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Ar d

Jill E Preminger, Ann M Rothpletz
Purpose: Hearing impairment (HI) is a chronic condition; thus, even with treatment, residual participation restrictions and activity limitations typically remain. Individuals must learn to self-manage their HI. The purpose of this research note is to review components of successful Internet-based self-management programs and to evaluate group auditory rehabilitation (AR) programs with varying content, in order to make recommendations for the design of future Internet-based self-management programs...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
M Li, H E Muñoz, A Schmidt, B Guo, C Lei, K Goda, D Di Carlo
Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis) has recently been attracting attention as a potential renewable source for the production of biofuels, livestock feed, cosmetics, and dietary supplements. Research has focused on strain isolation, productivity improvement, nutrient and resource allocation, and co-product production, key steps that ultimately determine the economic viability and compatibility of the biomass produced. To achieve these characteristics, approaches to select E. gracilis mutants with desirable properties, such as high wax ester content, high growth rate, and high environmental tolerance for biodiesel and biomass production, are needed...
October 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
David Jarrard, Badrinath Konety, Wei Huang, Tracy Downs, Jill Kolesar, Kyung Mann Kim, Tom Havighurst, Joel Slaton, Margaret G House, Howard L Parnes, Howard H Bailey
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer (PCa) represents an important target for chemoprevention given its prolonged natural history and high prevalence. Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that vitamin D and genistein (soy isoflavone) may decrease PCa progression. The effect of vitamin D on prostate epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation is well documented and genistein may augment this affect through inhibition of the CYP24 enzyme, which is responsible for intracellular vitamin D metabolism...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Nada Lallous, Eric Leblanc, Ravi Sn Munuganti, Mohamed D H Hassona, Nader Al Nakouzi, Shannon Awrey, Helene Morin, Mani Roshan-Moniri, Kriti Singh, Sam Lawn, Takeshi Yamazaki, Hans H Adomat, Christophe Andre, Mads Daugaard, Robert N Young, Emma S Tomlinson Guns, Paul S Rennie, Artem Cherkasov
The development of new anti-androgens such as enzalutamide or androgen synthesis inhibitors like abiraterone have improved patient outcomes in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer (PCa). However, due to the development of drug resistance and tumor cell survival, the majority of these patients progress to the refractory state of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Thus, newer therapeutic agents and a better understanding of their mode of action are needed for treating these CRPC patients. We demonstrated previously that targeting the Binding Function 3 (BF3) pocket of the androgen receptor (AR) has great potential for treating patients with CRPC...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Ion Cristobal, Blanca Torrejón, Manuel Pedregal, Federico G Rojo, Jesús García-Foncillas
Dear Editor, We have read with great interest the recent published manuscript by Caiazza et al. (2016), which provides novel exciting findings about the potential therapeutic value of enzalutamide in patients with androgen receptor (AR)-positive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Some previous studies have shown promising antitumor effects of this drug in breast tumors. Thus, enzalutamide-mediated AR inhibition has been reported to reduce proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, and invasion and increases apoptosis of TNBC cells in vitro and decrease viability of TNBC xenografts in vivo (Cochrane et al...
October 20, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Meng Wu, Lishann Ingram, Ezequiel J Tolosa, Renzo E Vera, Qianjin Li, Sungjin Kim, Yongjie Ma, Demetri D Spyropoulos, Zanna Beharry, Jiaoti Huang, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico, Houjian Cai
Although the differentiation of oncogenically transformed basal progenitor cells is one of the key steps in prostate tumorigenesis, the mechanisms mediating this cellular process are still largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that an expanded p63+ and CK5+ basal/progenitor cell population, induced by the concomitant activation of oncogenic Kras(G12D) and androgen receptor (AR) signaling, underwent cell differentiation in vivo. The differentiation process led to suppression of the p63 expressing cells with a decreased number of CK5+ basal cells, but an increase of CK8+ luminal tumorigenic cells, and revealed a hierarchal lineage pattern consisting of p63+/CK5+ progenitor, CK5+/CK8+ transitional progenitor, and CK8+ differentiated luminal cells...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Chunming Liu, Stefanie A Drew, Eric Borsting, Amy Escobar, Lawrence Stark, Christopher Chase
The purpose of this study is to examine the potential relationship between tonic accommodation (TA), near work induced TA-adaptation and the steady state closed-loop accommodation response (AR). Forty-two graduate students participated in the study. Various aspects of their accommodation system were objectively measured using an open-field infrared auto-refractor (Grand Seiko WAM-5500). Tonic accommodation was assessed in a completely dark environment. The association between TA and closed-loop AR was assessed using linear regression correlations and t-test comparisons...
