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Jonas O Wolff, Michael Seiter, Stanislav N Gorb
The cuticle of arthropods is usually composed of layers of a chitin-protein-microcomposite, a proteinacous epicuticle and a thin lipid coating. However, in some instances a thick cement layer (cerotegument) covers the cuticle and may produce elaborate microstructures. This has previously been described for millipedes and mites. Here we report the previously unknown presence of a superhydrophobic cerotegument in whip-spiders (Ambypygi) and reveal its variation in ultrastructure and water-repellence between species...
October 14, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
E Amstad, M Chemama, M Eggersdorfer, L R Arriaga, M P Brenner, D A Weitz
Monodisperse drops with diameters between 20 μm and 200 μm can be used to produce particles or capsules for many applications such as for cosmetics, food, and biotechnology. Drops composed of low viscosity fluids can be conveniently made using microfluidic devices. However, the throughput of microfluidic devices is limited and scale-up, achieved by increasing the number of devices run in parallel, can compromise the narrow drop-size distribution. In this paper, we present a microfluidic device, the millipede device, which forms drops through a static instability such that the fluid volume that is pinched off is the same every time a drop forms...
October 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Ruttapon Srisonchai, Henrik Enghoff, Natdanai Likhitrakarn, Somsak Panha
Four new dragon millipede species of the genus Desmoxytes from northern Thailand are described and illustrated: D. des sp. n. from Chiang Mai Province, D. breviverpa sp. n. from Phrae Province, D. takensis sp. n. from Tak Province and      D. pinnasquali sp. n. from Phitsanulok Province. The new species were compared with type specimens of closely related species and were all found to exhibit explicit morphological differences from these. They can be distinguished from other members of Desmoxytes by the shape of the gonopods, the sternal process between male coxae 4, the pattern of spines or tubercles on the metaterga, and the shape of the paraterga...
September 22, 2016: Zootaxa
Chongxi Liu, Lan Ye, Yao Li, Shanwen Jiang, Hui Liu, Kai Yan, Wensheng Xiang, Xiangjing Wang
A phoslactomycins-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-ML8T, was isolated from a millipede (Kronopolites svenhedind Verhoeff) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NEAU-ML8T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces lydicus NBRC 13058T (99.39 %) and Streptomyces chattanoogensis DSM 40002T (99.25 %). The maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with S...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Vanessa Jag, Anja Poehlein, Frank R Bengelsdorf, Rolf Daniel, Peter Dürre
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Oerskovia enterophila DFA-19 (DSM 43852(T)), a facultative anaerobe soil bacterium, which was originally isolated from millipede feces and first described as Promicromonospora enterophila The genome consists of a circular chromosome comprising approximately 4.65 Mb and 4,044 predicted protein-encoding genes.
2016: Genome Announcements
Thomas Wesener, Cathrin Conrad
Local endemic species with their unique evolutionary history always stirred the interest of scientists. One such area especially rich in endemics is northern Italy. In case of pill millipedes of the genus Glomeris Latreille, 1803, only a single species is found in northern Europe, while 22 country-endemics alone are known from Italy. Many of these endemics, however, have not been studied in several decades; therefore we aimed to determine whether this diversity is the result of overlooked synonymies or natural processes...
2016: PloS One
James B Nardi, Charles M Bee, Steven J Taylor
The gut lumen of the arthropod detritivore provides hospitable and multifaceted environments for diverse assemblages of microbes. Many microbes, including trichomycetes fungi, bacteria, and archaea establish stable, adherent communities on the cuticular surface secreted by the hindgut epithelium. Regional differences in the surface topography within the hindgut of a given millipede are reflected in differing and diverse microbial assemblages. The spirostreptid millipede Cambala speobia is a detritivore found on the floors of Texas caves...
September 13, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Anh D Nguyen, Kuem-Hee Jang, Ui-Wook Hwang
This paper describes a new species of the millipede genus Streptogonopus Attems, 1914, Streptogonopus montanus sp. n. from Vietnam, the first record of Streptogonopus in Vietnam. The new species is characterised by the solenophore completely sheathing the solenomere, both coiled twice, and the solenophore with a small spine at its middle. The species was found at ca. 1,800-2,100 m on Ngoc Linh Mountain. This first record for the genus in the Indochina peninsula has expanded its distributional range to the easternmost part of Southeast Asian mainland...
2016: ZooKeys
Mary C Christman, Daniel H Doctor, Matthew L Niemiller, David J Weary, John A Young, Kirk S Zigler, David C Culver
One of the most challenging fauna to study in situ is the obligate cave fauna because of the difficulty of sampling. Cave-limited species display patchy and restricted distributions, but it is often unclear whether the observed distribution is a sampling artifact or a true restriction in range. Further, the drivers of the distribution could be local environmental conditions, such as cave humidity, or they could be associated with surface features that are surrogates for cave conditions. If surface features can be used to predict the distribution of important cave taxa, then conservation management is more easily obtained...
2016: PloS One
Anh D Nguyen, Sergei I Golovatch
The genus Enghoffosoma is recorded from Vietnam for the first time, altogether with six species involved. Two species, E. lanceolatum Likhitrakarn et al., 2014 and E. anchoriforme Likhitrakarn et al., 2014, were previously known only from the western part of Laos, thus being new to the fauna of Vietnam. One more species, Sundanina fedorenkoi Golovatch, 2016, very recently described from Dak Lak Province, southern Vietnam, is formally transferred to Enghoffosoma, comb. nov., based both on a strict topotype and a sample from Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam...
