Read by QxMD icon Read


Jae Hyun Yoo, Yunhye Oh, Byongsu Jang, Jihye Song, Jiwon Kim, Seonwoo Kim, Jiyoung Lee, Hye-Yeon Shin, Jeong-Yi Kwon, Yun-Hee Kim, Bumseok Jeong, Yoo-Sook Joung
Objective: Equine-assisted activities and therapy (EAA/T) have been used as adjunct treatment options for physical and psychosocial rehabilitation. However, the therapeutic effects on resting-state brain function have not yet been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of EAA/T on participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by comparing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) signals and their clinical correlates. Methods: Ten participants with ADHD participated in a 12-week EAA/T program without any medication...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jaakko Paasonen, Raimo A Salo, Joanna K Huttunen, Olli Gröhn
PURPOSE: Anesthesia is a major confounding factor in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments attributed to its effects on brain function. Recent evidence suggests that parameters obtained with resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) are coupled with anesthetic depth. Therefore, we investigated whether parameters obtained with rs-fMRI, such as functional connectivity (FC), are also directly related to blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses. METHODS: A simple rs-fMRI protocol was implemented in a pharmacological fMRI study to evaluate the coupling between hemodynamic responses and FC under five anesthetics (α-chloralose, isoflurane, medetomidine, thiobutabarbital, and urethane)...
October 23, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Mònica Giménez, Andrés Guinea-Izquierdo, Victoria Villalta-Gil, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Cinto Segalàs, Marta Subirà, Eva Real, Jesús Pujol, Ben J Harrison, Josep Maria Haro, Joao R Sato, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Narcís Cardoner, Pino Alonso, José Manuel Menchón, Carles Soriano-Mas
The extent of functional abnormalities in frontal-subcortical circuits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still unclear. Although neuroimaging studies, in general, and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI), in particular, have provided relevant information regarding such alterations, rs-fMRI studies have been typically limited to the analysis of between-region functional connectivity alterations at low-frequency signal fluctuations (i.e., <0.08 Hz). Conversely, the local attributes of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signal across different frequency bands have been seldom studied, although they may provide valuable information...
October 22, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Davide Zanchi, Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Claudia Suenderhauf, Katharina Janach, Carel W le Roux, Sven Haller, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, Bettina K Wölnerhanssen, Stefan Borgwardt
Depending on their protein content, single meals can rapidly influence the uptake of amino acids into the brain and thereby modify brain functions. The current study investigates the effects of two different amino acids on the human gut-brain system, using a multimodal approach, integrating physiological and neuroimaging data. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, L-tryptophan, L-leucine, glucose and water were administered directly into the gut of 20 healthy subjects. Functional MRI (fMRI) in a resting state paradigm (RS), combined with the assessment of insulin and glucose blood concentration, was performed before and after treatment...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marloes A M Janssen, Max Hinne, Ronald J Janssen, Marcel A van Gerven, Stefan C Steens, Bozena Góraj, Peter P Koopmans, Roy P C Kessels
Despite long-term successful treatment with cART, impairments in cognitive functioning are still being reported in HIV-infected patients. Since changes in cognitive function may be preceded by subtle changes in brain function, neuroimaging techniques, such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have become useful tools in assessing HIV-associated abnormalities in the brain. The purpose of the current study was to examine the extent to which HIV infection in virologically suppressed patients is associated with disruptions in subcortical regions of the brain in comparison to a matched HIV-negative control group...
