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Invasive candidiasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#1
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782541/an-unappreciated-role-for-neutrophil-dc-hybrids-in-immunity-to-invasive-fungal-infections
#2
J Scott Fites, Michael Gui, John F Kernien, Paige Negoro, Zeina Dagher, David B Sykes, Jeniel E Nett, Michael K Mansour, Bruce S Klein
Neutrophils are classically defined as terminally differentiated, short-lived cells; however, neutrophils can be long-lived with phenotypic plasticity. During inflammation, a subset of neutrophils transdifferentiate into a population called neutrophil-DC hybrids (PMN-DCs) having properties of both neutrophils and dendritic cells. While these cells ubiquitously appear during inflammation, the role of PMN-DCs in disease remains poorly understood. We observed the differentiation of PMN-DCs in pre-clinical murine models of fungal infection: blastomycosis, aspergillosis and candidiasis...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778493/retrograde-ureteral-catheterization-a-possible-new-treatment-for-renal-fungal-balls-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#3
Cheng-Wei Chen, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Jin-Cherng Sheu, Hsin Chi, Jui-Hsing Chang, Chun-Chen Lin, Jeng-Daw Tsai
Invasive candidiasis is a serious pathogen of late-onset sepsis in very-low-birth- weight (VLBW) infants. Kidney is the most common organ involved and it causes morbidity and mortality, especially when fungal balls are formed. We report a 34-day-old female infant (28 weeks, 1152 gm) with systemic fungal infection complicated obstructive uropathy. On sonography, the fungal balls filled the entire pelvis without hydronephrosis. Percutaneous nephrostomy was not feasible. In addition to systemic antifungals, we successfully performed cystoscopy-assisted retrograde ureteral catheterization (RUC) to decompress the pelvis, which also provided a route for local amphotericin B irrigation to achieve therapeutic concentration without nephrotoxicity...
May 17, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771293/breakthrough-fungal-infections-in-leukemia-patients-receiving-isavuconazole
#4
Caitlin R Rausch, Adam J DiPippo, Prithviraj Bose, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Isavuconazole (ISA) is increasingly used in leukemia patients. We retrospectively assessed breakthrough invasive fungal infections (b-IFIs) in 100 consecutive leukemia patients receiving ISA as single agent; 13 developed documented b-IFIs. (6 candidiasis, 6 mold infections, 4 mucormycosis). All b-IFIs were observed in patients with prolonged neutropenia and active leukemia.
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767615/relevance-of-antifungal-penetration-in-biofilm-associated-resistance-of-candida-albicans-and-non-albicans-candida-species
#5
Rachna Singh, Anjna Kumari, Karminder Kaur, Parul Sethi, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
The role of penetration limitation in Candida biofilm-associated antifungal resistance remains unclear. Most of the previous work has been done on Candida albicans, although non-albicans (NAC) species are also implicated in invasive candidiasis and the biofilm matrix has been shown to vary amongst different species. Only a few studies have evaluated clinical isolates. This study aimed to determine the relevance of penetration limitation in the antifungal resistance of biofilms formed by C. albicans and NAC clinical isolates, using an agar disk diffusion assay...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762386/exposure-response-analysis-of-micafungin-in-neonatal-candidiasis-pooled-analysis-of-two-clinical-trials
#6
Laura L Kovanda, Thomas J Walsh, Daniel K Benjamin, Antonio Arrieta, David A Kaufman, P Brian Smith, Paolo Manzoni, Amit V Desai, Atsunori Kaibara, Peter L Bonate, William W Hope
BACKGROUND: Neonatal candidiasis causes significant morbidity and mortality in high risk infants. The micafungin dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg established for the treatment of neonatal candidiasis is based on a laboratory animal model of neonatal hematogenous Candida meningoencephalitis and pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) bridging studies. However, little is known about the how these PK-PD data translate clinically. METHODS: Micafungin plasma concentrations from infants were used to construct a population PK model using Pmetrics software...
June 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749387/invasive-candidiasis
#7
REVIEW
Peter G Pappas, Michail S Lionakis, Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Bart Jan Kullberg
Invasive candidiasis is an important health-care-associated fungal infection that can be caused by several Candida spp.; the most common species is Candida albicans, but the prevalence of these organisms varies considerably depending on geographical location. The spectrum of disease of invasive candidiasis ranges from minimally symptomatic candidaemia to fulminant sepsis with an associated mortality exceeding 70%. Candida spp. are common commensal organisms in the skin and gut microbiota, and disruptions in the cutaneous and gastrointestinal barriers (for example, owing to gastrointestinal perforation) promote invasive disease...
