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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443061/detecting-the-lyme-disease-spirochete-borrelia-burgdorferi-in-ticks-using-nested-pcr
#1
Melanie K B Wills, Andrea M Kirby, Vett K Lloyd
Lyme disease is a serious vector-borne infection that is caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato family of spirochetes, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes ticks. The primary etiological agent in North America is Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. As geographic risk regions expand, it is prudent to support robust surveillance programs that can measure tick infection rates, and communicate findings to clinicians, veterinarians, and the general public. The molecular technique of nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) has long been used for this purpose, and it remains a central, inexpensive, and robust approach in the detection of Borrelia in both ticks and wildlife...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432801/leptospira-interrogans-infection-leads-to-il-1%C3%AE-and-il-18-secretion-from-a-human-macrophage-cell-line-through-reactive-oxygen-species-and-cathepsin-b-mediated-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation
#2
Shijun Li, Ming Wang, David M Ojcius, Bijun Zhou, Weilin Hu, Ying Liu, Qing Ma, Guangpeng Tang, Dingming Wang, Jie Yan
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. Although there is a large diversity of clinical signs and symptoms, a severe inflammatory response is common to all leptospirosis patients. The mechanism of IL-1βß secretion during Leptospira infection has been previously studied in mouse macrophages. However, the outcome of Leptospira infection is very different in human and murine macrophages, and the mechanisms responsible for IL-1β secretion in human macrophages had not been investigated...
February 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426412/new-host-species-for-leptospira-borgpetersenii-and-leptospira-interrogans-serovar-copenhageni
#3
Valeria Carolina Colombo, Ignacio Gamietea, Sylvia Grune Loffler, Bibiana Fel Brihuega, Pablo Martin Beldomenico
We investigated the presence of infection by Leptospira spp. in an assembly of Sigmodontinae rodents from the Paraná Delta, Argentina. Rodents were captured in places with natural grassland, implanted forest, with and without raising cattle and in sites prone and not prone to flooding. The DNA was amplified from cultured isolates by PCR and Leptospira spp. strains were genotyped using Multiple - Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA). We isolated Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni from Oligoryzomys nigripes, Leptospira borgpetersenii from Scapteromys aquaticus and Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae from Akodon azarae...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420552/human-borrelia-miyamotoi-infection-in-california-serodiagnosis-is-complicated-by-multiple-endemic-borrelia-species
#4
Peter J Krause, Madeleine Carroll, Natalia Fedorova, Janna Brancato, Cecilia Dumouchel, Fredua Akosa, Sukanya Narasimhan, Erol Fikrig, Robert S Lane
To determine whether human Borrelia miyamotoi infection occurs in the far-western United States, we tested archived sera from northwestern California residents for antibodies to this emerging relapsing fever spirochete. These residents frequently were exposed to I. pacificus ticks in a region where B. miyamotoi tick infection has been reported. We used a two-step B. miyamotoi rGlpQ assay and a B. miyamotoi whole-cell lysate (WCL) assay to detect B. miyamotoi antibody. We also employed Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia burgdorferi WCL assays to examine if these Borrelia induce cross reacting antibody to B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410787/a-secondary-syphilis-rash-with-scaly-target-lesions
#5
Xavier Marchand-Senécal, Sapha Barkati, Danielle Bouffard, Valérie Martel-Laferrière
A 40-year-old man reported a 5-day history of fever and malaise, followed by a pruritic generalized rash. He had well-demarcated erythematous papules and plaques with scaling. The patient was diagnosed with secondary syphilis. The skin biopsy showed a psoriasiform lichenoid dermatitis with plasma cells. The anti-T. pallidum antibody confirmed the presence of spirochetes. He was also found to be hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus positive. The characteristic rash of secondary syphilis may appear as maculopapular, evolving initially from macules to small reddish-brown papules with minor scaling later...
February 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402399/tick-borne-illness-lyme-disease
#6
REVIEW
Larry M Bush, Maria T Vazquez-Pertejo
Lyme disease is the most commonly reported tick-borneillness in the United States. Thecausative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted by 4 species of Ixodes tick species. Over 90% of US cases occur in northeasternstates from Maine to Virginia, and in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan. Infection also takes place in northern California and Oregon. Lyme borreliosis is also diagnosed in parts of Europe, China, and Japan. The white-footed mouse is the primary animal reservoir for B. burgdorferi in the U...
February 2, 2018: Disease-a-month: DM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399316/adjunct-use-of-low-level-laser-therapy-on-the-treatment-of-necrotizing-ulcerative-gingivitis-a-case-report
#7
Seda Sevinç Özberk, Hasan Gündoğar, Süleyman Ziya Şenyurt, Kamile Erciyas
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is a microbial disease of the gingiva in the context of an impaired host response. This form of gingivitis is relatively rare. NUG is an infection characterized by gingival necrosis presenting as "punched-out" papillae, spontaneous bleeding, pain, oral malodor, and pseudomembrane formation. The primary predisposing factors are bacterial plaque and an inadequate diet, but smoking and psychological stress may also affect the disease severity. NUG is associated with a characteristic bacterial flora, which includes fusiform bacteria, spirochetes, and Prevotella intermedia...
