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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821219/early-congenital-syphilis-recognising-symptoms-of-an-increasingly-prevalent-disease
#1
Nupur U Patel, Elias Oussedik, Erin T Landis, Lindsay C Strowd
BACKGROUND: Congenital syphilis (CS) is an infectious disease resulting from transplacental transmission of Treponema pallidum spirochetes from an infected mother to fetus during pregnancy. While uncommon, CS has shown an increased incidence in Canada and the United States since 2001 and 2012, respectively. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 5-week-old female infant with blistering rash on the palms and soles. The infant displayed decreased movement of the left upper extremity, clinically consistent with Parrot pseudoparalysis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802273/evidence-for-borrelia-bavariensis-infections-of-ixodes-uriae-within-seabird-colonies-of-the-north-atlantic-ocean
#2
Hannah J Munro, Nicholas H Ogden, L Robbin Lindsay, Gregory J Robertson, Hugh Whitney, Andrew S Lang
The first report of members of the spirochete genus Borrelia in the seabird tick, Ixodes uriae, and seabird colonies occurred during the early 1990s. Since then, Borrelia spp. have been detected in these ticks and seabird colonies around the world. To-date, the primary species detected has been B. garinii, with rare occurrences of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. lusitaniae. During our research on Borrelia and I. uriae in seabird colonies of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we have identified B. bavariensis in I...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791815/an-outbreak-of-leptospirosis-imported-from-germany-to-poland
#3
Beata Fiecek, Tomasz Chmielewski, Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Michał Czerwiński, Grażyna Zalewska, Urszula Roguska, Stanisława Tylewska-Wierzbanowska
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes of the Leptospiraceae family. In both humans and animals the main route of infection is indirect contact - through water or other products contaminated with urine containing spirochetes. Infection most commonly occurs through ingestion of water or food contaminated with Leptospira spp. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to characterize cases of leptospirosis imported to Poland from Germany in 2014 and to analyze methods that are helpful for making a diagnosis...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780349/implications-of-coordinated-cell-body-rotations-for-leptospira-motility
#4
Kyosuke Takabe, Akihiro Kawamoto, Hajime Tahara, Seishi Kudo, Shuichi Nakamura
The spirochete Leptospira has a coiled cell body and two periplasmic flagella (PFs) that reside beneath the outer sheath. PFs extend from each end of the cell body and are attached to the right-handed spiral protoplasmic cylinder (PC) via a connection with the flagellar motor embedded in the inner membrane. PFs bend each end of the cell body into left-handed spiral (S) or planar hook (H) shapes, allowing leptospiral cells to swim using combined anterior S-end and posterior H-end gyrations with PC rotations...
August 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775250/modulation-of-the-tick-gut-milieu-by-a-secreted-tick-protein-favors-borrelia-burgdorferi-colonization
#5
Sukanya Narasimhan, Tim J Schuijt, Nabil M Abraham, Nallakkandi Rajeevan, Jeroen Coumou, Morven Graham, Andrew Robson, Ming-Jie Wu, Sirlei Daffre, Joppe W Hovius, Erol Fikrig
The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, colonizes the gut of the tick Ixodes scapularis, which transmits the pathogen to vertebrate hosts including humans. Here we show that B. burgdorferi colonization increases the expression of several tick gut genes including pixr, encoding a secreted gut protein with a Reeler domain. RNA interference-mediated silencing of pixr, or immunity against PIXR in mice, impairs the ability of B. burgdorferi to colonize the tick gut. PIXR inhibits bacterial biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo...
August 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768603/tick-surveillance-for-borrelia-miyamotoi-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-isolates-in-mongolia-and-japan
#6
Yukie Iwabu-Itoh, Boldbaatar Bazartseren, Oyunnomin Naranbaatar, Enkhmandakh Yondonjamts, Kiwa Furuno, Kyunglee Lee, Kozue Sato, Hiroki Kawabata, Nobuhiro Takada, Masako Andoh, Hiroko Kajita, Yosaburo Oikawa, Minoru Nakao, Makoto Ohnishi, Masahisa Watarai, Hiroshi Shimoda, Ken Maeda, Ai Takano
Borrelia miyamotoi, recently recognized as a human pathogenic spirochete, was isolated from Ixodes persulcatus and I. ovatus in northern Mongolia and Honshu Island, a major island in Japan. Although no human B. miyamotoi infections have been reported in Mongolia, the prevalence of B. miyamotoi in ticks from Mongolia is higher than that in ticks from Hokkaido, Japan, where human cases have been reported. Moreover, the multi-locus sequence analysis of cultured isolates revealed that B. miyamotoi isolates in Mongolia belong to the Siberian type, a sequence type that was originally reported from isolates from I...