May 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749385/invasive-candidiasis
#8
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743305/five-year-national-surveillance-of-invasive-candidiasis-species-distribution-and-azole-susceptibility-from-the-china-hospital-invasive-fungal-surveillance-net-chif-net-study
#9
Meng Xiao, Zi-Yong Sun, Mei Kang, Da-Wen Guo, Kang Liao, Sharon C-A Chen, Fanrong Kong, Xin Fan, Jing-Wei Cheng, Xin Hou, Meng-Lan Zhou, Ying Li, Shu-Ying Yu, Jing-Jing Huang, He Wang, Ying-Chun Xu
Data on the epidemiology of invasive candidiasis (IC) and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates in China are still limited. Here we report surveillance for IC from the China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net (CHIF-NET) Study. Sixty-five tertiary hospitals collected 8,829 Candida isolates from August 1, 2009 to July 31, 2014. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization -time of flight mass spectrometry supplemented by rDNA sequencing was used to define species, and fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibilities determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute disk diffusion method...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738604/five-year-profile-of-candidemia-at-an-indian-trauma-center-high-rates-of-candida-auris-blood-stream-infections
#10
Purva Mathur, Fahmi Hasan, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Rajesh Malhotra, Kamini Walia, Anuradha Chowdhary
BACKGROUND: Candidemia is a potentially fatal infection with varied distribution of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility profiles. The recent emergence of Candida auris in invasive candidiasis is a cause for concern. This study describes the profile of candidemia at an Indian tertiary care hospital and reports the emergence of Candida auris. METHODS: All patients diagnosed as having candidemia between 2012 to 2017 were studied. The isolates were identified using conventional methods, VITEK 2 and by the MALDI-TOF MS...
May 8, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720566/unexpected-kidney-restricted-role-for-il-17-receptor-signaling-in-defense-against-systemic-candida-albicans-infection
#11
Kritika Ramani, Chetan V Jawale, Akash H Verma, Bianca M Coleman, Jay K Kolls, Partha S Biswas
Kidney injury is a frequent outcome in patients with disseminated Candida albicans fungal infections. IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) signaling is critical for renal protection against disseminated candidiasis, but the identity and function of IL-17-responsive cells in mediating renal defense remains an active area of debate. Using BM chimeras, we found that IL-17R signaling is required only in nonhematopoietic cells for immunity to systemic C. albicans infection. Since renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) are highly responsive to IL-17 in vitro, we hypothesized that RTEC might be the dominant target of IL-17 activity in the infected kidney...
May 3, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703467/morbidity-mortality-and-costs-associated-with-venous-thromboembolism-in-hospitalized-patients-with-cancer
#12
Gary H Lyman, Eva Culakova, Marek S Poniewierski, Nicole M Kuderer
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with cancer. METHODS: Hospitalization data reported on adult cancer patients at US medical centers between 1995 and 2012 were analyzed. Cancer diagnosis, presence of VTE, comorbidities, and infectious complications were based on ICD-9-CM codes. RESULTS: Nearly six million hospitalizations of 3,146,388 individual patients with cancer were reported with VTE observed in 8...
April 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699503/comparison-of-the-incidence-clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-invasive-candidiasis-in-children-and-neonates
#13
Jen-Fu Hsu, Mei-Yin Lai, Chiang-Wen Lee, Shih-Ming Chu, I-Hsyuan Wu, Hsuan-Rong Huang, I-Ta Lee, Ming-Chou Chiang, Ren-Huei Fu, Ming-Horng Tsai
BACKGROUND: Invasive candidiasis differs greatly between children and neonates. We aimed to investigate the different therapeutic approaches and their effects on treatment outcomes of these two groups. METHODS: Episodes of neonatal invasive candidiasis were compared with non-neonatal pediatric episodes during a 12-year cohort study. Clinical isolates were documented by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and DNA sequencing, and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed...
