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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240045/pier-diego-siccardi-1880-1917-and-the-clinica-del-lavoro-in-the-trench-warfare
#1
Michele Augusto Riva, Michela Caramella, Massimo Turato, Giancarlo Cesana
BACKGROUND: The year 2017 marks the centenary of the death of the Italian scientist Pier Diego Siccardi (1880-1917), one of Luigi Devoto's assistants at the "Clinica del Lavoro" in Milan. OBJECTIVES: To commemorate Siccardi and to describe the activities of the physicians of the "Clinica del Lavoro" during World War I. METHODS: A comprehensive analysis was conducted on scientific papers written by Pier Diego Siccardi and by other physicians belonging to the Clinica del Lavoro, in the period 1915-1918...
December 14, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232415/serological-detection-of-tick-borne-relapsing-fever-in-texan-domestic-dogs
#2
Maria D Esteve-Gasent, Chloe B Snell, Shakirat A Adetunji, Julie Piccione
Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) is caused by spirochetes in the genus Borrelia. Very limited information exists on the incidence of this disease in humans and domestic dogs in the United States. The main objective of this study is to evaluate exposure of dogs to Borrelia turicatae, a causative agent of TBRF, in Texas. To this end, 878 canine serum samples were submitted to Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory from October 2011 to September 2012 for suspected tick-borne illnesses. The recombinant Borrelial antigen glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) was expressed, purified, and used as a diagnostic antigen in both ELISA assays and Immunoblot analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224873/a-clinical-and-histopathological-comparison-of-the-effectiveness-of-salicylic-acid-to-a-compound-of-inorganic-acids-for-the-treatment-of-digital-dermatitis-in-cattle
#3
N Capion, E K Larsson, O L Nielsen
Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a painful infectious disease, causing lameness, reduced animal welfare, and production losses in dairy herds. The main factors contributing to DD are an infection with Treponema spp. and poor hygiene. Topical treatment has primarily consisted of antibiotics; however, the demand for effective nonantibiotic alternatives is increasing. The objective was to evaluate the performance of 3 nonantibiotic topical treatments (salicylic acid and a compound of inorganic acids in a 20% solution and in a dry form) on DD in a commercial dairy herd...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221753/pura-the-gene-encoding-pur-alpha-member-of-an-ancient-nucleic-acid-binding-protein-family-with-mammalian-neurological-functions
#4
REVIEW
Dianne C Daniel, Edward M Johnson
The PURA gene encodes Pur-alpha, a 322 amino acid protein with repeated nucleic acid binding domains that are highly conserved from bacteria through humans. PUR genes with a single copy of this domain have been detected so far in spirochetes and bacteroides. Lower eukaryotes possess one copy of the PUR gene, whereas chordates possess 1-4 PUR family members. Human PUR genes encode Pur-alpha (Pura), Pur-beta (Purb) and two forms of Pur-gamma (Purg). Pur-alpha is a protein that binds specific DNA and RNA sequence elements...
December 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211798/lipl21-lipoprotein-binding-to-peptidoglycan-enables-leptospira-interrogans-to-escape-nod1-and-nod2-recognition
#5
Gwenn Ratet, Ignacio Santecchia, Martine Fanton d'Andon, Frédérique Vernel-Pauillac, Richard Wheeler, Pascal Lenormand, Frédéric Fischer, Pierre Lechat, David A Haake, Mathieu Picardeau, Ivo G Boneca, Catherine Werts
Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis, potentially severe in humans, caused by spirochetal bacteria, Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans). Host defense mechanisms involved in leptospirosis are poorly understood. Recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoproteins by Toll-Like Receptors (TLR)4 and TLR2 is crucial for clearance of leptospires in mice, yet the role of Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain (NOD)-like receptors (NOD)1 and NOD2, recognizing peptidoglycan (PG) fragments has not previously been examined...
December 6, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204849/human-intestinal-spirochetosis-mimicking-ulcerative-colitis
#6
Shin Nishii, Masaaki Higashiyama, Sho Ogata, Shunsuke Komoto, Suguru Ito, Akinori Mizoguchi, Hisato Terada, Hirotaka Furuhashi, Takeshi Takajo, Kazuhiko Shirakabe, Chikako Watanabe, Kengo Tomita, Shigeaki Nagao, Soichiro Miura, Ryota Hokari
Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is a colorectal infection caused by the Brachyspira species of intestinal spirochetes, whose pathogenicity in humans remains unclear owing to the lack of or mild symptoms. We monitored the 5-year clinical course of a woman diagnosed with HIS in whom ulcerative colitis (UC) had been suspected. Following a positive fecal occult blood test, she underwent a colonoscopic examination at a local clinic where she was diagnosed with "right-sided" UC concomitant with incidentally detected HIS, and was referred to our hospital...
December 4, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196824/spirochetal-lipoproteins-in-pathogenesis-and-immunity
#7
David A Haake, Wolfram R Zückert
Lipoproteins are lipid-modified proteins that dominate the spirochetal proteome. While found in all bacteria, spirochetal lipoproteins have unique features and play critical roles in spirochete biology. For this reason, considerable effort has been devoted to determining how the lipoproteome is generated. Essential features of the structural elements of lipoproteins are now understood with greater clarity, enabling greater confidence in identification of lipoproteins from genomic sequences. The journey from the ribosome to the outer membrane, and in some cases, to the cellular surface has been defined, including secretion, lipidation, sorting, and export across the outer membrane...
