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Invasive candidiasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651026/binding-of-human-plasminogen-and-high-molecular-mass-kininogen-by-cell-surface-exposed-proteins-of-candida-parapsilosis
#1
Justyna Karkowska-Kuleta, Dorota Zajac, Grazyna Bras, Oliwia Bochenska, Maria Rapala-Kozik, Andrzej Kozik
Pathogenic microbes can recruit to their cell surface human proteins that are components of important proteolytic cascades involved in coagulation, fibrinolysis and innate immune response. Once located at the bacterial or fungal surface, such deployed proteins might be utilized by pathogens to facilitate invasion and dissemination within the host organism by interfering with functionality of these systems or by exploiting specific activity of the bound enzymes. Aim of the study presented here was to characterize this phenomenon in Candida parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice - an important causative agent of systemic fungal infections (candidiases and candidemias) in humans...
June 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646949/recognition-and-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-neonates
#2
Joanne L Calley, Adilia Warris
Fungal infections largely caused by Candida species are responsible for a significant disease burden in neonates and invasive candidiasis in hospitalised neonates has high associated morbidity and mortality. Early initiation of antifungal treatment improves outcome but the recognition and diagnosis of systemic fungal infection in this population is difficult due to the non-specific clinical presentation and the high false negative rate of cultures. There is a need for a practical, sensitive and rapid diagnostic test to enhance identification and early treatment...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636889/complications-of-hematopoietic-stem-transplantation-fungal-infections
#3
REVIEW
Ali S Omrani, Reem S Almaghrabi
Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at increased risk of invasive fungal infections, especially during the early neutropenic phase and severe graft-versus-host disease. Mold-active prophylaxis should be limited to the highest risk groups. Empiric antifungal therapy for HSCT with persistent febrile neutropenia is associated with unacceptable response rates, unnecessary antifungal therapy, increased risk of toxicity, and inflated costs. Empiric therapy should not be a substitute for detailed work up to identify the cause of fever in such patients...
June 13, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620958/a-network-meta-analysis-of-primary-prophylaxis-for-invasive-fungal-infection-in-haematological-patients
#4
REVIEW
L P Leonart, F S Tonin, V L Ferreira, S T S Penteado, A Wiens, F A Motta, R Pontarolo
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Antifungal prophylaxis is an option to reduce the incidence of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in haematological patients. To date, no network meta-analysis (NMA) of high-quality evidence (double-blind randomized controlled trials) has been performed on this subject. This systematic review and NMA aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of different antifungal agents used for prophylaxis of IFI in patients with haematological disorders. METHODS: A systematic review was performed according to PRISMA and Cochrane recommendations...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617137/drugs-currently-under-investigation-for-the-treatment-of-invasive-candidiasis
#5
Matthew W McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
The widespread implementation of immunosuppressants, immunomodulators, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and solid organ transplantation in clinical practice has led to an expanding population of patients who are at risk for invasive candidiasis, which is the most common form of fungal disease among hospitalized patients in the developed world. The emergence of drug-resistant Candida spp. has added to the morbidity associated with invasive candidiasis and novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed...
June 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607100/control-of-mucosal-candidiasis-in-the-zebrafish-swimbladder-depends-on-neutrophils-that-block-filament-invasion-and-drive-extracellular-trap-production
#6
Remi L Gratacap, Allison K Scherer, Brittany G Seman, Robert T Wheeler
Candida albicans is a ubiquitous mucosal commensal that is normally prevented from causing acute or chronic invasive disease. Neutrophils contribute to protection in oral infection but exacerbate vulvovaginal candidiasis. To dissect the role of neutrophils during mucosal candidiasis we took advantage of a new, transparent zebrafish swimbladder infection model. Intravital microscopic tracking of individual animals revealed that blocking neutrophil recruitment leads to rapid mortality in this model through faster disease progression...
June 12, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600810/infections-from-7-clinical-trials-of-ixekizumab-an-anti-interleukin-17a-monoclonal-antibody-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis
#7
K A Papp, H Bachelez, A Blauvelt, K L Winthrop, R Romiti, M Ohtsuki, N Acharya, D K Braun, L Mallbris, F Zhao, W Xu, C D Walls, B Strober
BACKGROUND: Infections are associated with biologic therapies in psoriasis. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the incidence of infections in moderate-to-severe psoriasis patients treated with ixekizumab, an anti-interleukin (IL)-17A monoclonal antibody. METHODS: Infections are summarised from an integrated database of 7 controlled and uncontrolled ixekizumab psoriasis trials. Data are presented from placebo-controlled induction (Weeks 0-12; UNCOVER-1, -2, and -3) and maintenance periods (Weeks 12-60; UNCOVER-1 and -2) as well as all ixekizumab-exposed patients pooled from all 7 trials...
