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Vor Yiu, Ming-Luen Jeng
The first Oculogryphus species with associated males and female was found in Hong Kong and is described as new: O. chenghoiyanae sp. n. Adults of both sexes were collected live in the field and their bioluminescent behavior is reported for the first time in the genus. The captive males emit weak and continuous light from a pair of light spots on abdominal ventrite 6 or do so when disturbed. The larviform (highly paedomorphic) females can glow brightly from a pair of light-emitting organs on the abdomen. The females of Oculogryphus and Stenocladius are to date the only documented representatives of paedomorphism in ototretine fireflies...
2018: ZooKeys
Weixin Liu, Sergei Golovatch
The genus Tonkinosoma Jeekel, 1953 has hitherto been known to contain only two species, both from northern Vietnam. T. flexipes Jeekel, 1953, the type species of the genus, is recorded from Guangxi, southern China, for the first time. T. tiani sp. n. , a presumed troglobite, is described from caves in Guizhou, southwestern China. A key is presented to all three species of the genus.
2018: ZooKeys
Jan Philip Oeyen, Thomas Wesener
The pill millipedes of the order Glomerida are a moderately diverse group with a classical Holarctic distribution pattern. Their classification is based on a typological system utilizing mainly a single character complex, the male telopods. In order to infer the apomorphies of the Glomerida, to elucidate its position in the Pentazonia, and to test the monophyly of its families and subfamilies, we conduct the first phylogenetic analysis of the order. To provide additional characters, we comparatively analyze the mandible using scanning electron microscopy...
February 22, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Juanita Rodriguez, Tappey H Jones, Petra Sierwald, Paul E Marek, William A Shear, Michael S Brewer, Kevin M Kocot, Jason E Bond
With fossil representatives from the Silurian capable of respiring atmospheric oxygen, millipedes are among the oldest terrestrial animals, and likely the first to acquire diverse and complex chemical defenses against predators. Exploring the origin of complex adaptive traits is critical for understanding the evolution of Earth's biological complexity, and chemical defense evolution serves as an ideal study system. The classic explanation for the evolution of complexity is by gradual increase from simple to complex, passing through intermediate "stepping stone" states...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Takuya Yamaguchi, Aem Nuylert, Atsutoshi Ina, Tsutomu Tanabe, Yasuhisa Asano
Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs), which are key enzymes in cyanogenesis, catalyze the cleavage of cyanohydrins into carbonyl compounds and hydrogen cyanide. Since HNLs also catalyze the reverse reaction, they are used industrially for the asymmetric synthesis of cyanohydrins, which are valuable building blocks of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. HNLs have been isolated from cyanogenic plants and bacteria. Recently, an HNL from the cyanogenic millipede Chamberlinius hualienensis was shown to have the highest specific activity for (R)-mandelonitrile synthesis, along with high stability and enantioselectivity...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhe Qu, William G Bendena, Stephen S Tobe, Jerome H L Hui
Arthropod molting and reproduction are precisely controlled by the levels of sesquiterpenoids, a class of C15 hormones derived from three isoprene units. The two major functional arthropod sesquiterpenoids are juvenile hormone (JH) and methyl farnesoate (MF). In hemimetabolous insects (such as the aphids, bugs, and cockroaches) and holometabolous insects (such as beetles, bees, butterflies, and flies), dramatic decrease in the titers of JH and/or MF promote metamorphosis from larvae to adults either directly or through an intermediate pupal stage, respectively...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Rosa Fernández, Gregory D Edgecombe, Gonzalo Giribet
The interrelationships of the four classes of Myriapoda have been an unresolved question in arthropod phylogenetics and an example of conflict between morphology and molecules. Morphology and development provide compelling support for Diplopoda (millipedes) and Pauropoda being closest relatives, and moderate support for Symphyla being more closely related to the diplopod-pauropod group than any of them are to Chilopoda (centipedes). In contrast, several molecular datasets have contradicted the Diplopoda-Pauropoda grouping (named Dignatha), often recovering a Symphyla-Pauropoda group (named Edafopoda)...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jennifer M Fitchett, Eromose Ebhuoma
Shifts in the timing of phenological events in plants and animals are cited as one of the most robust bioindicators of climate change. Much effort has thus been placed on the collection of phenological datasets, the quantification of the rates of phenological shifts and the association of these shifts with recorded meteorological data. These outputs are of value both in tracking the severity of climate change and in facilitating more robust management approaches in forestry and agriculture to changing climatic conditions...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
José D Gilgado, Enrique Ledesma, Henrik Enghoff, Jean-Paul Mauriès, Vicente M Ortuño
The chordeumatidan fauna of the Iberian Peninsula is far from being well known, but recent efforts are improving that knowledge. Samplings carried out in the Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (also known as the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum) on several screes of the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park (central Spain) have led to the discovery of a new species of chordeumatidan millipede. This new species belongs to the family Haplobainosomatidae, which is mainly known from the northern Iberian Peninsula, and thus this is the first record of the family in central Spain...
