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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907048/chemical-defence-in-a-millipede-evaluation-and-characterization-of-antimicrobial-activity-of-the-defensive-secretion-from-pachyiulus-hungaricus-karsch-1881-diplopoda-julida-julidae
#1
Slaviša Stanković, Ivica Dimkić, Ljubodrag Vujisić, Sofija Pavković-Lučić, Zvezdana Jovanović, Tatjana Stević, Ivana Sofrenić, Bojan Mitić, Vladimir Tomić
The chemical defence of the millipede Pachyiulus hungaricus is reported in the present paper, in which a chemical characterization is given and antimicrobial activity is determined. In total, independently of sex, 44 compounds were identified. All compounds belong to two groups: quinones and pentyl and hexyl esters of long-chain fatty acids. The relative abundances of quinones and non-quinones were 94.7% vs. 5.3% (males) and 87.3% vs. 12.7% (females), respectively. The two dominant quinones in both sexes were 2-methyl-1,4,-benzoquinone and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898188/modern-approaches-to-discovering-new-hydroxynitrile-lyases-for-biocatalysis
#2
REVIEW
Santosh Kumar Padhi
Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) have grown in importance from laboratory to industry due to their potential to catalyze stereoselective C-C bond-formation reactions in the synthesis of several chiral intermediates, such as enantiopure α-cyanohydrins, β-nitro alcohols, and their derivatives with multiple functional groups. With these wide applications, the demand for finding new HNLs has increased, and this has led to exploration not only of new HNLs but also of new ways to discover them. An exclusive review article on HNLs by Asano et al...
November 29, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861770/termites-promote-resistance-of-decomposition-to-spatiotemporal-variability-in-rainfall
#3
Michiel P Veldhuis, Francisco J Laso, Han Olff, Matty P Berg
The ecological impact of rapid environmental change will depend on the resistance of key ecosystems processes, which may be promoted by species that exert strong control over local environmental conditions. Recent theoretical work suggests that macrodetritivores increase the resistance of African savanna ecosystems to changing climatic conditions, but experimental evidence is lacking. We examined the effect of large fungus-growing termites and other non-fungus-growing macrodetritivores on decomposition rates empirically with strong spatiotemporal variability in rainfall and temperature...
November 16, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833431/a-new-species-of-illacme-cook-loomis-1928-from-sequoia-national-park-california-with-a-world-catalog-of-the-siphonorhinidae-diplopoda-siphonophorida
#4
Paul E Marek, Jean K Krejca, William A Shear
Members of the family Siphonorhinidae Cook, 1895 are thread-like eyeless millipedes that possess an astounding number of legs, including one individual with 750. Due to their cryptic lifestyle, rarity in natural history collections, and sporadic study over the last century, the family has an unclear phylogenetic placement, and intrafamilial relationships remain unknown. Here we report the discovery of a second species of Illacme, a millipede genus notable for possessing the greatest number of legs of any known animal on the planet...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811722/hungarosoma-bokori-verhoeff-1928-diplopoda-chordeumatida-new-insights-into-its-taxonomy-systematics-molecular-genetics-biogeography-and-ecology
#5
Andrej Mock, Karel Tajovský, Martina Žurovcová, Andrea Jarošová, Pavel Kocourek, Jürgen Gruber, Dorottya Angyal, Jörg Spelda
Hungarosoma bokori Verhoeff, 1928 is a millipede species which was originally classified solely on the basis of a female specimen. Subsequently, a long history of field searching for and surmising about the systematic position of this small, enigmatic species followed. In April 2013, 85 years after its first description, a series of nine specimens were sampled in the type locality, the Abaliget Cave, in southern Hungary. An adult male was collected for the first time, along with females and juveniles. Descriptions of the gonopods and the female vulvae, both important for considerations of the systematic position of the species, are presented for the first time...
October 24, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811714/a-millipede-missing-link-dobrodesmidae-a-remarkable-new-polydesmidan-br-millipede-family-from-brazil-with-supernumerary-rings-diplopoda-polydesmida-and-the-establishment-of-a-new-suborder-dobrodesmidea
#6
William A Shear, Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira, Luiz Felipe Moretti Iniesta, Paul Marek
Dobrodesmus mirabilis n. gen., n. sp. is described from a limestone cave in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is unique among millipedes of the order Polydesmida in having 39+t rings in adult males, two rather than four spinnerets, and in its highly plesiomorphic gonopods, which resemble those of basal members of the orders Callipodida and Stemmiulida. The presence of 39 rings is notable because members of the Polydesmida, the most species rich order of millipedes (>5000 spp.) normally stop development at 19+t rings...
