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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644529/reciprocal-cooperation-of-phytochemicals-and-micronutrients-against-typical-and-atypical-forms-of-borrelia-spp
#1
Anna Goc, Alexandra Niedzwiecki, Matthias Rath
AIMS: Borrelia spp., a causative pathogenic factor of Lyme disease, has become a major public health threat. Current treatments based on antibiotics often lead to relapse after their withdrawal. Naturally derived substances that could work synergistically to display higher efficacy compared to the individual components may serve as a resource for the development of novel approaches to combat both active and latent forms of Borrelia spp. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using checkerboard assay, we investigated the anti-borreliae reciprocal cooperation of phytochemicals and micronutrients against two species of Borrelia selected as prevalent causes of Lyme disease in the US and Europe...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634527/an-atypical-presentation-of-a-re-emerging-disease
#2
Michael Hunter, Patrick Brine
Often referred to as 'The Great Mimicker', syphilis infections have been on the rise since 2000 including cases of primary and secondary syphilis where 19,999 were reported in the USA in 2014. ​​The increase in cases has led the USPSTF to recommend screening for syphilis infection in persons who are at increased risk of infection. ​​Changes in screening and re-emergence of the disease necessitates review of the multitude of circumstances a patient can present for care. Immunocompetent patients begin to show classic symptoms within 10-90 days following infection with the spirochete...
January 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619055/molecular-typing-of-leptospira-interrogans-serovar-hardjo-isolates-from-leptospirosis-outbreaks-in-brazilian-livestock
#3
Maria Raquel V Cosate, Tetsu Sakamoto, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Élvio C Moreira, Carlos G Regis da Silva, Bruno S A F Brasil, Camila S F Oliveira, Vasco Ariston de Azevedo, José Miguel Ortega, Rômulo C Leite, João Paulo Haddad
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira spp. This zoonotic disease is distributed globally and affects domestic animals, including cattle. Leptospira interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo and Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo remain important species associated with this reproductive disease in livestock production. Previous studies on Brazilian livestock have reported that L. interrogans serovar Hardjo is the most prevalent leptospiral agent in this country and is related to clinical signs of leptospirosis, which lead to economic losses in production...
June 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614210/congenital-syphilis-of-bone-a-potential-mimicker-of-childhood-histiocytoses
#4
Youran Zou, Matthew A Marcus, C Guy Castles, Scott E Kilpatrick
Involvement of the skeletal system by congenital syphilis is well documented in the literature, chiefly in the form of radiologic studies, including periostitis, osteitis, and osteochondritis. Because congenital syphilis is generally recognized clinically, tissue biopsy is virtually never performed. Therefore, the histopathologic findings are less well documented and mostly exist in the older literature. We report herein the clinicoradiologic and pathologic features of a 2-month-old infant who initially presented with absence of left arm movement...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611756/pathogenic-leptospira-secreted-proteases-target-the-membrane-attack-complex-a-potential-role-for-thermolysin-in-complement-inhibition
#5
Thais A Amamura, Tatiana R Fraga, Sílvio A Vasconcellos, Angela S Barbosa, Lourdes Isaac
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. This disease is common in tropical and subtropical areas, constituting a serious public health problem. Pathogenic Leptospira have the ability to escape the human Complement System, being able to survive when in contact with normal human serum. In a previous study, our group demonstrated that supernatants of pathogenic Leptospira (SPL) inhibit the three activation pathways of the Complement System. This inhibition can be directly correlated with the activity of secreted proteases, which cleave the Complement molecules C3, Factor B (Alternative Pathway), C4 and C2 (Classical and Lectin Pathways)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603685/epidemiology-of-leptospirosis-in-costa-rica-2011-2015
#6
REVIEW
Marcelo Pérez Carvajal, Kaila A Fagerstrom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leptospirosis is a global spirochete causing chronic renal disease that is increasing in Costa Rica. This paper identifies the prevalence and risk factors of leptospirosis in Costa Rica between the years of 2011-2015. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical cases of leptospirosis in Costa Rica demonstrated various symptoms: from asymptomatic diseases to severe cases of kidney and liver failure. A variety of diagnostic methods with varying specificities and sensitivities were employed...
