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Henrik Enghoff, Laura Mark Jensen, Elena V Mikhaljova
A unique pattern of missing defence glands on certain body rings is described for two species of the millipede family Mongoliulidae, order Julida: Ussuriiulus pilifer Golovatch, 1980, and Koiulus interruptus Enghoff et al., 2017. Based on the patterns of missing glands observed in recently collected samples of the two species, numbers of podous and apodous body rings in successive stadia of the postembryonic development can be inferred for each individual millipede, which in turn allows the reconstruction of pathways of anamorphosis in these species...
November 30, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
Weixin Liu, Sergei Golovatch, Mingyi Tian
Three new species of Trichopeltis are described from caves in southern China: T. bellussp. n., T. intricatussp. n., and T. reflexussp. n., all presumed troglobites. The former two come from Yunnan Province, the latter one from Hunan Province. An updated key to all eleven currently known species of Trichopeltis is provided.
2017: ZooKeys
Armand Richard Nzoko Fiemapong, Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse, Joseph Lebel Tamesse, Sergei Ilyich Golovatch, Didier VandenSpiegel
The large pantropical millipede genus Stemmiulus, which currently encompasses more than 150 species, i.e. the bulk of the species diversity of the family Stemmiulidae and entire order Stemmiulida, is shown to comprise seven species in Cameroon, including three new ones: S. ongot Nzoko Fiemapong & VandenSpiegel, sp. n., S. uncus Nzoko Fiemapong & VandenSpiegel, sp. n., and S. mbalmayoensis Nzoko Fiemapong & VandenSpiegel, sp. n. In addition, S. beroni Mauriès, 1989, previously known only from the type locality in Nigeria, is recorded from Cameroon for the first time, also being redescribed based on new samples...
2017: ZooKeys
Yannick Labreuche, Sabine Chenivesse, Alexandra Jeudy, Sophie Le Panse, Viviane Boulo, Dominique Ansquer, Sylvie Pagès, Alain Givaudan, Mirjam Czjzek, Frédérique Le Roux
The Tetraconata (Pancrustacea) concept proposes that insects are more closely related to aquatic crustaceans than to terrestrial centipedes or millipedes. The question therefore arises whether insects have kept crustacean-specific genetic traits that could be targeted by specific toxins. Here we show that a toxin (nigritoxin), originally identified in a bacterial pathogen of shrimp, is lethal for organisms within the Tetraconata and non-toxic to other animals. X-ray crystallography reveals that nigritoxin possesses a new protein fold of the α/β type...
November 1, 2017: Nature Communications
Ilana Tavshunsky, Susan L Eggert, Carl P J Mitchell
Mercury (Hg) methylation is often elevated at the terrestrial-peatland interface, but methylmercury (MeHg) production at this "hot spot" has not been linked with in situ biotic accumulation. We examined total Hg and MeHg levels in peat, invertebrates and tissues of the insectivore Sorex cinereus (masked shrew), inhabiting a terrestrial-peatland ecotone in northern Minnesota, USA. Mean MeHg concentrations in S. cinereus (71 ng g(-1)) fell between concentrations measured in spiders (mean 70-140 ng g(-1)), and ground beetles and millipedes (mean 29-42 ng g(-1))...
October 23, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Josh Douglas, Sarina Macfadyen, Ary Hoffmann, Paul Umina
The isopod, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae), and the millipede, Ommatoiulus moreletii (Lucas) (Diplopoda: Iulidae), are increasingly being reported as pests of emerging broadacre crop seedlings in southern Australia. This is thought to be due to the increased adoption of stubble retention practices, leading to increased abundance of these soil-dwelling organisms. Here, we evaluate the propensity of A. vulgare and O. moreletii to damage a range of crop seedlings. Through the combined analysis of a controlled feeding trial and field reports, we show A...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jackson C Means, Paul E Marek
For the past several centuries, millipede taxonomists have used the morphology of male copulatory structures (modified legs called gonopods), which are strongly variable and suggestive of species-level differences, as a source to understand taxon relationships. Millipedes in the family Xystodesmidae are blind, dispersal-limited and have narrow habitat requirements. Therefore, geographical proximity may instead be a better predictor of evolutionary relationship than morphology, especially since gonopodal anatomy is extremely divergent and similarities may be masked by evolutionary convergence...
