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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532428/practices-of-lyme-disease-diagnosis-and-treatment-by-general-practitioners-in-quebec-2008-2015
#1
Salima Gasmi, Nicholas H Ogden, Patrick A Leighton, Ariane Adam-Poupart, François Milord, L Robbin Lindsay, Sapha Barkati, Karine Thivierge
BACKGROUND: Lyme disease (LD), a multisystem infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (B. burgdorferi), is the most reported vector-borne disease in North America, and by 2020, 80% of the population in central and eastern Canada could live in LD risk areas. Among the key factors for minimising the impact of LD are the accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of patients bitten by ticks. In this study, the practices of Quebec general practitioners (GPs) on LD diagnosis and management of patients bitten by infected ticks are described...
May 22, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527874/pressor-support-during-a-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-initiation-of-treatment-for-weil-s-disease
#2
Randi Connor-Schuler, Anee Khan, Nikhil Goyal, Erin Zimny
We present a case of Weil's disease complicated by a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) after initiation of antibiotics while in the emergency department requiring invasive monitoring and vasopressor support. The case is followed by a brief review of the JHR which is rarely observed with treatment of leptospirosis. A healthy 28-year-old female who recently returned from the Caribbean presented to the emergency department with flu-like symptoms. The patient appeared jaundiced with conjunctival suffusion and was ultimately treated with the appropriate antibiotics for leptospirosis in the ED...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522991/brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-and-b-pilosicoli-proteins-recognized-by-sera-of-challenged-pigs
#3
Vanessa Casas, Arantza Rodríguez-Asiain, Roberto Pinto-Llorente, Santiago Vadillo, Montserrat Carrascal, Joaquin Abian
The spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli are pig intestinal pathogens that are the causative agents of swine dysentery (SD) and porcine intestinal spirochaetosis (PIS), respectively. Although some inactivated bacterin and recombinant vaccines have been explored as prophylactic treatments against these species, no effective vaccine is yet available. Immunoproteomics approaches hold the potential for the identification of new, suitable candidates for subunit vaccines against SD and PIS. These strategies take into account the gene products actually expressed and present in the cells, and thus susceptible of being targets of immune recognition...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508584/human-intestinal-spirochetosis-in-japanese-patients-aged-less-than-20-years-histological-analysis-of-colorectal-biopsy-and-surgical-specimens-obtained-from-479-patients
#4
Shojiro Ichimata, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Mai Kusakari, Yoshiko Nakayama, Shiho Asaka, Tatsuya Negishi, Eriko Kasuga, Takehisa Matsumoto, Takayuki Honda
Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is a condition in which spirochetes attach to and colonize the colorectal epithelium. To our knowledge, no comprehensive studies of HIS in young patient have been published in a developed country. This study aimed to determine the incidence and clinicopathological manifestations of HIS in Japanese patients aged less than 20 years. We retrospectively reviewed 3605 biopsy and 92 surgical specimens obtained from 479 patients admitted to Shinshu University Hospital between 1997 and 2014...
May 15, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501504/transmission-of-borrelia-miyamotoi-sensu-lato-relapsing-fever-group-spirochetes-in-relation-to-duration-of-attachment-by-ixodes-scapularis-nymphs
#5
Nicole E Breuner, Marc C Dolan, Adam J Replogle, Christopher Sexton, Andrias Hojgaard, Karen A Boegler, Rebecca J Clark, Lars Eisen
Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing fever group spirochetes are emerging as causative agents of human illness (Borrelia miyamotoi disease) in the United States. Host-seeking Ixodes scapularis ticks are naturally infected with these spirochetes in the eastern United States and experimentally capable of transmitting B. miyamotoi. However, the duration of time required from tick attachment to spirochete transmission has yet to be determined. We therefore conducted a study to assess spirochete transmission by single transovarially infected I...