2017: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600768/detection-and-differentiation-of-lyme-spirochetes-and-other-tick-borne-pathogens-from-blood-using-real-time-pcr-with-molecular-beacons
#7
Samantha Schlachter, Kamfai Chan, Salvatore A E Marras, Nikhat Parveen
Real-time PCR assays have recently been implemented in diagnostics for many bacterial pathogens, allowing rapid and accurate detection, which ultimately results in improved clinical intervention. Here, we describe a sensitive method of detection for three common tick-borne pathogens Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti since coinfections with these pathogens have started occurring with increasing frequency over the last several years in both North America and Europe. A shared geographic region, the same tick vectors, and similar transmission cycle all favor simultaneous transmission of these three tick-borne pathogens...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592866/a-protein-protein-interaction-dictates-borrelial-infectivity
#8
Meghna Thakur, Kavita Sharma, Kinlin Chao, Alexis A Smith, Osnat Herzberg, Utpal Pal
Two Borrelia burgdorferi interacting proteins, BB0238 and BB0323, play distinct roles in pathogen biology and infectivity although a significance of their interaction remained enigmatic. Here we identified the polypeptide segment essential for BB0238-BB0323 interaction and examined how it supports spirochete infectivity. We show that the interaction region in BB0323 requires amino acid residues 22-200, suggesting that the binding encompasses discontinuous protein segments. In contrast, the interaction region in BB0238 spans only 11 amino acids, residues 120-130...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591858/the-geographic-distribution-of-ixodes-scapularis-acari-ixodidae-revisited-the-importance-of-assumptions-about-error-balance
#9
A Townsend Peterson, Ram K Raghavan
The black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, is the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete that causes Lyme disease, in eastern North America. Lyme disease risk has generally been considered to be focused in the Northeast and the northern Midwest in the United States, yet the distribution of the vector extends considerably more broadly. A recent analysis of the distribution of the species using ecological niche modeling approaches painted an odd biogeographic picture, in which the species is distributed in a "rimming" distribution across the northern Midwest and Northeast, and along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the eastern United States, but not broadly in the interior of eastern North America...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583949/bosr-is-a-novel-fur-family-member-responsive-to-copper-and-regulating-copper-homeostasis-in-borrelia-burgdorferi
#10
Peng Wang, Zhuoteng Yu, Thomas J Santangelo, John Olesik, Yufeng Wang, Ekaterina Heldwein, Xin Li
The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family of DNA-binding proteins represses and/or activates gene transcription via divalent metal ion-dependent signal sensing. The Borrelia burgdorferi Fur homologue, also known as Borrelia oxidative stress regulator (BosR), promotes spirochetal adaptation to the mammalian host by directly repressing the lipoproteins required for tick colonization and indirectly activating those required for establishing infection in the mammal. Here, we examined whether the DNA-binding activity of BosR was regulated by any of the four most prevalent transition metal ions in B...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566314/t2-magnetic-resonance-based-direct-detection-of-three-lyme-disease-related-borrelia-species-in-whole-blood-samples
#11
Jessica L Snyder, Heidi Giese, Cheryl Bandoski-Gralinski, Jessica Townsend, Beck E Jacobson, Robert Shivers, Anna M Schotthoefer, Thomas R Fritsche, Clayton Green, Steven M Callister, John A Branda, Thomas J Lowery
In early Lyme disease (LD), serological testing is insensitive and seroreactivity may reflect active or past infection. Here, we evaluated a novel assay for the direct detection of three species of Borrelia spirochetes in whole blood. The T2 Magnetic Resonance (T2MR®) assay platform was used to amplify Borrelia DNA released from intact spirochetes and to detect amplicon. Analytical sensitivity was determined from blood spiked with known concentrations of spirochetes, and the assay's limit of detection was found to be in the single cell/mL range: 5 cells/mL for B...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550059/europe-wide-meta-analysis-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-prevalence-in-questing-ixodes-ricinus-ticks
#12
Martin Strnad, Václav Hönig, Daniel Růžek, Libor Grubhoffer, Ryan O M Rego
Lyme borreliosis is the most common zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks in Europe and North America. Despite having multiple tick vectors, the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, is vectored mainly by Ixodes ricinus in Europe. In the present study, we aimed to review and summarize the existing data published from 2010 to 2016 concerning the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes in questing I. ricinus The primary focus was to evaluate the infection rate of these bacteria in ticks, accounting for tick stage, adult tick gender, region and detection method, as well as to investigate any changes in prevalence over time...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549720/infection-with-borrelia-chilensis-in-ixodes-stilesi-ticks-collected-from-pudu-puda-deer
#13
Claudio Verdugo, Omar Jiménez, Carlos Hernández, Pedro Álvarez, Angelo Espinoza, Daniel González-Acuña
Lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne zoonosis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex spirochetes, which are maintained in transmission cycles among vertebrates and Ixodes ticks. Recently, a new genospecies within this complex, Borrelia chilensis, was described in Ixodes stilesi collected from the environment and from rodents in Chile. This tick also infests the native Southern pudu deer (Pudu puda). The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence, intensity of infestation, and aggregation of hard ticks on this deer species, and to determine the presence of borrelial pathogens in the ticks...
May 18, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545521/clinical-serological-and-echocardiographic-examination-of-healthy-field-dogs-before-and-after-vaccination-with-a-commercial-tetravalent-leptospirosis-vaccine
#14
Andrea M Spiri, Sabrina Rodriguez-Campos, José M Matos, Tony M Glaus, Barbara Riond, Claudia E Reusch, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Barbara Willi
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging bacterial zoonosis caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Severe disease has been reported in dogs in Europe despite vaccination with bivalent Leptospira vaccines. Recently, a tetravalent canine Leptospira vaccine (Nobivac® L4) was licenced in Europe. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical signs, microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titres, haematology, blood biochemistry, cardiac (c) Troponin I levels and echocardiography before and after vaccination with this tetravalent vaccine...