2016: Zootaxa
C L Parr, P Eggleton, A B Davies, T A Evans, S Holdsworth
In almost every ecosystem, ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are the dominant terrestrial invertebrate group. Their functional value was highlighted by Wilson (1987) who famously declared that invertebrates are the "little things that run the world." However, while it is generally accepted that ants fulfil important functions, few studies have tested these assumptions and demonstrated what happens in their absence. We report on a novel large-scale field experiment in undisturbed savanna habitat where we examined how ants influence the abundance of other invertebrate taxa in the system, and affect the key processes of decomposition and herbivory...
June 2016: Ecology
C Moreira-de-Sousa, M Iamonte, C S Fontanetti
Diplopods are considered important macroarthropods the soil as part of its maintenance and balance. These animals usually do not occur in high densities, but population explosions caused by environmental disturbances, climate changes, and use of pesticides that eliminate possible competitors, have been reported. The millipede Urostreptus atrobrunneus Pierozzi and Fontanetti, 2006 have become a nuisance to humans in infestation sites in urban centers of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. As a contribution to the understanding of this potential pest, this study describes the histology, histochemistry, and ultrastructure of the U...
July 11, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Didier VandenSpiegel, Sergei I Golovatch, Jean-Paul Mauriès
The genus Diaphorodesmus is revised and shown to comprise only a single species, Diaphorodesmus dorsicornis (Porat, 1894) by priority, with the only other formal congener, Diaphorodesmus attemsii Verhoeff, 1938, considered as its junior subjective synonym, syn. n. A new monotypic genus, Diaphorodesmoides gen. n., is created to include Diaphorodesmoides lamottei sp. n., from southwestern Cameroon. Both these genera seem to be especially similar in sharing remarkable dorsal horns on metaterga 2-4, a unique synapomorphy in the basically Afrotropical subfamily Prepodesminae, family Chelodesmidae, to which they belong...
2016: ZooKeys
William A Shear
The unusual millipede Cylichnogaster lawrencei Verhoeff, 1937 (Diplopoda, Polyzoniida, Siphonotidae) is redescribed from newly collected specimens. Species of Cylichnogaster are the only known colobognathan millipedes capable of volvation, and are also distinguished by their small size and low segment number. Taxonomic notes are provided on the poorly known family Siphonotidae.
2016: Zootaxa
Sergei I Golovatch, Thomas Wesener
At present, the millipede fauna of India comprises over 270 nominate species or subspecies in at least 90 genera, 25 families and 11 orders. As complete a catalogue as possible is compiled of all species or subspecies of Diplopoda formally reported from India, some of which remain dubious. Additionally, a checklist is also compiled of millipedes that have erroneously been recorded in India. Given also several literature lacunae, as well as numerous taxonomic problems, the number of species and even genera cannot be claimed precise...
2016: Zootaxa
H K S De Zoysa, Anh D Nguyen, S Wickramasinghe
This review lists the currently known species of millepedes in Sri Lanka and discusses their current taxonomic status and distribution based on previous studies from 1865 to date. A total of 104 millipede species belonging to 44 genera, 18 families and nine orders have been recorded in Sri Lanka. Of these, 82 are known only from Sri Lanka; additionally, nine genera and one family are known only from Sri Lanka. Most of the millipede species have been recorded from two localities, namely Pundaluoya and Kandy in the central highlands of Sri Lanka...
2016: Zootaxa
Anh D Nguyen
A survey in Cuc Phuong National Park has revealed the first record of a xystodesmid millipede in Vietnam and also the southernmost locality for the family in Asia. A new genus and species, Parariukiaria cucfuongensis gen. nov, sp. nov. is proposed and described. In addition, three former Riukiaria species from Sichuan Province (China) are reallocated to the new genus, Parariukiaria belousovi (Golovatch, 2014) comb. nov., P. korolevi (Golovatch, 2014) comb. nov., P. kabaki (Golovatch, 2014) comb. nov.. A key to species of the new genus is also provided...
2016: Zootaxa
Sergei Golovatch, Aleksandr Evsyukov, Hans Reip
The family Polydesmidae is represented in the Caucasus by two genera and 11 species: Polydesmus abchasius Attems, 1898, P. lignaui Lohmander, 1936, P. muralewiczi Lohmander, 1936 and P. mediterraneus Daday, 1889 (all confined to the NW and W Caucasus, but of which only the former three are endemic to the region, whereas the latter species is an introduction), as well as Brachydesmus assimilis Lohmander, 1936 (endemic to most of the region, except Hyrcania), B. pigmentatus Attems, 1951 (= B. pereliae Golovatch, 1976, syn...
2016: Zootaxa
J Judson Wynne, William A Shear
Austrotyla awishoshola n. sp. is described from the moss gardens of one lava tube cave in El Malpais National Monument, Cibola Co., New Mexico. Most chordeumatidans require mesic conditions, and these environments are limited to moss gardens in several cave entrances and beneath cave skylights in El Malpais. Presently, this species is known from the moss gardens of a single of cave in the monument. We suggest A. awishoshola may be a climatic relict, having become restricted to the cave environment following the end of the Pleistocene...
2016: Zootaxa
James B Nardi, Lou Ann Miller, Charles M Bee
Nutrients absorbed by the epithelial cells of the millipede midgut are channeled to a contiguous population of hepatic cells where sugars are stored as glycogen. In insects and other arthropods, however, nutrients absorbed by midgut epithelia are first passed across the epithelial basal surface to the hemolymph before storage in fat body. The inter-digitation of cellular processes at the interface of hepatic and midgut epithelial cells offers a vast surface area for exchange of nutrients. At this interface, numerous small vesicles with the dimensions of exosomes (∼30nm) may represent the mediators of nutrient exchange...
August 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
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