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M L Eggersdorfer, W Zheng, S Nawar, C Mercandetti, A Ofner, I Leibacher, S Koehler, D A Weitz
Core-shell double emulsions produced using microfluidic methods with controlled structural parameters exhibit great potential in a wide range of applications, but the low production rate of microfluidic methods hinders the exploitation of the capabilities of microfluidics to produce double emulsions with well-defined features. A major obstacle towards the scaled-up production of core-shell double emulsions is the difficulty of achieving robust spatially controlled wettability in integrated microfluidic devices...
February 15, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Dragan Ž Antić, Boris D Dudić, Mirjana R Gajić, Luka R Lučić
As the fourth hydrophilous species of the genus Typhloiulus Latzel, 1884, the new species T. balcanicus Antić sp. nov. is described from two caves in the Stara Planina Mountains of Serbia. A brief discussion of the relationships between the new species and congeners with modified and unmodified mouthparts is presented, as well as short notes on the habitat of the new species and comments on other semiaquatic millipedes with modified mouthparts.
January 25, 2017: Zootaxa
Weixin Liu, Sergei Golovatch, Thomas Wesener, Mingyi Tian
Animal life in caves has fascinated researchers and the public alike because of the unusual and sometimes bizarre morphological adaptations observed in numerous troglobitic species. Despite their worldwide diversity, the adaptations of cave millipedes (Diplopoda) to a troglobitic lifestyle have rarely been examined. In this study, morphological characters were analyzed in species belonging to four different orders (Glomerida, Polydesmida, Chordeumatida, and Spirostreptida) and six different families (Glomeridae, Paradoxosomatidae, Polydesmidae, Haplodesmidae, Megalotylidae, and Cambalopsidae) that represent the taxonomic diversity of class Diplopoda...
2017: PloS One
John M Hash, Jocelyn G Millar, John M Heraty, James F Harwood, Brian V Brown
Toxic defensive secretions produced by millipedes in the orders Julida, Spirobolida, Spirostreptida, and Polydesmida are highly repellent to most vertebrate and invertebrate natural enemies, but a few insects have evolved mechanisms to overcome these defenses. We demonstrate that highly specialized parasitic phorid flies in the species-rich genus Myriophora use volatile millipede defensive compounds as kairomones for host location. Of the two predominant quinone components in the defensive blend of juliform millipedes, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone alone was sufficient to attract adult flies of both sexes; however, a combination of 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone increased attractiveness nearly threefold...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Yuichi Oba, Cassius V Stevani, Anderson G Oliveira, Aleksandra S Tsarkova, Tatiana V Chepurnykh, Ilia V Yampolsky
Bioluminescence is a form of chemiluminescence generated by luminous organisms. Luminous taxa have currently been reported from about 800 genera and probably over 10 000 species in the world. On the other hand, their bioluminescent systems, including chemical structures of luciferins/chromophores and the genes encoding luciferases/photoproteins, have been elucidated from only a few taxonomic groups, for example beetles, bacteria, dinoflagellates, ostracods and some cnidarians. Research efforts to understand unknown bioluminescence systems are being conducted around the world, and recently, for example, novel luciferin structures of luminous enchytraeid potworms and fungi were identified by the authors...
December 31, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Dragan Ž Antić, Slobodan E Makarov
Fifteen new genera and 36 new species of the diplopod family Anthroleucosomatidae Verhoeff, 1899 are described from the Caucasus, one of the world's biodiversity hotspots: Golovatchosoma bacillichaetum gen. et sp. nov., G. trichochaetum sp. nov., Alpinella waltheri gen. et sp. nov., Brachychaetosoma turbanovi gen. et sp. nov., Caucaseuma elephantum sp. nov., C. fanagoriyskaya sp. nov., C. glabroscutum sp. nov., C. kelasuri sp. nov., C. minellii sp. nov., C. variabile sp. nov., Caucasominorus billi gen. et sp...