October 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Daihong Liu, Shanshan Duan, Jiuquan Zhang, Chaoyang Zhou, Minglong Liang, Xuntao Yin, Ping Wei, Jian Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with cognitive impairment. However, its neurological mechanism remains elusive. Combining regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) analyses, the present study aimed to investigate brain functional alterations in middle-aged T2DM patients, which could provide complementary information for the neural substrates underlying T2DM-associated brain dysfunction. Twenty-five T2DM patients and 25 healthy controls were involved in neuropsychological testing and structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data acquisition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Svyatoslav Vergun, Wolfgang Gaggl, Veena A Nair, Joshua I Suhonen, Rasmus M Birn, Azam S Ahmed, M Elizabeth Meyerand, James Reuss, Edgar A DeYoe, Vivek Prabhakaran
Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have significantly expanded the field's understanding of functional brain activity of healthy and patient populations. Resting state (rs-) fMRI, which does not require subjects to perform a task, eliminating confounds of task difficulty, allows examination of neural activity and offers valuable functional mapping information. The purpose of this work was to develop an automatic resting state network (RSN) labeling method which offers value in clinical workflow during rs-fMRI mapping by organizing and quickly labeling spatial maps into functional networks...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jared B Smith, Zhifeng Liang, Glenn D R Watson, Kevin D Alloway, Nanyin Zhang
The claustrum is a brain region whose function remains unknown, though many investigators suggest it plays a role in conscious attention. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has revealed how anesthesia alters many functional connections in the brain, but the functional role of the claustrum with respect to the awake versus anesthetized states remains unknown. Therefore, we employed a combination of seed-based RS-fMRI and neuroanatomical tracing to reveal how the anatomical connections of the claustrum are related to its functional connectivity during quiet wakefulness and the isoflurane-induced anesthetic state...
October 6, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Takashi Yamada, Takashi Itahashi, Motoaki Nakamura, Hiromi Watanabe, Miho Kuroda, Haruhisa Ohta, Chieko Kanai, Nobumasa Kato, Ryu-Ichiro Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: The insular cortex comprises multiple functionally differentiated sub-regions, each of which has different patterns of connectivity with other brain regions. Such diverse connectivity patterns are thought to underlie a wide range of insular functions, including cognitive, affective, and sensorimotor processing, many of which are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although past neuroimaging studies of ASD have shown structural and functional abnormalities in the insula, possible alterations in the sub-regional organization of the insula and the functional characteristics of each sub-region have not been examined in the ASD brain...
2016: Molecular Autism
Mariachiara Longarzo, M Quarantelli, M Aiello, M Romano, A Del Prete, C Cimminiello, S Cocozza, G Olivo, C Loguercio, L Trojano, D Grossi
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by visceral hypersensitivity likely related to altered processing of sensory stimuli along the brain-gut axis. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated structural and functional alteration of several brain areas involved in bodily representation, e.g. the insula, in patients with IBS. By means of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) we searched for alteration of functional connectivity within the network involved in self-bodily consciousness...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Wei Zhou, Xiaojuan Wang, Zhichao Xia, Yanchao Bi, Ping Li, Hua Shu
When reading a narrative text, both the dorsal and ventral visual systems are activated. To illustrate the patterns of interactions between the dorsal and ventral visual systems in text reading, we conducted analyses of functional connectivity (FC) and effective connectivity (EC) in a left-hemispheric network for reading-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data. In reading-driven fMRI (Experiment 1), we found significant FCs among the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the visual word form area (VWFA), and there were top-down effects from the left MFG to the left IPS, from the left MFG to the VWFA, and from the left IPS to the VWFA...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Shuang Zhang, Jian-Mei Chen, Li Kuang, Jun Cao, Han Zhang, Ming Ai, Wo Wang, Shu-Dong Zhang, Su-Ya Wang, Shi-Jing Liu, Wei-Dong Fang
BACKGROUND: Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 15- to 29-year-olds in China, and 60 % of suicidal patients have a history of depression. Previous brain imaging studies have shown that depression and suicide may be associated with abnormal activity in default mode network (DMN) regions. However, no study has specifically investigated the relationship between DMN functional activity and suicidal behavior in depressed individuals. Therefore, in the present study, we directly investigated features of DMN brain activity in adolescent patients with histories of depression and attempted suicide...