April 5, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495966/lynn-margulis-and-the-endosymbiont-hypothesis-50-years-later
#6
Michael W Gray
The 1967 article "On the Origin of Mitosing Cells" in the Journal of Theoretical Biology by Lynn Margulis (then Lynn Sagan) is widely regarded as stimulating renewed interest in the long-dormant endosymbiont hypothesis of organelle origins. In her article, not only did Margulis champion an endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and plastids from bacterial ancestors, but she also posited that the eukaryotic flagellum (undulipodium in her usage) and mitotic apparatus originated from an endosymbiotic, spirochete-like organism...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489846/-gastrointestinal-bleeding-and-acute-hepatic-failure-by-leptospirosis-an-entity-that-should-not-be-forgotten
#7
Carlos Alventosa Mateu, Lydia Plana Campos, Laura Larrey Ruíz, Raquel Acedo Mayordomo, Laura Sanchís Artero, Laura Peño Muñoz, Paola Concepción Núñez Martínez, Génesis Aurora Castillo López, Mercedes Latorre Sánchez, Juan José Urquijo Ponce, Moisés Diago Madrid, Javier Sempere García-Argüelles
Leptospirosis disease is caused by the spirochete Leptospira. It is a worldwide distribution zoonosis, with predominance in the tropics. In Spain, it is not frequent but some cases have been noticed especially in humid areas surrounded by rivers, lakes or ponds, such as Catalonia, Andalucia or the Valencian Community. It is transmitted by a variety of animals such as cows or rats, that are infected either by direct contact with these animals or their urine, or indirectly by consuming or being in contact with water contaminated by their urine...
January 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484210/identification-of-tp0751-pallilysin-as-a-treponema-pallidum-vascular-adhesin-by-heterologous-expression-in-the-lyme-disease-spirochete
#8
Wei-Chien Andrew Kao, Helena Pětrošová, Rhodaba Ebady, Karen V Lithgow, Pablo Rojas, Yang Zhang, Yae-Eun Kim, Yae-Ram Kim, Tanya Odisho, Nupur Gupta, Annette Moter, Caroline E Cameron, Tara J Moriarty
Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, is a highly invasive spirochete pathogen that uses the vasculature to disseminate throughout the body. Identification of bacterial factors promoting dissemination is crucial for syphilis vaccine development. An important step in dissemination is bacterial adhesion to blood vessel surfaces, a process mediated by bacterial proteins that can withstand forces imposed on adhesive bonds by blood flow (vascular adhesins). The study of T. pallidum vascular adhesins is hindered by the uncultivable nature of this pathogen...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482848/when-a-patient-suspected-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-turns-out-to-be-diagnosed-with-an-infectious-disease-a-review-of-lyme-arthritis-in-children
#9
REVIEW
Krzysztof Orczyk, Joanna Świdrowska-Jaros, Elżbieta Smolewska
The Lyme arthritis is a common manifestation of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete. Despite its infectious background, the inflammation clinically and histopatologically resembles juvenile idiopathic arthritis. As it affects a considerable number of Lyme disease patients, it should be routinely considered in differential diagnosis. Development of arthritis is partially dependent on spirochetal factors, including the ribosomal spacer type and the sequence of outer surface protein C. Immunological background involves Th1-related response, but IL-17 provides an additional route of developing arthritis...
May 8, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479174/identification-of-a-defined-linear-epitope-in-the-ospa-protein-of-the-lyme-disease-spirochetes-that-elicits-bactericidal-antibody-responses-implications-for-vaccine-development
#10
Jerilyn R Izac, Lee D Oliver, Christopher G Earnhart, Richard T Marconi
The lipoprotein OspA is produced by the Lyme disease spirochetes primarily in unfed ticks. OspA production is down-regulated by the blood meal and it is not produced in mammals except for possible transient production during late stage infection in patients with Lyme arthritis. Vaccination with OspA elicits antibody (Ab) that can target spirochetes in the tick midgut during feeding and inhibit transmission to mammals. OspA was the primary component of the human LYMErix™ vaccine. LYMErix™ was available from 1998 to 2002 but then pulled from the market due to declining sales as a result of unsubstantiated concerns about vaccination induced adverse events and poor efficacy...