November 14, 2017: Zootaxa
Pradeep M Sankaran, Pothalil A Sebastian
The South Asian millipede genus Chondromorpha Silvestri, 1897 is diagnosed and its relationship with Parchondromorpha Jeekel, 1980 is established. The species C. atopus (Chamberlin, 1920) and C. indus (Chamberlin, 1920), as well as the subspecies C. kelaarti kelaarti (Humbert, 1865), C. kelaarti longipes (Verhoeff, 1936) and C. kelaarti valparaiensis (Carl, 1932) are recognised as junior synonyms of C. kelaarti (Humbert, 1865), thereby reducing the total number of Chondromorpha spp. in India to four: C. kaimura Turk, 1947, C...
November 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Natdanai Likhitrakarn, Parin Jirapatrasilp, Sergei I Golovatch, Somsak Panha
At present, the millipede fauna of Myanmar comprises 92 species from 34 genera, 13 families and 8 orders, mostly described in 1889-1896. All literature records are cited with updates on species identities, as well as numerous taxonomic problems which make the number of species and even genera still imprecise. The Myanmar millipede fauna contains 70 endemic and five widespread synanthropic species. One species is found to have erroneously been recorded from Myanmar, and is ejected from the list of Myanmar millipedes also because of its uncertain taxonomic status...
November 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Tappey H Jones, Dylan M Guthrie, Conor T Hogan, Donovan J Robinson, Robert Mesibov, William A Shear, Thomas F Spande, Ralph A Saporito
Millipedes (Diplopoda) are well known for their toxic or repellent defensive secretions. As part of a larger investigation, we describe the chemical constituents of 14 species of Tasmanian millipedes in seven genera. Six species in the genus Gasterogramma were found to produce acyclic ketones, including the pungent unsaturated ketones 1, 2, and 6, and the novel (rel-3R,5S,7S)-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,8-decanedione (7b), for which the stereoconfiguration was established by stereoselective syntheses of pairs of isomers...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Hyung Jik Woo, Anh D Nguyen, Kuem Hee Jang, Eun Hwa Choi, Shi Hyun Ryu, Ui Wook Hwang
The millipede Anaulaciulus koreanus (Verhoeff, 1937), belonging to the family Julidae, is an endemic species of the Korean fauna. In this study, we sequence and annotate the mitochondrial genome of A. koreanus. The complete mitochondrial genome of this species is 14,916 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes (16S and 12S rRNA), and a large non-coding region. The genome has a very high A+T content (71.1%), less than of the species Brachycybe lecontii Wood, 1864 (order Platydesmida; 76...
October 10, 2017: Zootaxa
Henrik Enghoff, Laura Mark Jensen, Elena V Mikhaljova
A unique pattern of missing defence glands on certain body rings is described for two species of the millipede family Mongoliulidae, order Julida: Ussuriiulus pilifer Golovatch, 1980, and Koiulus interruptus Enghoff et al., 2017. Based on the patterns of missing glands observed in recently collected samples of the two species, numbers of podous and apodous body rings in successive stadia of the postembryonic development can be inferred for each individual millipede, which in turn allows the reconstruction of pathways of anamorphosis in these species...