2017: PeerJ
Robert Evan Mesibov
BACKGROUND: Millipedes from 1983 collections by the author in southern Chile have been identified and registered as specimen lots at the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery (QVMAG) in Launceston, Tasmania. NEW INFORMATION: Collection and specimen data from the new QVMAG specimen lots have been archived in Darwin Core format together with a KML file of occurrences. The 31 occurrence records in the Darwin Core Archive list 13 millipede taxa from 16 sites in Llanquihue and Osorno provinces, Chile...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
Steven M Grodsky, Christopher E Moorman, Sarah R Fritts, Joshua W Campbell, Clyde E Sorenson, Matthew A Bertone, Steven B Castleberry, T Bently Wigley
Increased market viability of harvest residues as forest bioenergy feedstock may escalate removal of coarse woody debris in managed forests. Meanwhile, many forest invertebrates use coarse woody debris for cover, food, and reproduction. Few studies have explicitly addressed effects of operational-scale woody biomass harvesting on invertebrates following clearcutting. Therefore, we measured invertebrate community response to large-scale harvest residue removal and micro-site manipulations of harvest residue availability in recently clearcut, intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in North Carolina (NC; n = 4) and Georgia (GA; n = 4), USA...
September 26, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Kathie T Hodge, Ann E Hajek, Andrii Gryganskyi
A new species and genus of entomophthoralean fungus, Arthrophaga myriapodina kills polydesmid millipedes. This species was first seen over a century ago but never described. It is the first millipede pathogen known from the order Entomophthorales, species of which are best known as pathogens of a wide diversity of insects. The fungus induces pre-death climbing behavior in its hosts, enabling the fungus to broadcast its forcibly-discharged conidia from a high vantage, which presumably increases the fitness of the fungus...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Weixin Liu, Sergei Golovatch, Thomas Wesener
Laos has large areas of primary forest with a largely unexplored fauna. This is evidenced by millipedes, class Diplopoda, with fewer than 60 species being recorded from the country. In the widespread Southeast Asian "Star Millipede" genus Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910 (family Haplodesmidae), only two of 49 recorded species have been found in Laos. Four new species of Star Millipedes are here described from caves in Laos: Eutrichodesmus steineri Liu & Wesener, sp. n., Eutrichodesmus deporatus Liu & Wesener, sp...
2017: ZooKeys
Sergei I Golovatch, Jean-Jacques Geoffroy, Nesrine Akkari
The hitherto monotypic diplopod genus Annamina contains now four species, including the revised type-species A. xanthoptera Attems, 1937, as well as A. attemsisp. n., A. irinaesp. n. and A. mikhaljovaesp. n., all from central or southern Vietnam. The genus is rediagnosed and a key to its constituent species given.
2017: ZooKeys
Stephanie E Suarez, Michael E Brookfield, Elizabeth J Catlos, Daniel F Stöckli
The oldest-known air-breathing land animal is the millipede Pneumodesmus newmani, found in the Cowie Harbour Fish Bed at Stonehaven, Scotland. Here we report the youngest, most concordant 238U-206Pb zircon age from ash below the fish bed of 413.7±4.4 Ma (±2σ), whereas the youngest age from a tuffaceous sandstone above the fish bed is statistically indistinguishable at 414.3±7.1 Ma. The Cowie Harbour Fish Bed thus appears to be lowermost Devonian (Lochkovian), contrary to the previously accepted mid-Silurian age based on palynomorphs from adjacent exposures...