June 10, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597394/invasive-candidiasis-in-brescia-italy-analysis-of-species-distribution-and-antifungal-susceptibilities-during-seven-years
#8
M A De Francesco, G Piccinelli, M Gelmi, F Gargiulo, G Ravizzola, G Pinsi, L Peroni, C Bonfanti, A Caruso
The aims of this study were to evaluate the epidemiology of nosocomial candidemia in a large teaching hospital in Brescia, Italy, and the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of isolates. We analyzed 196 isolates causing fungemia in patients admitted in our hospital, between January 2009 and December 2015. Strains were identified by VITEK 2 and MALDI-TOF MS. MICs were determined by Sensititre Yeast OneTM. The resistance was defined by using the revised CLSI breakpoints/epidemiological cutoff values to assign susceptibility or wild type to systemic antifungal agents...
June 8, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588560/molecular-epidemiology-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-glabrata-in-china-august-2009-to-july-2014-a-multi-center-study
#9
Xin Hou, Meng Xiao, Sharon C-A Chen, Fanrong Kong, He Wang, Yun-Zhuo Chu, Mei Kang, Zi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Dong Hu, Ruo-Yu Li, Juan Lu, Kang Liao, Tie-Shi Hu, Yu-Xing Ni, Gui-Ling Zou, Ge Zhang, Xin Fan, Yu-Pei Zhao, Ying-Chun Xu
Candida glabrata is an increasingly important cause of invasive candidiasis. In China, relatively little is known of the molecular epidemiology of C. glabrata and of its antifungal susceptibility patterns. Here we studied 411 non-duplicate C. glabrata isolates from 411 patients at 11 hospitals participating in the National China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net program (CHIF-NET; 2010-2014). Genotyping was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) employing six genetic loci and by microsatellite analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585001/testing-antifungal-vaccines-in-an-animal-model-of-invasive-candidiasis-and-in-human-mucosal-candidiasis
#10
Esther Segal
The following article will concentrate on the NDV-3 anti-Candida and Staphylococcus vaccine. The vaccine is composed of the N-terminal portion of the Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (Als3p) and aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant. The vaccine conferred protection to mice against experimental vaginal, oral, and intravenous challenge with C. albicans. Due to the sequence and structural homology of the Als3p with Staphylococcus aureus surface proteins, the vaccine also protected against experimental skin and IV infection with S...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584152/pharmacodynamic-optimization-for-treatment-of-invasive-candida-auris-infection
#11
Alexander J Lepak, Miao Zhao, Elizabeth L Berkow, Shawn R Lockhart, David R Andes
Candida auris is an emerging, multidrug-resistant threat. The pharmacodynamics of three antifungal classes against nine C. auris strains was explored using a murine invasive candidiasis model. The total drug median PD target associated with net stasis was a fluconazole AUC/MIC of 26, amphotericin B Cmax/MIC of 0.9, and micafungin AUC/MIC of 54. The micafungin PD targets for C. auris were ≥20-fold lower than other Candida species in this animal model. Clinically relevant micafungin exposures produced the most killing among the three classes...
June 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579084/j%C3%A3-vea-consensus-guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-candida-peritonitis-and-other-intra-abdominal-fungal-infections-in-non-neutropenic-critically-ill-adult-patients
#12
Javier Pemán, Gerardo Aguilar, Juan Carlos Valía, Miguel Salavert, David Navarro, Rafael Zaragoza
BACKGROUND: Although the management of the invasive candidiasis has improved in the last decade, controversial issues yet remain, especially in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to Candida peritonitis and other forms of intra-abdominal fungal infections. AIMS: We sought to identify core clinical knowledge about intra-abdominal fungal infections and to achieve high-agreement recommendations required to care for critically ill adult patients with Candida peritonitis and other forms of intra-abdominal fungal infection...
May 31, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573191/invasive-candida-infections-in-liver-transplant-recipients-clinical-features-and-risk-factors-for-mortality
#13
Matteo Bassetti, Maddalena Peghin, Alessia Carnelutti, Elda Righi, Maria Merelli, Filippo Ansaldi, Cecilia Trucchi, Cristiano Alicino, Assunta Sartor, Joost Wauters, Katrien Lagrou, Carlo Tascini, Francesco Menichetti, Alessio Mesini, Francesco G De Rosa, Leonel Lagunes, Jordi Rello, Arnaldo L Colombo, Antonio Vena, Patricia Munoz, Mario Tumbarello, Gabriele Sganga, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Claudio Viscoli
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among liver transplant recipients (LTRs). In this patient population, invasive Candida infections (ICIs) account for the large majority of cases. To date, only small studies and case-series analysing clinical presentation and risk factors for mortality in LTRs with ICIs are available. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter multinational study in 10 centers in Europe and Brazil...