2018: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398603/pathogen-transmission-in-relation-to-duration-of-attachment-by-ixodes-scapularis-ticks
#8
REVIEW
Lars Eisen
The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the deer tick virus lineage of Powassan virus (Powassan virus disease); the protozoan parasite Babesia microti (babesiosis); and multiple bacterial disease agents including Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis), Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii (Lyme disease), Borrelia miyamotoi (relapsing fever-like illness, named Borrelia miyamotoi disease), and Ehrlichia muris eauclairensis (a minor causative agent of ehrlichiosis)...
January 31, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394366/amblyomma-americanum-acari-ixodidae-ticks-are-not-vectors-of-the-lyme-disease-agent-borrelia-burgdorferi-spirocheatales-spirochaetaceae-a-review-of-the-evidence
#9
Ellen Y Stromdahl, Robyn M Nadolny, Graham J Hickling, Sarah A Hamer, Nicholas H Ogden, Cory Casal, Garrett A Heck, Jennifer A Gibbons, Taylor F Cremeans, Mark A Pilgard
In the early 1980s, Ixodes spp. ticks were implicated as the key North American vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt and Brenner) (Spirocheatales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Concurrently, other human-biting tick species were investigated as potential B. burgdorferi vectors. Rashes thought to be erythema migrans were observed in patients bitten by Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks, and spirochetes were visualized in a small percentage of A...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393443/nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-is-a-key-modulator-in-the-signaling-pathway-of-borrelia%C3%A2-burgdorferi-bmpa%C3%A2-induced-inflammatory-chemokines-in-murine-microglia-bv2-cells
#10
Zhenyu Zhao, Lvyan Tao, Aihua Liu, Mingbiao Ma, Haiyi Li, Hua Zhao, Jiaru Yang, Shiming Wang, Yirong Jin, Xian Shao, Fukai Bao
Lyme disease, caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is a tick‑borne zoonosis. Lyme neuroborreliosis is a principal manifestation of Lyme disease and its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins caused similar inflammatory effects as exhibited in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Basic membrane protein A (BmpA) is one of the dominant lipoproteins in the Borrelia burgdorferi membrane. In addition, nuclear factor κ‑B (NF‑κB) modulates the regulation of gene transcription associated with immunity and inflammation; however, in unstimulated cells, NF‑κB is combined with the inhibitor of NF‑κB (IκB‑β)...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388162/epidemiological-investigation-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-in-horses-in-the-municipality-of-sinop-mt-brazil
#11
Suyane Nayara Garcia Socoloski, Bruno Gomes de Castro, Matheus Dias Cordeiro, Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca, Marcio Barizon Cepeda, Rafael Romero Nicolino, Luciano Bastos Lopes
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is the main etiological agent of Lyme disease (LD) in the USA. In Brazil, it is believed that a similar spirochete is the causal agent of the Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome (BYS), a zoonosis also transmitted by ticks, whose clinical manifestations are similar to those of LD. Despite the epidemiological importance, there are no studies reporting the presence and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi among horses in Mato Grosso State. The aim of this study was to detect and measure the frequency of IgG antibodies anti-B...
January 31, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383532/first-report-of-borrelia-miyamotoi-in-an-ixodes-ricinus-tick-in-augsburg-germany
#12
Sharon Page, Christina Daschkin, Sirli Anniko, Viktoria Krey, Carsten Nicolaus, Horst-Guenter Maxeiner
Borrelia miyamotoi, a spirochete found in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus, is thought to cause relapsing fever. The disease caused by this bacterium can manifest with high fever, fatigue and other symptoms. It may also lead to central nervous system involvement with symptoms similar to meningoencephalitis. DNA from ticks from the greater Augsburg region in Germany was subjected to qPCR for Borrelia spp., followed by nested PCR and subsequent sequencing for species identification of the qPCR positive samples. From 112 ticks, 20 were found to be positive for Borrelia...
January 30, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382879/borrelia-burgdorferi-surface-protein-lmp1-facilitates-pathogen-dissemination-through-ticks-as-studied-by-an-artificial-membrane-feeding-system
#13
Juraj Koci, Quentin Bernard, Xiuli Yang, Utpal Pal
In its natural infection cycle, the pathogen of Lyme borreliosis transits between a tick vector and a mammalian host. As relatively a minor fraction of spirochetes transits between the host and the vector precluding their reliable detection at early infection, artificial membrane feeders emerged as useful tools to study roles of spirochete proteins in pathogen entry, persistence, and exit through ticks. Here we report the development of a modified membrane feeder to study the role of a Borrelia burgdorferi surface protein called Lmp1 in spirochete transitions between the murine host and ticks...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365151/lack-of-evidence-for-transovarial-transmission-of-the-lyme-disease-spirochete-borrelia-mayonii-by-infected-female-ixodes-scapularis-acari-ixodidae-ticks
#14
Nicole E Breuner, Andrias Hojgaard, Lars Eisen
The recently described Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia mayonii is associated with human illness in the Upper Midwest of the United States. Experimental laboratory studies and field observations on natural infection indicate that B. mayonii is maintained by horizontal transmission between tick vectors and vertebrate reservoirs. While maintaining a colony of Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks infected with the B. mayonii type strain (MN14-1420), we had an opportunity to examine whether infected females may pass this spirochete transovarially to their offspring...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363884/a-widely-conserved-bacterial-cytoskeletal-component-influences-unique-helical-shape-and-motility-of-the-spirochete-leptospira-biflexa
#15
Katrina M Jackson, Cindi Schwartz, Jenny Wachter, Patricia A Rosa, Philip E Stewart
Leptospires and other members of the evolutionarily ancient phylum of Spirochaetes are bacteria often characterized by long, highly motile spiral- or wave-shaped cells. Morphology and motility are critical factors in spirochete physiology, contributing to the ability of these bacteria to successfully colonize diverse environments. However, the mechanisms conferring the helical structure of Leptospira spp. have yet to be fully elucidated. We have identified 5 L. biflexa bactofilin proteins, a recently characterized protein family with cytoskeletal properties...
