the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum) on several screes of the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park (central Spain) have led to the discovery of a new species of chordeumatidan millipede. This new species belongs to the family Haplobainosomatidae, which is mainly known from the northern Iberian Peninsula, and thus this is the first record of the family in central Spain...
November 14, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245565/the-south-asian-millipede-genus-i-chondromorpha-i-silvestri-1897-diplopoda-polydesmida-paradoxosomatidae-sulciferini-redescriptions-and-synonymies
#7
Pradeep M Sankaran, Pothalil A Sebastian
The South Asian millipede genus Chondromorpha Silvestri, 1897 is diagnosed and its relationship with Parchondromorpha Jeekel, 1980 is established. The species C. atopus (Chamberlin, 1920) and C. indus (Chamberlin, 1920), as well as the subspecies C. kelaarti kelaarti (Humbert, 1865), C. kelaarti longipes (Verhoeff, 1936) and C. kelaarti valparaiensis (Carl, 1932) are recognised as junior synonyms of C. kelaarti (Humbert, 1865), thereby reducing the total number of Chondromorpha spp. in India to four: C. kaimura Turk, 1947, C...
November 16, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245563/a-checklist-of-the-millipedes-diplopoda-of-myanmar-with-an-updated-list-of-leonardo-fea-s-collecting-localities
#8
Natdanai Likhitrakarn, Parin Jirapatrasilp, Sergei I Golovatch, Somsak Panha
At present, the millipede fauna of Myanmar comprises 92 species from 34 genera, 13 families and 8 orders, mostly described in 1889-1896. All literature records are cited with updates on species identities, as well as numerous taxonomic problems which make the number of species and even genera still imprecise. The Myanmar millipede fauna contains 70 endemic and five widespread synanthropic species. One species is found to have erroneously been recorded from Myanmar, and is ejected from the list of Myanmar millipedes also because of its uncertain taxonomic status...
November 16, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243929/the-chemistry-of-some-dalodesmidean-millipedes-from-tasmania-diplopoda-polydesmida
#9
Tappey H Jones, Dylan M Guthrie, Conor T Hogan, Donovan J Robinson, Robert Mesibov, William A Shear, Thomas F Spande, Ralph A Saporito
Millipedes (Diplopoda) are well known for their toxic or repellent defensive secretions. As part of a larger investigation, we describe the chemical constituents of 14 species of Tasmanian millipedes in seven genera. Six species in the genus Gasterogramma were found to produce acyclic ketones, including the pungent unsaturated ketones 1, 2, and 6, and the novel (rel-3R,5S,7S)-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,8-decanedione (7b), for which the stereoconfiguration was established by stereoselective syntheses of pairs of isomers...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242457/the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-korean-endemic-millipede-i-anaulaciulus-i-i-koreanus-i-verhoeff-1937-with-notes-on-the-gene-arrangement-of-millipede-orders
#10
Hyung Jik Woo, Anh D Nguyen, Kuem Hee Jang, Eun Hwa Choi, Shi Hyun Ryu, Ui Wook Hwang
The millipede Anaulaciulus koreanus (Verhoeff, 1937), belonging to the family Julidae, is an endemic species of the Korean fauna. In this study, we sequence and annotate the mitochondrial genome of A. koreanus. The complete mitochondrial genome of this species is 14,916 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes (16S and 12S rRNA), and a large non-coding region. The genome has a very high A+T content (71.1%), less than of the species Brachycybe lecontii Wood, 1864 (order Platydesmida; 76...
October 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199046/-open-access-growth-histories-in-millipedes-diplopoda
#11
Henrik Enghoff, Laura Mark Jensen, Elena V Mikhaljova
A unique pattern of missing defence glands on certain body rings is described for two species of the millipede family Mongoliulidae, order Julida: Ussuriiulus pilifer Golovatch, 1980, and Koiulus interruptus Enghoff et al., 2017. Based on the patterns of missing glands observed in recently collected samples of the two species, numbers of podous and apodous body rings in successive stadia of the postembryonic development can be inferred for each individual millipede, which in turn allows the reconstruction of pathways of anamorphosis in these species...
November 30, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187786/three-new-cavernicolous-species-of-the-millipede-genus-trichopeltis-pocock-1894-from-southern-china-diplopoda-polydesmida-cryptodesmidae
#12
Weixin Liu, Sergei Golovatch, Mingyi Tian
Three new species of Trichopeltis are described from caves in southern China: T. bellussp. n., T. intricatussp. n., and T. reflexussp. n., all presumed troglobites. The former two come from Yunnan Province, the latter one from Hunan Province. An updated key to all eleven currently known species of Trichopeltis is provided.