October 25, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811697/a-new-species-of-pelecium-kirby-coleoptera-carabidae-peleciini-from-the-atlantic-forest-biome-brazil
#7
Artur Orsetti, Cristiano Lopes-Andrade
Pelecium Kirby is the most diverse Peleciini genus, with 33 species shared between two subgenera: Pelecidium Straneo & Ball, which comprises three species, and Pelecium, with the remaining 30 species (Straneo & Ball 1989). They occur from Panama to middle Argentina, and adults are nocturnal and prey upon millipedes (Martinez 2005). Larvae have parasitoids habits and millipedes are their main preys. There are also records of Pelecium larvae devouring immature beetles (Salt 1928). Our aim in this study is to describe Pelecium igneus sp...
October 28, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811659/redescription-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-type-species-of-the-giant-pill-millipede-genus-sphaeropoeus-brandt-1833-diplopoda-sphaerotheriida-zephroniidae
#8
Thomas Wesener
Sphaeropoeus hercules Brandt, 1833, the type species of one of the oldest genus names in Sphaerotheriida, is redescribed for the first time based on its fragmented type specimen. While damaged, the specimen shows characters clearly different from other, diverse and similar genera of the family Zephroniidae, such as Zephronia Gray, 1832 and Castanotherium Pocock, 1895. S. hercules has a record number of >180 apical cones on the antennae, more than any other millipede. The species, together with another species of the genus Castanotherium, C...
November 2, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795281/draft-genome-sequences-of-chryseobacterium-artocarpi-utm-3t-and-chryseobacterium-contaminans-c26t-isolated-from-rhizospheres-and-chryseobacterium-arthrosphaerae-cc-vm-7t-isolated-from-the-feces-of-a-pill-millipede
#9
Jin-Ju Jeong, Byeonghyeok Park, Ji Yeon Oh, Mohamed Mannaa, Yoo Jun Kim, Jeum Kyu Hong, In-Geol Choi, Ki Deok Kim
Species of the genus Chryseobacterium belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae are nonmotile, yellow-pigmented, and rod-shaped bacteria, some of which were frequently isolated from soil or plant-related materials. Here, we present draft genome sequences of three type strains of Chryseobacterium, which contain genes related to plant growth promotion, colonization, or stress adaptation.
October 20, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751783/the-water-repellent-cerotegument-of-whip-spider-arachnida-amblypygi
#10
Jonas O Wolff, Michael Seiter, Stanislav N Gorb
The cuticle of arthropods is usually composed of layers of a chitin-protein-microcomposite, a proteinacous epicuticle and a thin lipid coating. However, in some instances a thick cement layer (cerotegument) covers the cuticle and may produce elaborate microstructures. This has previously been described for millipedes and mites. Here we report the previously unknown presence of a superhydrophobic cerotegument in whip-spiders (Ambypygi) and reveal its variation in ultrastructure and water-repellence between species...
October 14, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714028/robust-scalable-high-throughput-production-of-monodisperse-drops
#11
E Amstad, M Chemama, M Eggersdorfer, L R Arriaga, M P Brenner, D A Weitz
Monodisperse drops with diameters between 20 μm and 200 μm can be used to produce particles or capsules for many applications such as for cosmetics, food, and biotechnology. Drops composed of low viscosity fluids can be conveniently made using microfluidic devices. However, the throughput of microfluidic devices is limited and scale-up, achieved by increasing the number of devices run in parallel, can compromise the narrow drop-size distribution. In this paper, we present a microfluidic device, the millipede device, which forms drops through a static instability such that the fluid volume that is pinched off is the same every time a drop forms...
October 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701275/four-colorful-new-species-of-dragon-millipedes-genus-desmoxytes-chamberlin-1923-from-northern-thailand-diplopoda-polydesmida-paradoxosomatidae
#12
Ruttapon Srisonchai, Henrik Enghoff, Natdanai Likhitrakarn, Somsak Panha
Four new dragon millipede species of the genus Desmoxytes from northern Thailand are described and illustrated: D. des sp. n. from Chiang Mai Province, D. breviverpa sp. n. from Phrae Province, D. takensis sp. n. from Tak Province and      D. pinnasquali sp. n. from Phitsanulok Province. The new species were compared with type specimens of closely related species and were all found to exhibit explicit morphological differences from these. They can be distinguished from other members of Desmoxytes by the shape of the gonopods, the sternal process between male coxae 4, the pattern of spines or tubercles on the metaterga, and the shape of the paraterga...
September 22, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670691/streptomyces-kronopolitis-sp-nov-a-novel-actinomycete-that-produces-phoslactomycins-isolated-from-a-millipede-kronopolites-svenhedind-verhoeff
#13
Chongxi Liu, Lan Ye, Yao Li, Shanwen Jiang, Hui Liu, Kai Yan, Wensheng Xiang, Xiangjing Wang
A phoslactomycins-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-ML8T, was isolated from a millipede (Kronopolites svenhedind Verhoeff) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NEAU-ML8T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces lydicus NBRC 13058T (99.39 %) and Streptomyces chattanoogensis DSM 40002T (99.25 %). The maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with S...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634998/genome-sequence-of-the-facultative-anaerobe-oerskovia-enterophila-dfa-19-dsm-43852t
#14
Vanessa Jag, Anja Poehlein, Frank R Bengelsdorf, Rolf Daniel, Peter Dürre
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Oerskovia enterophila DFA-19 (DSM 43852(T)), a facultative anaerobe soil bacterium, which was originally isolated from millipede feces and first described as Promicromonospora enterophila The genome consists of a circular chromosome comprising approximately 4.65 Mb and 4,044 predicted protein-encoding genes.