October 17, 2016: Vision Research
Jie Dai, Jun Zhou, Hongmei Liu, Kaixun Huang
Selenite and ebselen supplementation has been shown to possess anti-cataract potential in some experimental animal models of cataract, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-cataract effects and the underlying mechanisms of selenite and ebselen supplementation on galactose induced cataract in rats, a common animal model of sugar cataract. Transmission electron microscopy images of lens fiber cells (LFC) and lens epithelial cells (LEC) were observed in D-galactose-induced experimental cataractous rats treated with or without selenite and ebselen, also redox homeostasis and expression of proteins such as selenoprotein R (SELR), 15kD selenoprotein (SEP15), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), β-crystallin protein, aldose reductase (AR) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) were estimated in the lenses...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Xinyang Liu, Sukryool Kang, William Plishker, George Zaki, Timothy D Kane, Raj Shekhar
The purpose of this work was to develop a clinically viable laparoscopic augmented reality (AR) system employing stereoscopic (3-D) vision, laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS), and electromagnetic (EM) tracking to achieve image registration. We investigated clinically feasible solutions to mount the EM sensors on the 3-D laparoscope and the LUS probe. This led to a solution of integrating an externally attached EM sensor near the imaging tip of the LUS probe, only slightly increasing the overall diameter of the probe...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
Przemysław B Radwański, Hsiang-Ting Ho, Rengasayee Veeraraghavan, Lucia Brunello, Bin Liu, Andriy E Belevych, Sathya D Unudurthi, Michael A Makara, Silvia G Priori, Pompeo Volpe, Antonis A Armoundas, Wolfgang H Dillmann, Bjorn C Knollmann, Peter J Mohler, Thomas J Hund, Sándor Györke
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrhythmias are a leading cause of death in the US. Vast majority of these arrhythmias including catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) are associated with increased levels of circulating catecholamines and involve abnormal impulse formation secondary to aberrant Ca(2+) and Na(+) handling. However, the mechanistic link between β-AR stimulation and the subcellular/molecular arrhythmogenic trigger(s) remains elusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed functional and structural studies to assess Ca(2+) and Na(+) signaling in ventricular myocyte as well as surface electrocardiograms in mouse models of cardiac calsequestrin (CASQ2)-associated CPVT...
June 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
Giuseppe Riva, Rosa M Baños, Cristina Botella, Fabrizia Mantovani, Andrea Gaggioli
During life, many personal changes occur. These include changing house, school, work, and even friends and partners. However, the daily experience shows clearly that, in some situations, subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: (a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); (b) this reduction is achieved through (1) an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2) an internal or external reorganization of this experience; (c) personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages that however happen in discontinuous and non-linear ways; and (d) clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Zhongli Chen, Andreas Schäffer
The anti-seasonal hydrology with 30m water fluctuations in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) of China attracts growing environmental and ecological concerns. We investigated the biotransformation of the herbicide propanil in plants dominating in the littoral zone of the TGR by applying the (14)C-ring-labeled herbicide into non-aseptic hydroponic plant systems (Cynodon dactylon, Nelumbo nucifera and Bidens pilosa), aseptic plants (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) and cell suspension cultures (C. dactylon and L. minor)...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
L Müller, D Weinert
In a natural environment, social abilities of an animal are important for its survival. Particularly, it must recognize its own social rank and the social rank of a conspecific and have a good social memory. While the role of the circadian system for object and spatial recognition and memory is well known, the impact of the social rank and circadian disruptions on social recognition and memory were not investigated so far. In the present study, individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance of Djungarian hamsters revealing different circadian phenotypes were investigated...