2017: PloS One
M M Rost-Roszkowska, M Kszuk-Jendrysik, A Marchewka, I Poprawa
The midgut of millipedes is composed of a simple epithelium that rests on a basal lamina, which is surrounded by visceral muscles and hepatic cells. As the material for our studies, we chose Telodeinopus aoutii (Demange, 1971) (Kenyan millipede) (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida), which lives in the rain forests of Central Africa. This commonly reared species is easy to obtain from local breeders and easy to culture in the laboratory. During our studies, we used transmission and scanning electron microscopes and light and fluorescent microscopes...
June 14, 2017: Protoplasma
Jans Morffe, Koichi Hasegawa
Rhigonema naylae n. sp. (Rhigonematomorpha: Rhigonematidae) is described from the hindgut of the polydesmid millipede Parafontaria laminata (Attems, 1909) (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae), from Aichi prefecture, Japan. The new species is characterized by having a medium sized body in both sexes, the cephalic collar partially fused to the body cuticle, but not overhanging the body contour; cervical region densely covered in short, fine microtrichs that extend from the posterior margin of the cephalic collar to ca...
May 22, 2017: Zootaxa
Henrik Enghoff
The new genus Tropostreptus is erected to accommodate seven species which are all endemic in Tanzania: T. hamatus (Demange, 1977) (type species, = Spirostreptus hamatus Demange, 1977), T. sigmatospinus sp. nov., T. microcephalus sp. nov., T. droides sp. nov., T. kipunji spec. nov., T. austerus (Attems, 1950) (= Epistreptus austerus Attems, 1950) and T. severus sp. nov. All but one (T. sigmatospinus) of the species are restricted to the Eastern Arc Mts. in a wide sense, i.e., including Mt. Rungwe. Notes are included on Rickia gigas Santamaria et al...
June 7, 2017: Zootaxa
Weixin Liu, Thomas Wesener, Sergei Golovatch, Mingyi Tian
Four new species of the chordeumatidan millipede genus Nepalella Shear, 1979, family Megalotylidae, are described from caves in southern China: N. troglodytes sp. nov., N. lobata sp. nov., N. jinfoshan sp. nov., and N. wangi sp. nov. Three of them (except N. lobata sp. nov.) are presumed troglobites. Additional locality records of two cave congeners, N. caeca Shear, 1999 and N. grandoides Golovatch, Geoffroy & Mauriès, 2006, are also provided. DNA-barcoding based on the COI mitochondrial gene is documented in this genus and for species of the order Chordeumatida outside Europe for the first time...
March 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Christina Sagorny, Thomas Wesener
Madagascar is one of the world's most important hotspots of biodiversity and a center for localized endemism. Among the highly endemic faunal elements are the giant pill-millipedes, order Sphaerotheriida, which are severely understudied in Madagascar. Here we provide descriptions of two new species of endemic giant-pill millipedes of the genus Zoosphaerium Pocock, 1895: Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. and Zoosphaerium minutus n. sp.. Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. belongs to the Z. coquerelianum species-group, while Z...
May 9, 2017: Zootaxa
Darina Bachvarova, Boyan Vagalinski, Aleksandar Doichinov, Pavel Stoev
The present paper records new and poorly known myriapods (Diplopoda, Chilopoda) collected in Bulgaria in the last 10 years. Four new species are reported as new to the Bulgarian fauna: Lithobius melanops Newport, 1845 (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha: Lithodiidae), Polydesmus collaris C.L. Koch, 1847, Polydesmus inconstans Latzel, 1884 and Polydesmus schaessburgensis Verhoeff, 1898 (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Polydesmidae). Scanning electron micrographs of the gonopods and male leg-pairs 5 and 6 are provided for the first time for Bulgarosoma superficiei Strasser, 1975, a species hitherto known only from its original description...
May 10, 2017: Zootaxa
E Amstad, D A Weitz
This reply to the comment by Nakajima on our article that appeared in Lab on a Chip (E. Amstad, M. Chemama, M. Eggersdorfer, L. R. Arriaga, M. Brenner and D. A. Weitz, Lab Chip, 2016, 16, 4163-4172) highlights the differences between the microchannel step emulsification devices developed by the Nakajima group and the millipede device reported by us in Lab on a Chip.
June 12, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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