July 14, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766745/exploring-the-microbiome-of-healthy-and-diseased-peri-implant-sites-using-illumina-sequencing
#7
I Sanz-Martin, J Doolittle-Hall, R P Teles, M Patel, G N Belibasakis, C H Hämmerle, R E Jung, F R F Teles
AIM: To compare the microbiome of healthy (H) and diseased (P) peri-implant sites and determine the core peri-implant microbiome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Submucosal biofilms from 32 H and 35 P sites were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing (MiSeq, Illumina), QIIME and HOMINGS. Differences between groups were determined using Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA), t-tests and Wilcoxon rank sum test and FDR-adjusted. The peri-implant core microbiome was determined. RESULTS: PCoA showed partitioning between H and P at all taxonomic levels...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761942/necrotising-ulcerative-gingivitis-a-literature-review
#8
James Dufty, Nikolaos Gkranias, Nikos Donos
PURPOSE: The literature surrounding necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is extensive, yet the rare nature of this disease means that there is a lack of good quality research available. This paper aims to scrutinise the literature and provide an up-to-date summary of the available information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed electronically using the Cochrane Library, Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed Clinical Queries and Google Scholar. Keyword searches were carried out, utilising MeSH terms and free text...
July 31, 2017: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735308/bactericidal-activity-of-octenidine-to-various-genospecies-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-spirochetes-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Stanisława Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Urszula Rogulska, Grażyna Lewandowska, Tomasz Chmielewski
The aim of our studies was to invent a reliable method for detection of the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against Borrelia burgdorferi in suspension (in vitro) and in cell line cultures (in vivo). In the suspension method, 0.01% octenidine at 20°C and 35°C was bactericidal to Borrelia afzeli; Borrelia garini, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto after 5 minutes treatment. Increase of the temperature to 35°C speed up the bactericidal effect to 1 minute. The bactericidal action of octenidine towards B. burgdorferi spirochetes growing in fibroblasts was less effective and needed a longer time to kill them than in the suspension...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721843/treponema-rectale-sp-nov-a-spirochete-isolated-from-the-bovine-rectum
#10
Gareth J Staton, Kerry Newbrook, Simon R Clegg, Richard J Birtles, Nicholas J Evans, Stuart D Carter
A Gram-stain-negative, obligatory anaerobic spirochete, CHPAT, was isolated from the rectal tissue of a Holstein-Friesian cow. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene comparisons, CHPAT was most closely related to the human oral spirochete, Treponema parvum, with 88.8 % sequence identity. Further characterisation on the basis of recA gene sequence analysis, cell morphology, pattern of growth and physiological profiling identified marked differences with respect to other recognised species of the genus Treponema. Microscopically, the helical cells measured approximately 1-5 µm long and 0...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717130/polymicrobial-infections-in-brain-tissue-from-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#11
Diana Pisa, Ruth Alonso, Ana M Fernández-Fernández, Alberto Rábano, Luis Carrasco
Several studies have advanced the idea that the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be microbial in origin. In the present study, we tested the possibility that polymicrobial infections exist in tissue from the entorhinal cortex/hippocampus region of patients with AD using immunohistochemistry (confocal laser scanning microscopy) and highly sensitive (nested) PCR. We found no evidence for expression of early (ICP0) or late (ICP5) proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in brain sections. A polyclonal antibody against Borrelia detected structures that appeared not related to spirochetes, but rather to fungi...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714333/-borrelia-miyamotoi-a-recently-identified-human-pathogenic-tick-borne-relapsing-fever-spirochete
#12
Sándor Szekeres, András Lakos, Gábor Földvári
Borrelia miyamotoi is a recently described relapsing fever spirochete transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex. This pathogen is different from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the Lyme borreliosis spirochetes) in its epidemiology, ecology and also genetics. Over 50 patients have been described worldwide with Borrelia miyamotoi disease, and three immunocompromised patients were reported with neurological symptoms. Our knowledge about Borrelia miyamotoi infection in ticks and its distribution in different habitats and also the mechanism of the infection is limited...