December 22, 2016: Zootaxa
Slaviša Stanković, Ivica Dimkić, Ljubodrag Vujisić, Sofija Pavković-Lučić, Zvezdana Jovanović, Tatjana Stević, Ivana Sofrenić, Bojan Mitić, Vladimir Tomić
The chemical defence of the millipede Pachyiulus hungaricus is reported in the present paper, in which a chemical characterization is given and antimicrobial activity is determined. In total, independently of sex, 44 compounds were identified. All compounds belong to two groups: quinones and pentyl and hexyl esters of long-chain fatty acids. The relative abundances of quinones and non-quinones were 94.7% vs. 5.3% (males) and 87.3% vs. 12.7% (females), respectively. The two dominant quinones in both sexes were 2-methyl-1,4,-benzoquinone and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone...
2016: PloS One
Santosh Kumar Padhi
Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) have grown in importance from laboratory to industry due to their potential to catalyze stereoselective C-C bond-formation reactions in the synthesis of several chiral intermediates, such as enantiopure α-cyanohydrins, β-nitro alcohols, and their derivatives with multiple functional groups. With these wide applications, the demand for finding new HNLs has increased, and this has led to exploration not only of new HNLs but also of new ways to discover them. An exclusive review article on HNLs by Asano et al...
January 17, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Michiel P Veldhuis, Francisco J Laso, Han Olff, Matty P Berg
The ecological impact of rapid environmental change will depend on the resistance of key ecosystems processes, which may be promoted by species that exert strong control over local environmental conditions. Recent theoretical work suggests that macrodetritivores increase the resistance of African savanna ecosystems to changing climatic conditions, but experimental evidence is lacking. We examined the effect of large fungus-growing termites and other non-fungus-growing macrodetritivores on decomposition rates empirically with strong spatiotemporal variability in rainfall and temperature...
February 2017: Ecology
Paul E Marek, Jean K Krejca, William A Shear
Members of the family Siphonorhinidae Cook, 1895 are thread-like eyeless millipedes that possess an astounding number of legs, including one individual with 750. Due to their cryptic lifestyle, rarity in natural history collections, and sporadic study over the last century, the family has an unclear phylogenetic placement, and intrafamilial relationships remain unknown. Here we report the discovery of a second species of Illacme, a millipede genus notable for possessing the greatest number of legs of any known animal on the planet...
2016: ZooKeys
Andrej Mock, Karel Tajovský, Martina Žurovcová, Andrea Jarošová, Pavel Kocourek, Jürgen Gruber, Dorottya Angyal, Jörg Spelda
Hungarosoma bokori Verhoeff, 1928 is a millipede species which was originally classified solely on the basis of a female specimen. Subsequently, a long history of field searching for and surmising about the systematic position of this small, enigmatic species followed. In April 2013, 85 years after its first description, a series of nine specimens were sampled in the type locality, the Abaliget Cave, in southern Hungary. An adult male was collected for the first time, along with females and juveniles. Descriptions of the gonopods and the female vulvae, both important for considerations of the systematic position of the species, are presented for the first time...
October 24, 2016: Zootaxa
William A Shear, Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira, Luiz Felipe Moretti Iniesta, Paul Marek
Dobrodesmus mirabilis n. gen., n. sp. is described from a limestone cave in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is unique among millipedes of the order Polydesmida in having 39+t rings in adult males, two rather than four spinnerets, and in its highly plesiomorphic gonopods, which resemble those of basal members of the orders Callipodida and Stemmiulida. The presence of 39 rings is notable because members of the Polydesmida, the most species rich order of millipedes (>5000 spp.) normally stop development at 19+t rings...
October 25, 2016: Zootaxa
Artur Orsetti, Cristiano Lopes-Andrade
Pelecium Kirby is the most diverse Peleciini genus, with 33 species shared between two subgenera: Pelecidium Straneo & Ball, which comprises three species, and Pelecium, with the remaining 30 species (Straneo & Ball 1989). They occur from Panama to middle Argentina, and adults are nocturnal and prey upon millipedes (Martinez 2005). Larvae have parasitoids habits and millipedes are their main preys. There are also records of Pelecium larvae devouring immature beetles (Salt 1928). Our aim in this study is to describe Pelecium igneus sp...
