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Invasive candidiasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927200/epidemiology-of-invasive-fungal-disease-in-children
#1
Zoi Dorothea Pana, Emmanuel Roilides, Adilia Warris, Andreas H Groll, Theoklis Zaoutis
Considerable progress has been made in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of pediatric patients with invasive fungal disease (IFD). The reported decreasing trend in the incidence of invasive candidiasis (IC) over the past 15 years in both neonates and children has been encouraging. Nevertheless, due to the growing number of immunocompromised children at risk for IFD, this disease continues to be associated with significant morbidity and death and with increased financial burden to the health care system...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904931/isolation-of-candida-species-from-gastroesophageal-lesions-among-pediatrics-in-isfahan-iran-identification-and-antifungal-susceptibility-testing-of-clinical-isolates-by-e-test
#2
Fatemeh Salehi, Mehran Esmaeili, Rasoul Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Candida species can become opportunistic pathogens causing local or systemic invasive infections. Gastroesophageal candidiasis may depend on the Candida colonization and local damage of the mucosal barrier. Risk factors are gastric acid suppression, diabetes mellitus, chronic debilitating states such as carcinomas, and the use of systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids. The aim of this study is collection and molecular identification of Candida species from gastroesophageal lesions among pediatrics in Isfahan, and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges for clinical isolates...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904481/external-validation-of-risk-prediction-scores-for-invasive-candidiasis-in-a-medical-surgical-intensive-care-unit-an-observational-study
#3
Armin Ahmed, Arvind Kumar Baronia, Afzal Azim, Rungmei S K Marak, Reema Yadav, Preeti Sharma, Mohan Gurjar, Banani Poddar, Ratender Kumar Singh
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to conduct external validation of risk prediction scores for invasive candidiasis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in a 12-bedded adult medical/surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to evaluate Candida score >3, colonization index (CI) >0.5, corrected CI >0.4 (CCI), and Ostrosky's clinical prediction rule (CPR). Patients' characteristics and risk factors for invasive candidiasis were noted. Patients were divided into two groups; invasive candidiasis and no-invasive candidiasis...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904185/thinking-beyond-the-common-candida-species-need-for-speciation-of-candida-due-to-the-emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-candida-auris
#4
Shawn R Lockhart, Brendan R Jackson, Snigdha Vallabhaneni, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Peter G Pappas, Tom Chiller
Candida species are one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Because much of the treatment for Candida infections is empiric, some institutions do not identify Candida to species. With the worldwide emergence of the multidrug resistant species Candida auris, identification of Candida to species level has new clinical relevance. Species should be identified for invasive candidiasis isolates, and speciation can be considered for selected non-invasive isolates to improve detection of C. auris.
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893774/external-evaluation-of-two-fluconazole-infant-population-pharmacokinetic-models
#5
Michael F Hwang, Ryan J Beechinor, Kelly C Wade, Daniel K Benjamin, P Brian Smith, Christoph P Hornik, Edmund V Capparelli, Shahnaz Duara, Kathleen A Kennedy, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, Daniel Gonzalez
Fluconazole is an antifungal agent used for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Population pharmacokinetics (PK) models of fluconazole in infants have been previously published by Wade et al. and Momper et al. Here we report the results of the first external evaluation of the predictive performance of both models. We used patient level data from both studies to externally evaluate both PK models. The predictive performance of each model was evaluated using the model prediction error (PE), mean prediction error (MPE), mean absolute prediction error (MAPE), prediction-corrected visual predictive check (pcVPC), and normalized prediction distribution errors (NPDE)...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882010/invasive-candidiasis-in-the-neutropenic-patient
#6
REVIEW
J Fortún, F Gioia
There are major differences in the epidemiology and prognosis of invasive candidiasis and candidemia in the neutropenic patient; however, a recent study performed in Spanish hospitals (Candipop) confirmed that mortality at 1 month is 30%, which is similar to that observed in the general population. Although Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated species, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei are more prevalent than in non-neutropenic patients. The benefit of neutrophil transfusion is unclear, and catheter withdrawal must be tailored and based on confirmation of the diagnosis...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882009/update-on-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-infection
#7
REVIEW
E Ibáñez-Martínez, A Ruiz-Gaitán, J Pemán-García
The number of patients at risk of suffering invasive fungal infection (IFI) is increasing. Because of its high mortality, new rapid and accurate diagnostic tools are needed. Last advances in invasive candidiasis diagnosis comprise Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (PNA-FISH), direct MALDI-TOF or multiplex acid nucleic testing. While all of them rely in positive blood cultures, T2Candida uses PCR coupled with T2Magnetic resonance detection directly in whole blood, allowing detection of 1-3 UFC/mL of Candida in about four hours...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876963/candidiasis-and-the-impact-of-flow-cytometry-on-antifungal-drug-discovery
#8
Tsun Sheng N Ku, Stella Bernardo, Carla J Walraven, Samuel A Lee
Invasive candidiasis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality as well as substantial health care costs nationally and globally. One of the contributing factors is the development of resistance to antifungal agents that are already in clinical use. Moreover, there are known treatment limitations with all of the available antifungal agents. Since traditional techniques in novel drug discovery are time consuming, high-throughput screening using flow cytometry presents as a potential tool to identify new antifungal agents that would be useful in the management of these patients...