May 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523422/usefulness-of-the-non-conventional-caenorhabditis-elegans-model-to-assess-candida-virulence
#14
Marcelo Ortega-Riveros, Iker De-la-Pinta, Cristina Marcos-Arias, Guillermo Ezpeleta, Guillermo Quindós, Elena Eraso
Invasive candidiasis is caused mainly by Candida albicans, but other Candida species have increasing etiologies. These species show different virulence and susceptibility levels to antifungal drugs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the usefulness of the non-conventional model Caenorhabditis elegans to assess the in vivo virulence of seven different Candida species and to compare the virulence in vivo with the in vitro production of proteinases and phospholipases, hemolytic activity and biofilm development capacity...
May 18, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515716/antifungal-activity-of-the-biphosphinic-cyclopalladate-c7a-against-candida-albicans-yeast-forms-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Julian E Muñoz, Diego C P Rossi, Kelly Ishida, Cristina C Spadari, Marcia S C Melhem, Daniel M Garcia, Antonio C F Caires, Carlos P Taborda, Elaine G Rodrigues
Vulvovaginal and invasive candidiasis are frequent conditions in immunosuppressed individuals caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp. Fluconazole and Amphotericin B are the main drugs used to fight the infection. However, resistance to fluconazole and other azole antifungal drugs is an important clinical problem that encourages the search for new therapeutic alternatives. In this work, we evaluate the antifungal activity of the biphosphinic cyclopalladate C7a in the in vitro and in vivo model...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506303/erratum-to-contribution-of-candida-biomarkers-and-dna-detection-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-candidiasis-in-icu-patients-with-severe-abdominal-conditions
#16
Cristóbal León, Sergio Ruiz-Santana, Pedro Saavedra, Carmen Castro, Ana Loza, Ismail Zakariya, Alejandro Úbeda, Manuel Parra, Desirée Macías, José Ignacio Tomás, Antonio Rezusta, Alejandro Rodríguez, Frederic Gómez, Estrella Martín-Mazuelos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501934/cx-4945-the-protein-kinase-ck2-inhibitor-and-anti-cancer-drug-shows-anti-fungal-activity
#17
Maciej Masłyk, Monika Janeczko, Aleksandra Martyna, Konrad Kubiński
CX-4945 is a selective inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 exhibiting clinical significance. Its antitumor properties arise from the abrogation of CK2-mediated pro-survival cellular pathways. The presented data reveal the influence of CX-4945 on the growth of yeast cells showing variable potency against Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strains with different contents of CK2 subunits. The catalytic subunit CK2α appears to sensitize yeast to the CX-4945 action. Moreover, the compound suppresses hyphal growth and cell adhesion of Candida albicans, thereby abolishing some hallmarks of invasiveness of the pathogen...
May 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501465/candiduria-evidence-based-approach-to-management-are-we-there-yet
#18
REVIEW
W A Alfouzan, R Dhar
Candiduria is considered one of the most controversial issues in patient management. Neither the diagnosis nor the optimal treatment options are standardized. This is further complicated by lack of defined laboratory criteria for diagnosis as most of the studies were set for bacterial rather than fungal urinary tract infection (UTI). Furthermore, since Candida species is a known commensal of the genitourinary tract its presence in the urine sample adds ambiguity to making a definitive diagnosis of candidal UTI...
May 10, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499959/impact-of-initial-empirical-antifungal-agents-on-the-outcome-of-critically-ill-patients-with-invasive-candidiasis-analysis-of-the-china-scan-study
#19
Na Cui, Hao Wang, Haibo Qiu, Ruoyu Li, Dawei Liu
The effect of different empirical antifungal agents on the clinical outcome of critically ill patients with invasive candidiasis (IC) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, 136 patients with proven IC who received empirical therapy in the China-SCAN multicentre study were retrospectively analysed. Initial empirical antifungal monotherapy consisted of a triazole [fluconazole (n = 61), voriconazole (n = 20) or itraconazole (n = 12)] or an echinocandin (n = 43). Hospital mortality as the primary outcome and global responses (clinical and microbiological) were assessed...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483525/the-two-transmembrane-regions-of-candida-albicans-dfi1-contribute-to-its-biogenesis
#20
Sanna E Herwald, Paola C Zucchi, Shumin Tan, Carol A Kumamoto
The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans forms invasive filaments that grow into host tissues during disease. The glycosylated, integral plasma membrane protein Dfi1 is important for invasive filamentation in a laboratory model, and for lethality in murine disseminated candidiasis. However, Dfi1 topology and essential domains for Dfi1 biogenesis were undefined. Sequence analysis predicted that Dfi1 contains two transmembrane regions, located near the N- and C-termini. In this communication, we show that Dfi1 remains an integral membrane protein despite deletion of either predicted transmembrane region, whereas deletion of both regions results in a soluble protein...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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