May 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475453/presence-of-antibodies-to-leptospira-spp-in-black-tailed-prairie-dogs-cynomys-ludovicianus-and-beavers-castor-canadensis-in-northwestern-mexico
#11
Andrés M López-Pérez, Gerardo Carreón-Arroyo, Daniel Atilano, Ana L Vigueras-Galván, Carlos Valdez, Daniel Toyos, Daniel Mendizabal, Jonathan López-Islas, Gerardo Suzán
Leptospires are widespread spirochete bacteria that infect mammals, including rodents and humans. We investigated the presence of Leptospira antibodies in two species of rodents from San Pedro River Basin (SPRB) in northwestern Mexico as part of the black-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) monitoring plan and the North American beaver ( Castor canadensis ) reintroduction program. We sampled a total of 26 black-tailed prairie dogs and three beavers during October-November 2015. We detected antibodies against Leptospira spp...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473801/cerebrovascular-manifestations-of-lyme-neuroborreliosis-a-systematic-review-of-published-cases
#12
REVIEW
Adam Garkowski, Joanna Zajkowska, Agata Zajkowska, Alina Kułakowska, Olga Zajkowska, Bożena Kubas, Dorota Jurgilewicz, Marcin Hładuński, Urszula Łebkowska
BACKGROUND: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a disease caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, involving the nervous system. It usually manifests as lymphocytic meningoradiculitis, but in rare cases, it can also lead to cerebrovascular complications. We aimed to perform a systematic review of all reported cases of LNB complicated by central nervous system vasculitis and stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of literature between May 1987 and December 2016 with patients who presented with cerebrovascular course of LNB...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468604/simultaneous-detection-of-chikungunya-virus-dengue-virus-and-human-pathogenic-leptospira-genomes-using-a-multiplex-taqman%C3%A2-assay
#13
Claude Giry, Bénédicte Roquebert, Ghislaine Li-Pat-Yuen, Philippe Gasque, Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee
BACKGROUND: In 2005-2006 a major epidemics of Chikungunya disease occurred in South-West Indian Ocean islands. In Reunion Island, the magnitude of Chikungunya infection related symptoms was high and with over 38% of serological prevalence in the population. This epidemics illustrated the potential threat of emerging arboviral diseases for inhabitants of Reunion Island and elsewhere since vectors are worldwide distributed. A sentinel surveillance network was set-up to detect emerging pathogens associated with fever over 38 °C and in the absence of known etiologic causes...
May 3, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455331/reverse-line-blot-based-detection-approaches-of-microbial-pathogens-in-ixodes-ricinus-ticks-collected-in-austria-and-impact-of-the-chosen-method
#14
Anna-Margarita Schötta, Michiel Wijnveld, Hannes Stockinger, Gerold Stanek
Ticks transmit a large number of pathogens capable of causing human disease. In this study, the PCR-reverse line blot (RLB) method was used to screen for pathogens in a total of 554 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from all provinces of Austria. These pathogens belong to the genera Borrelia, Rickettsiae, Anaplasma/(Neo-)Ehrlichia, Babesia, and CoxiellaThe pathogens with the highest detected prevalence were spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, in 142 ticks (25.6%). B. afzelii (80/142) was the most frequently detected species, followed by B...
April 28, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453906/oral-treponeme-major-surface-protein-sequence-diversity-and-distributions-within-periodontal-niches
#15
Meng You, Yuki Chan, Donnabella C Lacap-Bugler, Yong-Biao Huo, Wenling Gao, W Keung Leung, Rory M Watt
Treponema denticola and other species (phylotypes) of oral spirochetes are widely-considered to play important etiological roles in periodontitis and other oral infections. The major surface protein (Msp) of T. denticola is directly implicated in several pathological mechanisms. Here, we have analyzed msp sequence diversity across 68 strains of oral phylogroup 1 and 2 treponemes; including reference strains of T. denticola, Treponema putidum, Treponema medium, 'Treponema vincentii', and 'Treponema sinensis'...