January 24, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318719/crystal-structures-of-mglb-2-tp0684-a-topologically-variant-d-glucose-binding-protein-from-treponema-pallidum-reveal-a-ligand-induced-conformational-change
#16
Chad A Brautigam, Ranjit K Deka, Wei Z Liu, Michael V Norgard
Previously, we determined the crystal structure of apo-TpMglB-2, a D-glucose-binding component of a putative ABC transporter from the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum. The protein had an unusual topology for this class of proteins, raising the question of whether the D-glucose-binding mode would be different in TpMglB-2. Here, we present the crystal structures of a variant of TpMglB-2 with and without D-glucose bound. The structures demonstrate that, despite its aberrant topology, the protein undergoes conformational changes and binds D-glucose similarly to other Mgl-type proteins, likely facilitating D-glucose uptake in T...
January 10, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311239/induction-of-il-10-by-borrelia-burgdorferi-is-regulated-by-the-action-of-cd14-dependent-p38-mapk-and-camp-mediated-chromatin-remodeling
#17
Bikash Sahay, Kathleen Bashant, Nicole J Nelson, Rebeca L Patsey, Shiva Kumar Gadila, Rebecca Boohaker, Ashutosh Verma, Klemen Strle, Timothy J Sellati
Host genotype influences the severity of murine Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi C57BL/6 (B6) mice develop mild, whereas C3H/HeN (C3H) mice develop severe Lyme arthritis. Differential expression of interleukin 10 (IL-10) has long been associated with mouse strain differences in Lyme pathogenesis; however, the underlying mechanism(s) of this genotype-specific IL-10 regulation remained elusive. Herein we reveal a cAMP-mediated mechanism of IL-10 regulation in B6 macrophages that is substantially diminished in C3H macrophages...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288009/borrelia-persica-infection-in-rock-hyraxes
#18
Gabriela Kleinerman, Roni King, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Gad Baneth
Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is an acute infectious disease caused by arthropod-borne spirochetes of the genus Borrelia and characterized by recurrent episodes of fever. Borrelia persica, the causative agent of this disease in Israel, is transmitted by the argasid tick Ornithodoros tholozani. There is little information about the maintenance and possible vertebrate reservoirs of B. persica in nature, but the tick O. tholozani is known to feed on animals that enter its habitat in caves, rock crevices and shady environments...
December 9, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276701/characterization-of-ixodes-ricinus-fibrinogen-related-proteins-ixoderins-discloses-their-function-in-the-tick-innate-immunity
#19
Helena Honig Mondekova, Radek Sima, Veronika Urbanova, Vojtech Kovar, Ryan O M Rego, Libor Grubhoffer, Petr Kopacek, Ondrej Hajdusek
Ticks are important vectors of serious human and animal disease-causing organisms, but their innate immunity can fight invading pathogens and may have the ability to reduce or block transmission to mammalian hosts. Lectins, sugar-binding proteins, can distinguish between self and non-self-oligosaccharide motifs on pathogen surfaces. Although tick hemolymph possesses strong lectin activity, and several lectins have already been isolated and characterized, little is known about the implementation of these molecules in tick immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259089/peptide-uptake-is-essential-for-borrelia-burgdorferi-viability-and-involves-structural-and-regulatory-complexity-of-its-oligopeptide-transporter
#20
Ashley M Groshong, Abhishek Dey, Irina Bezsonova, Melissa J Caimano, Justin D Radolf
Borrelia burgdorferi is an extreme amino acid (AA) auxotroph whose genome encodes few free AA transporters and an elaborate oligopeptide transport system (B. burgdorferi Opp [BbOpp]). BbOpp consists of five oligopeptide-binding proteins (OBPs), two heterodimeric permeases, and a heterodimeric nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Homology modeling based on the crystal structure of liganded BbOppA4 revealed that each OBP likely binds a distinct range of peptides. Transcriptional analyses demonstrated that the OBPs are differentially and independently regulated whereas the permeases and NBDs are constitutively expressed...
December 19, 2017: MBio
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