May 25, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545520/the-abundance-of-the-lyme-disease-pathogen-borrelia-afzelii-declines-over-time-in-the-tick-vector-ixodes-ricinus
#15
Maxime Jacquet, Dolores Genné, Alessandro Belli, Elodie Maluenda, Anouk Sarr, Maarten J Voordouw
BACKGROUND: The population dynamics of vector-borne pathogens inside the arthropod vector can have important consequences for vector-to-host transmission. Tick-borne spirochete bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) species complex cause Lyme borreliosis in humans and spend long periods of time (>12 months) in their Ixodes tick vectors. To date, few studies have investigated the dynamics of Borrelia spirochete populations in unfed Ixodes nymphal ticks. METHODS: Larval ticks from our laboratory colony of I...
May 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532428/practices-of-lyme-disease-diagnosis-and-treatment-by-general-practitioners-in-quebec-2008-2015
#16
Salima Gasmi, Nicholas H Ogden, Patrick A Leighton, Ariane Adam-Poupart, François Milord, L Robbin Lindsay, Sapha Barkati, Karine Thivierge
BACKGROUND: Lyme disease (LD), a multisystem infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (B. burgdorferi), is the most reported vector-borne disease in North America, and by 2020, 80% of the population in central and eastern Canada could live in LD risk areas. Among the key factors for minimising the impact of LD are the accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of patients bitten by ticks. In this study, the practices of Quebec general practitioners (GPs) on LD diagnosis and management of patients bitten by infected ticks are described...
May 22, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527874/pressor-support-during-a-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-initiation-of-treatment-for-weil-s-disease
#17
Randi Connor-Schuler, Anee Khan, Nikhil Goyal, Erin Zimny
We present a case of Weil's disease complicated by a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) after initiation of antibiotics while in the emergency department requiring invasive monitoring and vasopressor support. The case is followed by a brief review of the JHR which is rarely observed with treatment of leptospirosis. A healthy 28-year-old female who recently returned from the Caribbean presented to the emergency department with flu-like symptoms. The patient appeared jaundiced with conjunctival suffusion and was ultimately treated with the appropriate antibiotics for leptospirosis in the ED...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522991/brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-and-b-pilosicoli-proteins-recognized-by-sera-of-challenged-pigs
#18
Vanessa Casas, Arantza Rodríguez-Asiain, Roberto Pinto-Llorente, Santiago Vadillo, Montserrat Carrascal, Joaquin Abian
The spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli are pig intestinal pathogens that are the causative agents of swine dysentery (SD) and porcine intestinal spirochaetosis (PIS), respectively. Although some inactivated bacterin and recombinant vaccines have been explored as prophylactic treatments against these species, no effective vaccine is yet available. Immunoproteomics approaches hold the potential for the identification of new, suitable candidates for subunit vaccines against SD and PIS. These strategies take into account the gene products actually expressed and present in the cells, and thus susceptible of being targets of immune recognition...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508584/human-intestinal-spirochetosis-in-japanese-patients-aged-less-than-20-years-histological-analysis-of-colorectal-biopsy-and-surgical-specimens-obtained-from-479-patients
#19
Shojiro Ichimata, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Mai Kusakari, Yoshiko Nakayama, Shiho Asaka, Tatsuya Negishi, Eriko Kasuga, Takehisa Matsumoto, Takayuki Honda
Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is a condition in which spirochetes attach to and colonize the colorectal epithelium. To our knowledge, no comprehensive studies of HIS in young patient have been published in a developed country. This study aimed to determine the incidence and clinicopathological manifestations of HIS in Japanese patients aged less than 20 years. We retrospectively reviewed 3605 biopsy and 92 surgical specimens obtained from 479 patients admitted to Shinshu University Hospital between 1997 and 2014...
May 15, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501504/transmission-of-borrelia-miyamotoi-sensu-lato-relapsing-fever-group-spirochetes-in-relation-to-duration-of-attachment-by-ixodes-scapularis-nymphs
#20
Nicole E Breuner, Marc C Dolan, Adam J Replogle, Christopher Sexton, Andrias Hojgaard, Karen A Boegler, Rebecca J Clark, Lars Eisen
Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing fever group spirochetes are emerging as causative agents of human illness (Borrelia miyamotoi disease) in the United States. Host-seeking Ixodes scapularis ticks are naturally infected with these spirochetes in the eastern United States and experimentally capable of transmitting B. miyamotoi. However, the duration of time required from tick attachment to spirochete transmission has yet to be determined. We therefore conducted a study to assess spirochete transmission by single transovarially infected I...
April 5, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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