October 13, 2016: Behavioural Processes
E S Tikhonov, D V Shovkun, M Snelder, M P Stehno, Y Huang, M S Golden, A A Golubov, A Brinkman, V S Khrapai
We investigate transport and shot noise in lateral normal-metal-3D topological-insulator-superconductor contacts, where the 3D topological insulator (TI) is based on Bi. In the normal state, the devices are in the elastic diffusive transport regime, as demonstrated by a nearly universal value of the shot noise Fano factor F_{N}≈1/3 in magnetic field and in a reference normal-metal contact. In the absence of magnetic field, we identify the Andreev reflection (AR) regime, which gives rise to the effective charge doubling in shot noise measurements...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
A M Wolff, T P Rasmussen, C R Wichern, M R Peterson, M M Stayton, D P Thomas
The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate whether a pericardiectomy (PERI) alters training- or myocardial infarction (MI)-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), chamber geometry, gene expression and/or running performance. Mice were randomized into 6 groups: naïve control (CONT)-sedentary (Sed), CONT-trained (Tr), PERI-Sed, PERI-Tr, MI-Sed and MI-Tr. MI mice also received a pericardiectomy as part of the MI surgical procedure. 10 weeks of treadmill running resulted in enhanced running performance-to-exhaustion in all 3 trained groups (CONT-Tr, PERI-Tr, MI-Tr) compared to sedentary cohorts (P<0...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Candela R González, Mariano Ar Amer, Alfredo D Vitullo, Silvia I González-Calvar, María I Vacas
Saliva is the first barrier to entry of bacteria and viruses into the body. The submandibular glands (SMG) contribute to the maintenance of oral health and regulation of immune/ inflam matory responses. Previous studies suggest that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) may contribute to salivary gland fibrosis but the expression of the TGFB1 system in the SMG has not been elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze in rat SMG the immunolocalization of TGFB1 and its specific receptors ALK5 (profibrotic) and ALK1 (proproliferative) and the coreceptor endoglin (EDG) in a bilateral experimental periodontitis (EP) model (cotton thread ligature around the neck of the first lower molars) for 1 and 6 weeks...
September 2016: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
G J Wirth, A Haitel, M Moschini, F Soria, T Klatte, M R Hassler, K Bensalah, A Briganti, J A Karam, Y Lotan, V Margulis, J D Raman, M Remzi, N Rioux-Leclercq, B D Robinson, M Rouprêt, C G Wood, S F Shariat
PURPOSE: This study aims to determine the significance of androgen receptor (AR) expression in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UTUC). METHODS: AR expression was assessed on tissue microarrays containing specimens of 737 patients with UTUC who underwent radical nephroureterectomy with curative intent. AR expression was correlated with clinical and pathological tumor features as well as recurrence-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS)...
October 11, 2016: World Journal of Urology
Elgene Lim, Gerard Tarulli, Neil Portman, Theresa Hickey, Wayne D Tilley, Carlo Palmieri
The estrogen receptor-α (herein called ER) is a nuclear sex steroid receptor (SSR) that is expressed in approximately 75% of breast cancers. Therapies that modulate ER action have substantially improved the survival of patients with ER-positive breast cancer, but resistance to treatment still remains a major clinical problem. Treating resistant breast cancer requires co-targeting of ER and alternate signalling pathways that contribute to resistance to improve the efficacy and benefit of currently available treatments...
October 11, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Edel McCrea, Tristan M Sissung, Douglas K Price, Cindy H Chau, William D Figg
Significant therapeutic progress has been made in treating prostate cancer in recent years. Drugs such as enzalutamide, abiraterone, and cabazitaxel have expanded the treatment armamentarium, although it is not completely clear which of these drugs are the most-effective option for individual patients. Moreover, such advances have been tempered by the development of therapeutic resistance. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature pertaining to the biochemical effects of AR variants and their consequences on prostate cancer therapies at both the molecular level and in clinical treatment...
October 7, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Benjamin S Truscott, Mark W Kelly, Katie J Potter, Michael N R Ashfold, Yuri A Mankelevich
We report a combined experimental and modelling study of microwave-activated dilute CH4/N2/H2 plasmas, as used for chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond, under very similar conditions to previous studies of CH4/H2, CH4/H2/Ar and N2/H2 gas mixtures. Using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, absolute column densities of CH(X, v=0), CN(X, v=0) and NH(X, v=0) radicals in the hot plasma have been determined as functions of height, z, source gas mixing ratio, total gas pressure, p, and input power, P. Optical emission spectroscopy has been used to investigate, with respect to the same variables, the relative number densities of electronically excited species, namely H atoms, CH, C2, CN and NH radicals, and triplet N2 molecules...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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