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Invasive candidiasis

P Kooshki, A Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A Z Mahmoudabadi
OBJECTIVE: Usually, 7-20% of preterm neonates colonized by Candida species present invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans, and several non-albicans species cause invasive infection with C. albicans being the most dominant agent. In the last two decades, infection due to non-albicans have been increased dramatically due to their low sensitivity to antifungal drugs such as fluconazole. The aim of present study was to evaluate Candida colonization pattern and antifungal susceptibility among preterm neonates from Khorramabad, South west of Iran...
March 9, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Vadim M Kemaykin, Nariman B Tabinbaev, Mahira S Khudaibergenova, Anastasia A Olifirovich, Layzzat M Abdrakhmanova, David W Denning, Nikolai Klimko
Our work aimed to generate a preliminary estimation of severe and chronic fungal diseases in the Republic of Kazakhstan with a model proposed by LIFE (Leading International Fungal Education). Calculations were carried out on data from 2015. Published results of studies of mycoses in Kazakhstan were identified; in the absence of national data from the scientific literature, the frequency of life-threatening and serious mycoses in defined groups of patients at risk from other countries were taken into account...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
T Nuryastuti, S Setiawati, N Ngatidjan, M Mustofa, J Jumina, D Fitriastuti, M I Darussalam
The therapy for invasive candidiasis related to biofilms infection remains a difficult medical problem. To overcome this problem, efforts have been made to search for novel antibiofilm agents from various sources. This study investigated the in vitro antibiofilm activity of (1)-N-2-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide (FEN) against Candida albicans. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) and minimum biofilm reduction concentration (MBRC) were determined using the MTT (3-(4-5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-dyphenyl tetrazolium bromide) reduction assay...
March 3, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Sarah G Whaley, Kelly E Caudle, Lucia Simonicova, Qing Zhang, W Scott Moye-Rowley, P David Rogers
The high prevalence of fluconazole resistance among clinical isolates of Candida glabrata has greatly hampered the utility of fluconazole for the treatment of invasive candidiasis. Fluconazole resistance in this yeast is almost exclusively due to activating mutations in the transcription factor Pdr1, which result in upregulation of the ABC transporter genes CDR1 , PDH1 , and SNQ2 and therefore increased fluconazole efflux. However, the regulation of Pdr1 is poorly understood. In order to identify genes that interact with the Pdr1 transcriptional pathway and influence the susceptibility of C...
January 2018: MSphere
Cristina Lazzarini, Krupanandan Haranahalli, Robert Rieger, Hari Krishna Ananthula, Pankaj B Desai, Alan Ashbaugh, Michael J Linke, Melanie T Cushion, Bela Ruzsicska, John Haley, Iwao Ojima, Maurizio Del Poeta
The incidence of invasive fungal infections has risen dramatically in the past decades. Current antifungal drugs are either toxic, likely to interact with other drugs, have a narrow spectrum of activity or induce fungal resistance. Hence, there is a great need for new antifungals, possibly with novel mechanisms of action. Previously our group reported an acylhydrazone called BHBM that targeted the sphingolipid pathway, and showed strong antifungal activity against several fungi. In this study, we screened 19 derivatives of BHBM...