October 28, 2016: Zootaxa
Thomas Wesener
Sphaeropoeus hercules Brandt, 1833, the type species of one of the oldest genus names in Sphaerotheriida, is redescribed for the first time based on its fragmented type specimen. While damaged, the specimen shows characters clearly different from other, diverse and similar genera of the family Zephroniidae, such as Zephronia Gray, 1832 and Castanotherium Pocock, 1895. S. hercules has a record number of >180 apical cones on the antennae, more than any other millipede. The species, together with another species of the genus Castanotherium, C...
November 2, 2016: Zootaxa
Jin-Ju Jeong, Byeonghyeok Park, Ji Yeon Oh, Mohamed Mannaa, Yoo Jun Kim, Jeum Kyu Hong, In-Geol Choi, Ki Deok Kim
Species of the genus Chryseobacterium belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae are nonmotile, yellow-pigmented, and rod-shaped bacteria, some of which were frequently isolated from soil or plant-related materials. Here, we present draft genome sequences of three type strains of Chryseobacterium, which contain genes related to plant growth promotion, colonization, or stress adaptation.
October 20, 2016: Genome Announcements
Jonas O Wolff, Michael Seiter, Stanislav N Gorb
The cuticle of arthropods is usually composed of layers of a chitin-protein-microcomposite, a proteinaceous epicuticle and a thin lipid coating. However, in some instances a thick cement layer (cerotegument) covers the cuticle and may produce elaborate microstructures. This has previously been described for millipedes and mites. Here we report the previously unknown presence of a superhydrophobic cerotegument in whip-spiders (Ambypygi) and reveal its variation in ultrastructure and water-repellence between species...
January 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
E Amstad, M Chemama, M Eggersdorfer, L R Arriaga, M P Brenner, D A Weitz
Monodisperse drops with diameters between 20 μm and 200 μm can be used to produce particles or capsules for many applications such as for cosmetics, food, and biotechnology. Drops composed of low viscosity fluids can be conveniently made using microfluidic devices. However, the throughput of microfluidic devices is limited and scale-up, achieved by increasing the number of devices run in parallel, can compromise the narrow drop-size distribution. In this paper, we present a microfluidic device, the millipede device, which forms drops through a static instability such that the fluid volume that is pinched off is the same every time a drop forms...
October 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Ruttapon Srisonchai, Henrik Enghoff, Natdanai Likhitrakarn, Somsak Panha
Four new dragon millipede species of the genus Desmoxytes from northern Thailand are described and illustrated: D. des sp. n. from Chiang Mai Province, D. breviverpa sp. n. from Phrae Province, D. takensis sp. n. from Tak Province and      D. pinnasquali sp. n. from Phitsanulok Province. The new species were compared with type specimens of closely related species and were all found to exhibit explicit morphological differences from these. They can be distinguished from other members of Desmoxytes by the shape of the gonopods, the sternal process between male coxae 4, the pattern of spines or tubercles on the metaterga, and the shape of the paraterga...
September 22, 2016: Zootaxa
Chongxi Liu, Lan Ye, Yao Li, Shanwen Jiang, Hui Liu, Kai Yan, Wensheng Xiang, Xiangjing Wang
A phoslactomycin-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-ML8T, was isolated from a millipede (Kronopolites svenhedind Verhoeff) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NEAU-ML8T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces lydicus NBRC 13058T (99.39 %) and Streptomyces chattanoogensis DSM 40002T (99.25 %). The maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with NBRC 13058T and S...
December 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Vanessa Jag, Anja Poehlein, Frank R Bengelsdorf, Rolf Daniel, Peter Dürre
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Oerskovia enterophila DFA-19 (DSM 43852(T)), a facultative anaerobe soil bacterium, which was originally isolated from millipede feces and first described as Promicromonospora enterophila The genome consists of a circular chromosome comprising approximately 4.65 Mb and 4,044 predicted protein-encoding genes.
2016: Genome Announcements
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