September 29, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Linda Douw, Daniel G Wakeman, Naoaki Tanaka, Hesheng Liu, Steven M Stufflebeam
The brain is a dynamic, flexible network that continuously reconfigures. However, the neural underpinnings of how state-dependent variability of dynamic functional connectivity (vdFC) relates to cognitive flexibility are unclear. We therefore investigated flexible functional connectivity during resting-state and task-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI and t-fMRI, resp.) and performed separate, out-of-scanner neuropsychological testing. We hypothesize that state-dependent vdFC between the frontoparietal network (FPN) and the default mode network (DMN) relates to cognitive flexibility...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience
A Sabisz, N Treder, M Fijałkowska, M Sieminski, J Fijałkowska, P Naumczyk, R Nowak, M Jaguszewski, N Cwalina, M Gruchała, E Szurowska, M Fijałkowski
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is often triggered by emotional or physical stress factors. Psychological variables can have an impact on the physical manifestations of heart disease. TTC may reflect stunned myocardium from a neurogenic source. Anatomical connections between different parts of the brain can be visualized by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and thus, expressed by diffusion coefficient - fractional anisotropy (FA). A novel tool used to evaluate brain function in the absence of task is resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI)...
September 18, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Song Wang, Ming Zhou, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Guangxiang Chen, Meiyun Wang, Qiyong Gong
As a personality trait, grit involves the tendency to strive to achieve long-term goals with continual passion and perseverance and plays an extremely crucial role in personal achievement. However, the neural mechanisms of grit remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between grit and the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in 217 healthy adolescent students using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). We found that an individual's grit was negatively related to the regional fALFF in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), which is involved in self-regulation, planning, goal setting and maintenance, and counterfactual thinking for reflecting on past failures...
September 26, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Shuangfeng Liu, Siyun Shu, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: The marginal division of neostriatum (MrD) is a flat, pan-shaped zone between the neostriatum and the globus pallidus, and previous documents demonstrated that it was involved in the modulation of pain. The aim of this study is to investigate the roles of the MrD of the human brain in the chronicization migraine using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). METHODS: Conventional MRI, 3D structure images, and rs-fMRI were performed in 18 patients with episodic migraines (EM), 16 patients with chronic migraine (CM), 44 patients with medication overuse headache plus chronic migraine (MOH + CM), and 32 normal controls (NC)...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Jianping Li, Xuemei Chen, Wei Ye, Wenyu Jiang, Huihua Liu, Jinou Zheng
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate alterations in the alertness-related network in patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) and explore the functional mechanisms of impaired alertness. METHODS: We recruited twenty patients with rTLE and eighteen matched healthy controls. All participants took a neuropsychological attention network test (ANT) and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scanning. We extracted the alertness-related network using multiple independent component analysis (MICA)...
September 16, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Bernadet L Klaassens, Serge A R B Rombouts, Anderson M Winkler, Helene C van Gorsel, Jeroen van der Grond, Joop M A van Gerven
Psychopharmacological research, if properly designed, may offer insight into both timing and area of effect, increasing our understanding of the brain's neurotransmitter systems. For that purpose, the acute influence of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (30 mg) and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (8 mg) was repeatedly measured in 12 healthy young volunteers with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). Eighteen RS-fMRI scans were acquired per subject during this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study...
September 13, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
L Schlaffke, L Schweizer, N N Rüther, R Luerding, M Tegenthoff, C Bellebaum, T Schmidt-Wilcke
The brain undergoes adaptive changes during learning. Spontaneous neural activity has been proposed to play an important role in acquiring new information and/or improve the interaction of task related brain regions. A promising approach is the investigation of resting state functional connectivity (rs-fc) and resting state networks, which rely on the detection of interregional correlations of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations. Using Morse Code (MC) as a model to investigate neural correlates of lexico-semantic learning we sought to identify patterns in rs-fc that predict learning success and/or undergo dynamic changes during a 10-day training period...
September 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Allison Fitch, Hayley Smith, Sylvia B Guillory, Zsuzsa Kaldy
Current neuroscientific models describe the functional neural architecture of visual working memory (VWM) as an interaction of the frontal-parietal control network and more posterior areas in the ventral visual stream (Jonides et al., 2008; D'Esposito and Postle, 2015; Eriksson et al., 2015). These models are primarily based on adult neuroimaging studies. However, VWM undergoes significant development in infancy and early childhood, and the goal of this mini-review is to examine how recent findings from neuroscientific studies of early VWM development can be reconciled with this model...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"