March 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Joseph Meletiadis, Oscar Zaragoza, Karin Meinike Jørgensen, Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano, Lamprini Kanioura, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Johan W Mouton, Jesus Guinea
OBJECTIVES: Rezafungin (CD101) is a new long-acting echinocandin allowing weekly dosing, currently undergoing phase-II clinical trials for invasive candidiasis. The aim of this study was to assess rezafungin's in vitro activity against the most frequent Candida species following the EUCAST methodology. METHODS: The susceptibility of 2,018 clinical Candida isolates was determined at four European laboratories. In parallel, six control strains were repeatedly tested...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Mobaswar Hossain Chowdhury, Lisa Kathleen Ryan, Kartikeya Cherabuddi, Katie B Freeman, Damian G Weaver, Jeffry C Pelletier, Richard W Scott, Gill Diamond
Invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans and non- albicans Candida (NAC) present a serious disease threat. Although the echinocandins are recommended as the first line of antifungal drug class, resistance to these agents is beginning to emerge, demonstrating the need for new antifungal agents. Host defense peptides (HDP) exhibit potent antifungal activity, but as drugs they are difficult to manufacture efficiently, and they are often inactivated by serum proteins. HDP mimetics are low molecular weight non-peptide compounds that can alleviate these problems and were shown to be membrane-active against C...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Mihai Mareș, Valentina Ruxandra Moroti-Constantinescu, David W Denning
OBJECTIVE: To estimate for the first time the burden of fungal infections in Romania. METHODS: Data derived from the World Health Organization (WHO), National Institute of Statistics, Romanian public health agencies and non-profit health organizations, and published annual reports on local epidemiology were used in the present study. When no data were available, specific at-risk populations were used to calculate frequencies of serious fungal diseases, using previously published epidemiological parameters...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Ingvild Nordøy, Liv Hesstvedt, Cecilie Torp Andersen, Haima Mylvaganam, Nicola Isabelle Kols, Birgit Margrethe Falch, Ståle Tofteland, Fredrik Müller, David William Denning
The aim of this study was to examine the burden of fungal disease in Norway, contributing to a worldwide effort to improve awareness of the needs for better diagnosis and treatment of such infections. We used national registers and actual data from the Departments of Microbiology from 2015 and estimated the incidence and/or prevalence of superficial, allergic and invasive fungal disease using published reports on specific populations at risk. One in 6 Norwegians suffered from fungal disease: Superficial skin infections (14...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Cornelius J Clancy, M Hong Nguyen
Blood cultures are positive for Candida species in < 50% and < 20% of hematogenously disseminated and intra-abdominal candidiasis, respectively. Non-culture tests such as mannan, anti-mannan antibody, Candida albicans germ tube antibody (CAGTA), 1,3-β-d-glucan (BDG), the T2Candida nanodiagnostic panel, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are available for clinical use, but their roles in patient care are uncertain. Sensitivity/specificity of combined mannan/anti-mannan, BDG, T2Candida and PCR for candidemia are ~80%/80%, ~80%/80%, ~90%/98%, and ~90%/90%, respectively...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Maryam Dadar, Ruchi Tiwari, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Sandip Chakraborty, Youcef Shahali, Kuldeep Dhama
Candida albicans is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen representing an important source of invasive disease in humans and generating high healthcare costs worldwide. This fungus is frequently found in different anatomical sites of healthy persons and could induce systemic and superficial infections under optimal environmental conditions. Invasive candidiasis (IC) is an important nosocomial infection with high morbidity and mortality rates in hospitalized children. It represents a major source of prolonged infections in intensive care unit (ICU), particularly in immunosuppressed or elderly patients...
February 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Cornelius J Clancy, M Hong Nguyen
Cultures are negative in ∼50% of invasive candidiasis. Data are emerging for the performance of non-culture tests like mannan/anti-mannan, Candida albicans germ tube antibody, 1,3-β-D-glucan, polymerase chain reaction, and the T2Candida panel in diagnosing both candidemia and deep-seated candidiasis. In most settings, positive predictive values of non-culture test are low, and negative predictive values are high. For tests to be useful, clinicians must understand the pre-test likelihood of invasive candidiasis and test performance for the most common disease manifestation in a given patient...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Michael Schmalz, Manasa Joysula, Jack H Staddon, Arthur Feinberg
Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of disseminated candidiasis. Guidelines for the treatment of invasive candidiasis were last published in 2009, but resistance to the recommended treatment has recently been described in the literature. Here we present the case of an immunocompromised child with T-cell lymphoma who died secondary to disseminated candidiasis despite prolonged antifungal therapy. Awareness of the increasing resistance patterns of Candida when caring for immunocompromised patients, especially pediatric patients, may improve treatment and create better patient outcomes...