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118632/the-millipede-genus-stemmiulus-gervais-1844-in-cameroon-with-descriptions-of-three-new-species-diplopoda-stemmiulida-stemmiulidae
#13
Armand Richard Nzoko Fiemapong, Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse, Joseph Lebel Tamesse, Sergei Ilyich Golovatch, Didier VandenSpiegel
The large pantropical millipede genus Stemmiulus, which currently encompasses more than 150 species, i.e. the bulk of the species diversity of the family Stemmiulidae and entire order Stemmiulida, is shown to comprise seven species in Cameroon, including three new ones: S. ongot Nzoko Fiemapong & VandenSpiegel, sp. n., S. uncus Nzoko Fiemapong & VandenSpiegel, sp. n., and S. mbalmayoensis Nzoko Fiemapong & VandenSpiegel, sp. n. In addition, S. beroni Mauriès, 1989, previously known only from the type locality in Nigeria, is recorded from Cameroon for the first time, also being redescribed based on new samples...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093459/nigritoxin-is-a-bacterial-toxin-for-crustaceans-and-insects
#14
Yannick Labreuche, Sabine Chenivesse, Alexandra Jeudy, Sophie Le Panse, Viviane Boulo, Dominique Ansquer, Sylvie Pagès, Alain Givaudan, Mirjam Czjzek, Frédérique Le Roux
The Tetraconata (Pancrustacea) concept proposes that insects are more closely related to aquatic crustaceans than to terrestrial centipedes or millipedes. The question therefore arises whether insects have kept crustacean-specific genetic traits that could be targeted by specific toxins. Here we show that a toxin (nigritoxin), originally identified in a bacterial pathogen of shrimp, is lethal for organisms within the Tetraconata and non-toxic to other animals. X-ray crystallography reveals that nigritoxin possesses a new protein fold of the α/β type...
November 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063129/accumulation-of-methylmercury-in-invertebrates-and-masked-shrews-sorex-cinereus-at-an-upland-forest-peatland-interface-in-northern-minnesota-usa
#15
Ilana Tavshunsky, Susan L Eggert, Carl P J Mitchell
Mercury (Hg) methylation is often elevated at the terrestrial-peatland interface, but methylmercury (MeHg) production at this "hot spot" has not been linked with in situ biotic accumulation. We examined total Hg and MeHg levels in peat, invertebrates and tissues of the insectivore Sorex cinereus (masked shrew), inhabiting a terrestrial-peatland ecotone in northern Minnesota, USA. Mean MeHg concentrations in S. cinereus (71 ng g(-1)) fell between concentrations measured in spiders (mean 70-140 ng g(-1)), and ground beetles and millipedes (mean 29-42 ng g(-1))...
October 23, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045654/crop-seedling-susceptibility-to-armadillidium-vulgare-isopoda-armadillidiidae-and-ommatoiulus-moreletii-diplopoda-iulidae
#16
Josh Douglas, Sarina Macfadyen, Ary Hoffmann, Paul Umina
The isopod, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae), and the millipede, Ommatoiulus moreletii (Lucas) (Diplopoda: Iulidae), are increasingly being reported as pests of emerging broadacre crop seedlings in southern Australia. This is thought to be due to the increased adoption of stubble retention practices, leading to increased abundance of these soil-dwelling organisms. Here, we evaluate the propensity of A. vulgare and O. moreletii to damage a range of crop seedlings. Through the combined analysis of a controlled feeding trial and field reports, we show A...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038750/is-geography-an-accurate-predictor-of-evolutionary-history-in-the-millipede-family-xystodesmidae
#17
Jackson C Means, Paul E Marek
For the past several centuries, millipede taxonomists have used the morphology of male copulatory structures (modified legs called gonopods), which are strongly variable and suggestive of species-level differences, as a source to understand taxon relationships. Millipedes in the family Xystodesmidae are blind, dispersal-limited and have narrow habitat requirements. Therefore, geographical proximity may instead be a better predictor of evolutionary relationship than morphology, especially since gonopodal anatomy is extremely divergent and similarities may be masked by evolutionary convergence...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989297/new-records-for-millipedes-from-southern-chile-polydesmida-dalodesmidae-polyzoniida-siphonotidae
#18
Robert Evan Mesibov
BACKGROUND: Millipedes from 1983 collections by the author in southern Chile have been identified and registered as specimen lots at the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery (QVMAG) in Launceston, Tasmania. NEW INFORMATION: Collection and specimen data from the new QVMAG specimen lots have been archived in Darwin Core format together with a KML file of occurrences. The 31 occurrence records in the Darwin Core Archive list 13 millipede taxa from 16 sites in Llanquihue and Osorno provinces, Chile...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949046/invertebrate-community-response-to-coarse-woody-debris-removal-for-bioenergy-production-from-intensively-managed-forests
#19
Steven M Grodsky, Christopher E Moorman, Sarah R Fritts, Joshua W Campbell, Clyde E Sorenson, Matthew A Bertone, Steven B Castleberry, T Bently Wigley
Increased market viability of harvest residues as forest bioenergy feedstock may escalate removal of coarse woody debris in managed forests. Meanwhile, many forest invertebrates use coarse woody debris for cover, food, and reproduction. Few studies have explicitly addressed effects of operational-scale woody biomass harvesting on invertebrates following clearcutting. Therefore, we measured invertebrate community response to large-scale harvest residue removal and micro-site manipulations of harvest residue availability in recently clearcut, intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in North Carolina (NC; n = 4) and Georgia (GA; n = 4), USA...
September 26, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803979/the-first-entomophthoralean-killing-millipedes-arthrophaga-myriapodina-n-gen-n-sp-causes-climbing-before-host-death
#20
Kathie T Hodge, Ann E Hajek, Andrii Gryganskyi
A new species and genus of entomophthoralean fungus, Arthrophaga myriapodina kills polydesmid millipedes. This species was first seen over a century ago but never described. It is the first millipede pathogen known from the order Entomophthorales, species of which are best known as pathogens of a wide diversity of insects. The fungus induces pre-death climbing behavior in its hosts, enabling the fungus to broadcast its forcibly-discharged conidia from a high vantage, which presumably increases the fitness of the fungus...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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