January 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Weixin Liu, Sergei Golovatch, Mingyi Tian
Three new species of Trichopeltis are described from caves in southern China: T. bellus sp. n. , T. intricatus sp. n. , and T. reflexus sp. n. , all presumed troglobites. The former two come from Yunnan Province, the latter one from Hunan Province. An updated key to all eleven currently known species of Trichopeltis is provided.
2017: ZooKeys
Armand Richard Nzoko Fiemapong, Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse, Joseph Lebel Tamesse, Sergei Ilyich Golovatch, Didier VandenSpiegel
The large pantropical millipede genus Stemmiulus , which currently encompasses more than 150 species, i.e. the bulk of the species diversity of the family Stemmiulidae and entire order Stemmiulida, is shown to comprise seven species in Cameroon, including three new ones: S. ongot Nzoko Fiemapong & VandenSpiegel, sp. n. , S. uncus Nzoko Fiemapong & VandenSpiegel, sp. n. , and S. mbalmayoensis Nzoko Fiemapong & VandenSpiegel, sp. n. In addition, S. beroni Mauriès, 1989, previously known only from the type locality in Nigeria, is recorded from Cameroon for the first time, also being redescribed based on new samples...
2017: ZooKeys
Yannick Labreuche, Sabine Chenivesse, Alexandra Jeudy, Sophie Le Panse, Viviane Boulo, Dominique Ansquer, Sylvie Pagès, Alain Givaudan, Mirjam Czjzek, Frédérique Le Roux
The Tetraconata (Pancrustacea) concept proposes that insects are more closely related to aquatic crustaceans than to terrestrial centipedes or millipedes. The question therefore arises whether insects have kept crustacean-specific genetic traits that could be targeted by specific toxins. Here we show that a toxin (nigritoxin), originally identified in a bacterial pathogen of shrimp, is lethal for organisms within the Tetraconata and non-toxic to other animals. X-ray crystallography reveals that nigritoxin possesses a new protein fold of the α/β type...
November 1, 2017: Nature Communications
Ilana Tavshunsky, Susan L Eggert, Carl P J Mitchell
Mercury (Hg) methylation is often elevated at the terrestrial-peatland interface, but methylmercury (MeHg) production at this "hot spot" has not been linked with in situ biotic accumulation. We examined total Hg and MeHg levels in peat, invertebrates and tissues of the insectivore Sorex cinereus (masked shrew), inhabiting a terrestrial-peatland ecotone in northern Minnesota, USA. Mean MeHg concentrations in S. cinereus (71 ng g(-1)) fell between concentrations measured in spiders (mean 70-140 ng g(-1)), and ground beetles and millipedes (mean 29-42 ng g(-1))...
October 23, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Josh Douglas, Sarina Macfadyen, Ary Hoffmann, Paul Umina
The isopod, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae), and the millipede, Ommatoiulus moreletii (Lucas) (Diplopoda: Iulidae), are increasingly being reported as pests of emerging broadacre crop seedlings in southern Australia. This is thought to be due to the increased adoption of stubble retention practices, leading to increased abundance of these soil-dwelling organisms. Here, we evaluate the propensity of A. vulgare and O. moreletii to damage a range of crop seedlings. Through the combined analysis of a controlled feeding trial and field reports, we show A...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jackson C Means, Paul E Marek
For the past several centuries, millipede taxonomists have used the morphology of male copulatory structures (modified legs called gonopods), which are strongly variable and suggestive of species-level differences, as a source to understand taxon relationships. Millipedes in the family Xystodesmidae are blind, dispersal-limited and have narrow habitat requirements. Therefore, geographical proximity may instead be a better predictor of evolutionary relationship than morphology, especially since gonopodal anatomy is extremely divergent and similarities may be masked by evolutionary convergence...
2017: PeerJ
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