April 24, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695056/burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-argentina
#14
Fernando O Riera, Juan P Caeiro, David W Denning
The number of fungal infections at any given time in Argentina is not known. Here we estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Argentina for the first time. Specific population statistics were searched from multiple sources, local literature was identified, and estimates made. Some additional data were sourced from the Ministry of Health, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) program, and national haematology and transplant societies. Argentina has a population of 43.8 million, with 25% of this total being children under 15 years...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686548/evaluating-predictors-of-invasive-candidiasis-in-patients-with-and-without-candidemia-on-micafungin
#15
Amy Carr, Peter Colley, Mezgebe Berhe, Hoa L Nguyen
Numerous risk factors have been linked to invasive candidiasis; however, they are nonspecific and often trigger empiric antifungal therapy in a large number of patients. Identification of more precise predictors could promote judicious use of empiric echinocandins. In this retrospective review, 127 patients with blood cultures positive for Candida spp. were compared to a randomly selected cohort of 134 patients on empiric micafungin for ≥3 days and with blood cultures negative for Candida spp. Factors associated with candidemia included total parenteral nutrition (TPN; 26...
January 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668124/a-reduced-dose-of-fluconazole-as-primary-antifungal-prophylaxis-is-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-invasive-fungal-infections-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-from-a-hla-identical-sibling
#16
B Sarina, J Mariotti, S Bramanti, L Morabito, R Crocchiolo, A Rimondo, F Tordato, D Pocaterra, E Casari, Chiara De Philippis, C Carlo-Stella, A Santoro, L Castagna
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFI) represent a common side effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT), resulting in increased non relapse mortality (NRM) and reduced overall survival (OS) rates. 75-days of Fluconazole 400 mg/day represents the standard primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) after allo-SCT, especially for low-risk transplants. However, the ideal dosage of fluconazole has never been tested. METHODS: Here we report the experience of our institution on 113 consecutive patients receiving an allo-SCT from a HLA identical sibling between 1999 and 2015, where PAP consisted of fluconazole 100 mg/day only during the pre-engraftment phase...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666281/pathogenic-effects-of-ifit2-and-interferon-%C3%AE-during-fatal-systemic-candida-albicans-infection
#17
Marcin Stawowczyk, Shamoon Naseem, Valeria Montoya, Darren P Baker, James Konopka, Nancy C Reich
A balanced immune response to infection is essential to prevent the pathology and tissue damage that can occur from an unregulated or hyperactive host defense. Interferons (IFNs) are critical mediators of the innate defense to infection, and in this study we evaluated the contribution of a specific gene coding for IFIT2 induced by type I IFNs in a murine model of disseminated Candida albicans Invasive candidiasis is a frequent challenge during immunosuppression or surgical medical interventions, and C. albicans is a common culprit that leads to high rates of mortality...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650567/genome-sequence-of-a-multidrug-resistant-candida-haemulonii-isolate-from-a-patient-with-chronic-leg-ulcers-in-israel
#18
Nancy A Chow, Lalitha Gade, Dhwani Batra, Lori A Rowe, Phalasy Juieng, Ronen Ben-Ami, Vladimir N Loparev, Anastasia P Litvintseva
Candida haemulonii is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that can cause invasive candidiasis. Here, we report the first genome sequence of C. haemulonii (isolate B11899) generated using PacBio sequencing technology. The estimated genome size was 13.3 Mb, with a GC content of 45.19%.
April 12, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628692/invasive-fungal-infection-in-immunocompetent-trauma-patients-a-case-series
#19
Senthil Loganathan, Gowtham A E Ajay, U Thyagarajan, Raj D Gokul
Zygomycosis is the third leading cause of invasive fungal infection after candidiasis and aspergillosis. Although zygomycosis mostly affects immunocompromised individuals trauma may potentiate infection in immunocompetent individuals. The mortality rate of Zygomycosis is around 50% due to angioinvasion. Here we report a series of 5 cases of angio invasive fungal infection in immunocompetent individuals who sustained trauma in urban areas, out of which only one patient survived following high above knee amputation...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628014/invasive-candidiasis-in-critically-ill-patients-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-2-tertiary-care-centers
#20
Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Hussam Sakkijha, Raymond Khan, Tarek Aldabbagh, Aron Toledo, Pendo Ntinika, Sameera M Al Johani, Yaseen M Arabi
BACKGROUND: Invasive candidiasis is not uncommon in critically ill patients but has variable epidemiology and outcomes between intensive care units (ICUs). This study evaluated the epidemiology, characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients with invasive candidiasis at 6 ICUs of 2 tertiary care centers. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of all adults admitted to 6 ICUs in 2 different hospitals between August 2012 and May 2016 and diagnosed to have invasive candidiasis by 2 intensivists according to predefined criteria...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
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