April 28, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453837/borrelia-burgdorferi-bbi39-paralogs-targets-of-protective-immunity-reduce-pathogen-persistence-either-in-hosts-or-in-the-vector
#16
Preeti Singh, Deepshikha Verma, Brian T Backstedt, Simarjot Kaur, Manish Kumar, Alexis A Smith, Kavita Sharma, Xiuli Yang, José F Azevedo, Maria Gomes-Solecki, Ozlem Buyuktanir, Utpal Pal
Borrelia burgdorferi genome harbors several paralogous gene families (pgf) that can encode immunogenic proteins of unknown function. Protein-protein interaction assays using a transmission-blocking vaccine candidate, BBA52, as bait identified an interacting partner in spirochetes-a member of pgf 54, annotated as BBI39. We show that BBI39 is a surface-exposed membrane antigen that is immunogenic during spirochete infection, despite the gene being primarily transcribed in the vector with a transient expression in the host only at tick-bite sites...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444198/isolation-of-the-lyme-disease-spirochete-borrelia-mayonii-from-naturally-infected-rodents-in-minnesota
#17
Tammi L Johnson, Christine B Graham, Andrias Hojgaard, Nicole E Breuner, Sarah E Maes, Karen A Boegler, Adam J Replogle, Luke C Kingry, Jeannine M Petersen, Lars Eisen, Rebecca J Eisen
Borrelia mayonii is a newly described member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex that is vectored by the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say) and a cause of Lyme disease in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Vertebrate reservoir hosts involved in the enzootic maintenance of B. mayonii have not yet been identified. Here, we describe the first isolation of B. mayonii from naturally infected white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque) and an American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Erxleben) from Minnesota, thus implicating these species as potential reservoir hosts for this newly described spirochete...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443079/pleomorphism-and-viability-of-the-lyme-disease-pathogen-borrelia-burgdorferi-exposed-to-physiological-stress-conditions-a-correlative-cryo-fluorescence-and-cryo-scanning-electron-microscopy-study
#18
Marie Vancová, Nataliia Rudenko, Jiří Vaněček, Maryna Golovchenko, Martin Strnad, Ryan O M Rego, Lucie Tichá, Libor Grubhoffer, Jana Nebesářová
To understand the response of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi exposed to stress conditions and assess the viability of this spirochete, we used a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-scanning microscopy approach. This approach enables simple exposition of bacteria to various experimental conditions that can be stopped at certain time intervals by cryo-immobilization, examination of cell viability without necessity to maintain suitable culture conditions during viability assays, and visualization of structures in their native state at high magnification...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424696/spirochetal-lipoproteins-and-immune-evasion
#19
REVIEW
Alexei Christodoulides, Ani Boyadjian, Theodoros Kelesidis
Spirochetes are a major threat to public health. However, the exact pathogenesis of spirochetal diseases remains unclear. Spirochetes express lipoproteins that often determine the cross talk between the host and spirochetes. Lipoproteins are pro-inflammatory, modulatory of immune responses, and enable the spirochetes to evade the immune system. In this article, we review the modulatory effects of spirochetal lipoproteins related to immune evasion. Understanding lipoprotein-induced immunomodulation will aid in elucidating innate pathogenesis processes and subsequent adaptive mechanisms potentially relevant to spirochetal disease vaccine development and treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418310/diagnosis-and-management-of-borrelia-turicatae-infection-in-febrile-soldier-texas-usa
#20
Anna M Christensen, Elizabeth Pietralczyk, Job E Lopez, Christopher Brooks, Martin E Schriefer, Edward Wozniak, Benjamin Stermole
In August 2015, a soldier returned from field exercises in Texas, USA, with nonspecific febrile illness. Culture and sequencing of spirochetes from peripheral blood diagnosed Borrelia turicatae infection. The patient recovered after receiving doxycycline. No illness occurred in asymptomatic soldiers potentially exposed to the vector tick and prophylactically given treatment.
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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