2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632210/local-hotspots-of-endemism-or-artifacts-of-incorrect-taxonomy-the-status-of-microendemic-pill-millipede-species-of-the-genus-glomeris-in-northern-italy-diplopoda-glomerida
#15
Thomas Wesener, Cathrin Conrad
Local endemic species with their unique evolutionary history always stirred the interest of scientists. One such area especially rich in endemics is northern Italy. In case of pill millipedes of the genus Glomeris Latreille, 1803, only a single species is found in northern Europe, while 22 country-endemics alone are known from Italy. Many of these endemics, however, have not been studied in several decades; therefore we aimed to determine whether this diversity is the result of overlooked synonymies or natural processes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597263/compartmentalization-of-microbial-communities-that-inhabit-the-hindguts-of-millipedes
#16
James B Nardi, Charles M Bee, Steven J Taylor
The gut lumen of the arthropod detritivore provides hospitable and multifaceted environments for diverse assemblages of microbes. Many microbes, including trichomycetes fungi, bacteria, and archaea establish stable, adherent communities on the cuticular surface secreted by the hindgut epithelium. Regional differences in the surface topography within the hindgut of a given millipede are reflected in differing and diverse microbial assemblages. The spirostreptid millipede Cambala speobia is a detritivore found on the floors of Texas caves...
September 13, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551190/the-first-record-of-the-millipede-genus-streptogonopus-attems-1914-from-vietnam-with-description-of-a-new-species-diplopoda-polydesmida-paradoxosomatidae
#17
Anh D Nguyen, Kuem-Hee Jang, Ui-Wook Hwang
This paper describes a new species of the millipede genus Streptogonopus Attems, 1914, Streptogonopus montanus sp. n. from Vietnam, the first record of Streptogonopus in Vietnam. The new species is characterised by the solenophore completely sheathing the solenomere, both coiled twice, and the solenophore with a small spine at its middle. The species was found at ca. 1,800-2,100 m on Ngoc Linh Mountain. This first record for the genus in the Indochina peninsula has expanded its distributional range to the easternmost part of Southeast Asian mainland...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532611/predicting-the-occurrence-of-cave-inhabiting-fauna-based-on-features-of-the-earth-surface-environment
#18
Mary C Christman, Daniel H Doctor, Matthew L Niemiller, David J Weary, John A Young, Kirk S Zigler, David C Culver
One of the most challenging fauna to study in situ is the obligate cave fauna because of the difficulty of sampling. Cave-limited species display patchy and restricted distributions, but it is often unclear whether the observed distribution is a sampling artifact or a true restriction in range. Further, the drivers of the distribution could be local environmental conditions, such as cave humidity, or they could be associated with surface features that are surrogates for cave conditions. If surface features can be used to predict the distribution of important cave taxa, then conservation management is more easily obtained...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470795/the-millipede-genus-enghoffosoma-golovatch-1993-recorded-in-vietnam-br-for-the-first-time-with-descriptions-of-three-new-species-diplopoda-polydesmida-paradoxosomatidae
#19
Anh D Nguyen, Sergei I Golovatch
The genus Enghoffosoma is recorded from Vietnam for the first time, altogether with six species involved. Two species, E. lanceolatum Likhitrakarn et al., 2014 and E. anchoriforme Likhitrakarn et al., 2014, were previously known only from the western part of Laos, thus being new to the fauna of Vietnam. One more species, Sundanina fedorenkoi Golovatch, 2016, very recently described from Dak Lak Province, southern Vietnam, is formally transferred to Enghoffosoma, comb. nov., based both on a strict topotype and a sample from Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam...
2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459790/suppression-of-savanna-ants-alters-invertebrate-composition-and-influences-key-ecosystem-processes
#20
C L Parr, P Eggleton, A B Davies, T A Evans, S Holdsworth
In almost every ecosystem, ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are the dominant terrestrial invertebrate group. Their functional value was highlighted by Wilson (1987) who famously declared that invertebrates are the "little things that run the world." However, while it is generally accepted that ants fulfil important functions, few studies have tested these assumptions and demonstrated what happens in their absence. We report on a novel large-scale field experiment in undisturbed savanna habitat where we examined how ants influence the abundance of other invertebrate taxa in the system, and affect the key processes of decomposition and herbivory...
June 2016: Ecology
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