September 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872714/microbial-epidemiology-of-candidemia-in-neonatal-and-pediatric-intensive-care-units-at-children-s-medical-center-tehran
#9
Arezu Charsizadeh, Hossein Mirhendi, Bahram Nikmanesh, Hamid Eshaghi, Koichi Makimura
Invasive candidiasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. However, limited data is available on the epidemiology of this infection in pediatric settings in Iran. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence, microbial epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical outcomes associated with candidemia in intensive care units at Children's Medical Center, Tehran, Iran. All blood and other normally sterile specimen cultures positive for Candida species, were included. Isolates were identified by morphological and molecular methods...
September 5, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872711/candida-reactive-t%C3%A2-cells-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-candida-infection-of-the-lumbar-vertebral-spine
#10
Felix C Koehler, Oliver A Cornely, Hilmar Wisplinghoff, De-Hua Chang, Anne Richter, Philipp Koehler
Invasive Candida infection is the fourth most common bloodstream infection. Blood cultures are the current gold standard diagnostic method, however false negatives remain a clinical challenge. We developed a new technique measuring Candida reactive T cells as diagnostic read-out for invasive Candida infection. In a pilot study, we followed the treatment course of a patient with an invasive Candida infection of the lumbar vertebral spine. We present the case of the 56 year old patient with HIV-associated Burkitt lymphoma who developed septic shock during chemotherapy induced neutropenia...
September 5, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871953/-detection-and-analysis-of-serum-level-of-anti-candida-enolase-igg-antibody-in-patients-with-autoimmune-diseases
#11
Zhengxin He, Tingting Wang, Dezhi Shan, Xiaogang Zhang, Gengyin Wang, Fukun Wang
Objective To detect IgG antibody against Candida enolase in the sera of patients with autoimmune diseases. Methods Using purified recombinant Candida enolase as the coating antigen, an ELISA was established for enolase IgG antibody detection and the reactive conditions were optimized. The enolase IgG antibody in the sera from patients with autoimmune diseases and healthy controls were detected by ELISA. The specificity of the positive sera was confirmed by Western blotting. Results The study collected 70 serum samples from the patients with autoimmune diseases and 44 from the healthy individuals...
August 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857851/antifungal-prevention-of-systemic-candidiasis-in-immunocompetent-icu-adults-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#12
Hervé Dupont, Yazine Mahjoub, Taieb Chouaki, Emmanuel Lorne, Elie Zogheib
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the impact of antifungal prevention in critically ill immunocompetent adult patients on mortality and subsequent infection. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing any antifungal use versus placebo to prevent candidiasis in ICU patients were performed. STUDY SELECTION: Searches were performed on PubMed, Embase, Scopus, main conference proceedings, and ClinicalTrials...
August 28, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846793/a-clinicopathologic-and-epidemiologic-study-of-chronic-white-lesions-in-the-oral-mucosa
#13
Sampurna Ghosh, Sudipta Pal, Soumya Ghatak, Somnath Saha, Surajit Biswas, Prabha Srivastava
Invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma is often preceded by the presence of clinically identifiable premalignant changes of the oral mucosa, including white lesions. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study to assess the clinicopathologic and epidemiologic aspects of chronic oral mucosal white lesions to determine the necessity of early biopsy in these cases. Our study population was made up of 77 patients-50 males and 27 females, aged 15 to 70 years (mean: 42.9)-who presented with white lesions persisting for at least 4 weeks...
August 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838629/in-vitro-antifungal-activity-of-cassia-fistula-extracts-against-fluconazole-resistant-strains-of-candida-species-from-hiv-patients
#14
P Sony, M Kalyani, D Jeyakumari, I Kannan, R G Sukumar
BACKGROUND: Candida species is the fourth common cause of blood stream infections all over the world which is life threatening. Invasive candidiasis leads to increased mortality and morbidity especially in immunosuppressed. The antifungal resistance pattern in high-risk patients is major concern. PURPOSE: The present study was to access the anticandidal activity of leaves, bark and seeds of Cassia fistula against fluconazole resistant Candida species, C. albicans, C...