July 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714113/secondary-syphilis-primarily-presenting-with-multiple-nodules-on-the-scalp-case-report-and-published-work-review
#13
Fan Li, Tingting Wang, Lin Wang
Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, manifests with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations that usually involves skin. Nodular secondary syphilis occurs rarely, and mostly manifests as disseminated papulonodules or plaques over the trunk and limbs. We report an extremely rare case of nodular secondary syphilis that primarily presented with multiple nodules on the scalp, resembling Rosai-Dorfman disease or cutaneous malignant metastasis. Immunohistochemistry confirmed T...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713599/lyme-carditis-buried-beneath-st-segment-elevations
#14
Basia Michalski, Adrian Umpierrez De Reguero
Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is carried to human hosts by infected ticks. There are nearly 30,000 cases of Lyme disease reported to the CDC each year, with 3-4% of those cases reporting Lyme carditis. The most common manifestation of Lyme carditis is partial heart block following bacterial-induced inflammation of the conducting nodes. Here we report a 45-year-old gentleman that presented to the hospital with intense nonradiating chest pressure and tightness. Lab studies were remarkable for elevated troponins...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706469/metabolic-response-of-porcine-colon-explants-to-in-vitro-infection-by-brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-a-leap-into-disease-pathophysiology
#15
Thijs Welle, Anna T Hoekstra, Ineke A J J M Daemen, Celia R Berkers, Matheus O Costa
INTRODUCTION: Swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is a production limiting disease in pig farming. Currently antimicrobial therapy is the only treatment and control method available. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the metabolic response of porcine colon explants to infection by B. hyodysenteriae. METHODS: Porcine colon explants exposed to B. hyodysenteriae were analyzed for histopathological, metabolic and pro-inflammatory gene expression changes...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694446/ticks-infected-via-co-feeding-transmission-can-transmit-lyme-borreliosis-to-vertebrate-hosts
#16
Alessandro Belli, Anouk Sarr, Olivier Rais, Ryan O M Rego, Maarten J Voordouw
Vector-borne pathogens establish systemic infections in host tissues to maximize transmission to arthropod vectors. Co-feeding transmission occurs when the pathogen is transferred between infected and naive vectors that feed in close spatiotemporal proximity on a host that has not yet developed a systemic infection. Borrelia afzelii is a tick-borne spirochete bacterium that causes Lyme borreliosis (LB) and is capable of co-feeding transmission. Whether ticks that acquire LB pathogens via co-feeding are actually infectious to vertebrate hosts has never been tested...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690096/modeling-the-effects-of-variable-feeding-patterns-of-larval-ticks-on-the-transmission-of-borrelia-lusitaniae-and-borrelia-afzelii
#17
Luca Ferreri, Silvia Perazzo, Ezio Venturino, Mario Giacobini, Luigi Bertolotti, Alessandro Mannelli
Spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato (sl) group cause Lyme Borreliosis (LB), which is the most commonly reported vector-borne zoonosis in Europe. B. burgdorferi sl is maintained in nature in a complex cycle involving Ixodes ricinus ticks and several species of vertebrate hosts. The transmission dynamics of B. burgdorferi sl is complicated by the varying competence of animals for different genospecies of spirochetes that, in turn, vary in their capability of causing disease. In this study, a set of difference equations simplifying the complex interaction between vectors and their hosts (competent and not for Borrelia) is built to gain insights into conditions underlying the dominance of B...
July 6, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682315/congenital-syphilis-in-neonates-with-nonreactive-nontreponemal-test-results
#18
P S Wozniak, J B Cantey, F Zeray, N K Leos, J S Sheffield, G D Wendel, P J Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: Infants whose mothers had syphilis during pregnancy were studied to determine how often exposed newborns with normal physical examinations and nonreactive nontreponemal serologic tests had abnormal laboratory or radiographic studies. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from infants born to mothers with syphilis and had a normal examination and a nonreactive nontreponemal test. Some infants had IgM immunoblotting, PCR testing or rabbit infectivity testing (RIT) performed...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681315/management-of-lyme-disease-in-european-children-a-review-for-practical-purpose
#19
REVIEW
Matteo D'Alessandro, Anna Loy, Elio Castagnola
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonosis transmitted through a bite of a tick carrying a spirochete belonging to Borrelia species. In the last 20 years, the reported incidence of Lyme disease is increased by three times in Europe. Clinically, the illness develops through a primary stage with a typical skin rash (erythema marginatum), then a secondary stage with possible neurologic or cardiac involvement. The last stage (chronic Lyme disease) is mainly represented by arthritis or late neurological complications but nowadays is rarely seen due to precocious antibiotic use...
August 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674060/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-the-relapsing-fever-spirochete-borrelia-miyamotoi-to-antimicrobial-agents
#20
Joris Koetsveld, Ronald O P Draga, Alex Wagemakers, Annemijn Manger, Anneke Oei, Caroline E Visser, Joppe W Hovius
Hard tick-borne relapsing fever (HTBRF) is an emerging infectious disease throughout the temperate zone caused by the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi Antibiotic treatment of HTBRF is empirically based on the treatment of Lyme borreliosis, however antibiotic susceptibility of B. miyamotoi has not been studied to date. Thus, we set out to determine the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of B. miyamotoiA microdilution method with 96-well microtiter plates was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility of two B...
July 3, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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