January 2018: Translational Pediatrics
Cornelius J Clancy, Peter G Pappas, Jose Vazquez, Marc A Judson, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, George R Thompson, Kevin W Garey, Annette Reboli, Richard N Greenberg, Senu Apewokin, G Marshall Lyon, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Alan H B Wu, Ellis Tobin, M Hong Nguyen, Angela M Caliendo
Background: Blood cultures are approximately 50% sensitive for diagnosing invasive candidiasis. The T2Candida nanodiagnostic panel uses T2 magnetic resonance and a dedicated instrument to detect Candida directly within whole blood samples. Methods: Patients with Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, or Candida krusei candidemia were identified at 14 centers using diagnostic blood cultures (dBCs). Follow-up blood samples were collected concurrently for testing by T2Candida and companion cultures (cBCs)...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
J Guitard, F Isnard, M-D Tabone, M Antignac, E Brissot, Y Senghor, A Petit, G Leverger, C Hennequin
OBJECTIVES: Definitive diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC) may be difficult to achieve in patients with haematological malignancy (PHM). We aimed to evaluate the performance of BDG for the diagnosis and the follow-up of IC in PHM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the serological data of BDG assay in adult and paediatric PHM, who developed candidemia or chronic disseminated candidiasis (CDC) through a 4-year period. Sensitivity and kinetics of BDG were determined for both clinical forms...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Infection
Meng Xiao, Xin Fan, Xin Hou, Sharon Ca Chen, He Wang, Fanrong Kong, Zi-Yong Sun, Yun-Zhuo Chu, Ying-Chun Xu
Echinocandin antifungal agents have become the first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis (IC) in many countries. Despite their increasing use, resistance to this class of drug is, overall, still uncommon. Here, we report two patients from the People's Republic of China with IC, one with infection caused by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida tropicalis and the other by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida glabrata. We also describe the mechanisms of drug resistance of these isolates. The echinocandin-resistant C...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
E Robledo-Leal, L G Rivera-Morales, M P Sangorrín, G M González, G Ramos-Alfano, J M Adame-Rodriguez, J M Alcocer-Gonzalez, E T Arechiga-Carvajal, C Rodriguez-Padilla
Although invasive infections and mortality caused by Candida species are increasing among compromised patients, resistance to common antifungal agents is also an increasing problem. We analyzed 60 yeasts isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis using a PCR/RFLP strategy based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region to identify different Candida pathogenic species. PCR analysis was performed from genomic DNA with a primer pair of the ITS2-5.8S rDNA region. PCR-positive samples were characterized by RFLP...
February 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Ilan S Schwartz, Thomas F Patterson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global emergence of antifungal resistance among Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. will disproportionately affect transplantation recipients, who are prone to invasive fungal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Invasive candidiasis is increasingly caused by non-albicans Candida species with reduced susceptibility to first-line antifungals. Echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata is increasing in some settings. Candida auris has rapidly emerged as a global concern due to multidrug resistance and efficient nosocomial spread in healthcare settings...
February 5, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Felix Bongomin, Sara Gago, Rita O Oladele, David W Denning
Fungal diseases kill more than 1.5 million and affect over a billion people. However, they are still a neglected topic by public health authorities even though most deaths from fungal diseases are avoidable. Serious fungal infections occur as a consequence of other health problems including asthma, AIDS, cancer, organ transplantation and corticosteroid therapies. Early accurate diagnosis allows prompt antifungal therapy; however this is often delayed or unavailable leading to death, serious chronic illness or blindness...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Jamal Wadi, David W Denning
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of fungal infections in Jordan for the first time. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Population data was from UN 2011 statistics and TB cases from WHO in 2012. Fewer than 100 patients with HIV were recorded in Jordan in 2013. Approximately 100 renal transplants and eight liver transplants are performed annually. There were 12,233 major surgical procedures in Jordan in 2013, of which 5.3% were major abdominal surgeries; candidemia was estimated in 5% of the population based on other countries, with 33% occurring in the ICU...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
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