August 21, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831086/potential-use-of-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-for-rapid-detection-of-antifungal-resistance-in-the-human-pathogen-candida-glabrata
#15
Antonietta Vella, Elena De Carolis, Enrica Mello, David S Perlin, Dominique Sanglard, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Brunella Posteraro
The echinocandins are relatively new antifungal drugs that represent, together with the older azoles, the recommended and/or preferred agents to treat candidaemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis in human patients. If "time is of the essence" to reduce the mortality for these infections, the administration of appropriate antifungal therapy could be accelerated by the timely reporting of laboratory test results. In this study, we attempted to validate a MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry-based assay for the antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) of the potentially multidrug-resistant pathogen Candida glabrata against anidulafungin and fluconazole...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829207/invasive-candidiasis-future-directions-in-non-culture-based-diagnosis
#16
Wilfried Posch, David Heimdörfer, Doris Wilflingseder, Cornelia Lass-Flörl
Delayed initial antifungal therapy is associated with high mortality rates caused by invasive candida infections, since accurate detection of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast and its identification display a diagnostic challenge. diagnosis of candida infections relies on time-consuming methods such as blood cultures, serologic and histopathologic examination. to allow for fast detection and characterization of invasive candidiasis, there is a need to improve diagnostic tools. trends in diagnostics switch to non-culture-based methods, which allow specified diagnosis within significantly shorter periods of time in order to provide early and appropriate antifungal treatment...
September 7, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826987/in-vitro-potency-and-fungicidal-activity-of-cd101-a-novel-echinocandin-against-recent-clinical-isolates-of-candida-spp
#17
Danielle Hall, Robert Bonifas, Lauretta Stapert, Mary Thwaites, Dean L Shinabarger, Chris M Pillar
Candida infections vary in severity and manifestation. Common infections include invasive bloodstream infections among hospitalized/immunocompromised patients and vulvovaginal candidiasis among women. Echinocandins and azoles are commonly utilized to treat Candida infections, although echinocandin use has been restricted to indications amenable to once-daily IV administration. CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long plasma half-life and enhanced stability, is in development for once-weekly IV administration for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis...
July 21, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818264/the-potential-management-of-oral-candidiasis-using-anti-biofilm-therapies
#18
Warren Chanda, Thomson P Joseph, Wendong Wang, Arshad A Padhiar, Mintao Zhong
Candida albicans is a minor component of the oral microbiota and an opportunistic pathogen that takes advantage of the immunocompromised host and causes oral mucositis and oral candidiasis. This organism is able to undergo phenotypic modification from a yeast to hyphae growth phase, one of the key arsenals for immune cell evasion, tissue invasion and biofilm formation. The latter property coupled with overgrowth and immune compromising factors such as HIV/AIDS, cancer treatments, organ transplantation, diabetes, corticosteroid use, dentures, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use have modified the fungus from a normal component of the microflora to a foe of an oral cavity and resulting in reduced sensitivity towards commonly utilised antifungal agents...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797882/repurposing-antipsychotic-drugs-into-antifungal-agents-synergistic-combinations-of-azoles-and-bromperidol-derivatives-in-the-treatment-of-various-fungal-infections
#19
Selina Y L Holbrook, Atefeh Garzan, Emily K Dennis, Sanjib K Shrestha, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
As the number of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients continues to rise, invasive fungal infections, such as invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis, threaten the life of millions of patients every year. The azole antifungals are currently the most prescribed drugs clinically that display broad-spectrum antifungal activity and excellent oral bioavailability. Yet, the azole antifungals have their own limitations and are unable to meet the challenges associated with increasing fungal infections and the accompanied development of resistance against azoles...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791666/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-micafungin
#20
REVIEW
Roeland E Wasmann, Eline W Muilwijk, David M Burger, Paul E Verweij, Catherijne A Knibbe, Roger J Brüggemann
Micafungin is a selective inhibitor of the synthesis of fungal 1,3-β-D-glucan, an essential component of the fungal cell wall. It is available as a powder for infusion only and is registered for the treatment of invasive and esophageal candidiasis in addition to prophylaxis of Candida infections in both adults and children. Average exposure after a single intravenous 100 mg dose in healthy adults is 133 mg h/L. Both exposure and maximum plasma concentration show linear dose proportional pharmacokinetics (PK) over a 0...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
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