December 2, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195857/evaluating-acarological-risk-for-exposure-to-ixodes-scapularis-and-ixodes-scapularis-borne-pathogens-in-recreational-and-residential-settings-in-washington-county-minnesota
#8
Micah B Hahn, Jenna K H Bjork, David F Neitzel, Frances M Dorr, Tessa Whitemarsh, Karen A Boegler, Christine B Graham, Tammi L Johnson, Sarah E Maes, Rebecca J Eisen
The distribution of I. scapularis, the tick vector of the bacteria that cause Lyme disease, has been expanding over the last two decades in the north-central United States in parallel with increasing incidence of human cases of Lyme disease in that region. However, assessments of residential risk for exposure to ticks are lacking from this region. Here, we measured the density of host-seeking I. scapularis nymphs in two suburban and two rural public recreational sites located in Washington County, Minnesota as well as in nearby residential properties...
November 22, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187397/the-spirochete-brachyspira-pilosicoli-enteric-pathogen-of-animals-and-humans
#9
REVIEW
David J Hampson
Brachyspira pilosicoli is a slow-growing anaerobic spirochete that colonizes the large intestine. Colonization occurs commonly in pigs and adult chickens, causing colitis/typhlitis, diarrhea, poor growth rates, and reduced production. Colonization of humans also is common in some populations (individuals living in village and peri-urban settings in developing countries, recent immigrants from developing countries, homosexual males, and HIV-positive patients), but the spirochete rarely is investigated as a potential human enteric pathogen...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184822/gingivitis-and-plaque-prevention-using-three-commercially-available-dentifrices-a-comparative-clinical-and-microbiological-randomized-control-parallel-study
#10
Ramprasad Reddy, Rajababu Palaparthy, Satyanarayana Durvasula, Pradeep Koppolu, Essam Elkhatat, Khaled Ali Rajab Assiri, A Al Sulaiman Abdulrahman Saad
Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the clinical and microbiological efficacy of Group I-delmopinol dentifrice, Group II-chlorhexidine, and Group III-triclosan-containing regularly used control dentifrice on plaque formation and gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 healthy volunteer students fulfilling the inclusion criteria are recruited for this randomized control parallel study. All the individuals were randomly assigned into 3 groups depending on the dentifrice prescribed...
July 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174448/conspecific-hyperparasitism-an-alternative-route-for-borrelia-hermsii-transmission-by-the-tick-ornithodoros-hermsi
#11
Brandi N Williamson, Tom G Schwan
Ixodid and argasid ticks may hyperparasitize other individuals of their own species to acquire a blood meal, however most accounts are based on single observations and the behavior has rarely been studied. While maintaining laboratory colonies of Ornithodoros species, we noticed that unfed ticks occasionally fed on other ticks that were feeding on mice, and unfed ticks parasitized engorged ticks when confined together in tubes. Therefore, we investigated hyperparasitism by Ornithodoros hermsi and the ability of these ticks to acquire and transmit the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii when feeding on other ticks...
November 21, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169853/colony-formation-in-solid-medium-by-the-relapsing-fever-spirochetes-borrelia-hermsii-and-borrelia-turicatae
#12
Sandra J Raffel, Brandi N Williamson, Tom G Schwan, Frank C Gherardini
Relapsing fever (RF) in North America is caused primarily by the spirochete Borrelia hermsii and is associated with the bite of its tick vector Ornithodoros hermsi. Although this spirochete was known long before the discovery of the Lyme disease (LD) spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, basic methods to facilitate the study of B. hermsii have lagged behind. One important technique to expedite the study of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of B. hermsii would be a reliable method to grow and clone these bacteria in solid medium, which we now describe...
November 12, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166863/characterization-of-the-inner-membrane-protein-bb0173-from-borrelia-burgdorferi
#13
Christina M Brock, Manuel Bañó-Polo, Maria J Garcia-Murria, Ismael Mingarro, Maria Esteve-Gasent
BACKGROUND: The bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of the most commonly reported arthropod-borne illness in the United States, Lyme disease. A family of proteins containing von Willebrand Factor A (VWFA) domains adjacent to a MoxR AAA+ ATPase have been found to be highly conserved in the genus Borrelia. Previously, a VWFA domain containing protein of B. burgdorferi, BB0172, was determined to be an outer membrane protein capable of binding integrin α3β1...
November 22, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164729/identification-and-characterization-of-a-histamine-binding-lipocalin-like-molecule-from-the-relapsing-fever-tick-ornithodoros-turicata
#14
G Neelakanta, H Sultana, D E Sonenshine, J F Andersen
Lipocalins are low molecular weight membrane transporters that are abundantly expressed in the salivary glands and other tissues of ticks. In this study, we identified a lipocalin-like molecule, designated as otlip, from the soft ticks Ornithodoros turicata, the vector for the relapsing fever causing spirochete Borrelia turicatae. We noted that the expression of otlip was developmentally regulated, with adult ticks expressing significantly higher levels in comparison to the larvae or nymphal ticks. Expression of otlip was evident in both fed and unfed O...
November 22, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163438/culture-strategies-for-isolation-of-fastidious-leptospira-serovar-hardjo-and-molecular-differentiation-of-genotypes-hardjobovis-and-hardjoprajitno
#15
Roberta T Chideroli, Daniela D Gonçalves, Suelen A Suphoronski, Alice F Alfieri, Amauri A Alfieri, Admilton G de Oliveira, Julio C de Freitas, Ulisses de Padua Pereira
The Leptospira serovar Hedjo belongs to the serogroup sejroe and this serovar is the most prevalent in bovine herds worldwide. The sejroe serogroup is the most frequently detected by serology in Brazilian cattle herds suggesting that it is due serovar Hardjo. In the molecular classification, this serovar has two genotypes: Hardjobovis and Hardjoprajitno. This serovar is as considered as fastidious pathogens, and their isolation is one of the bottlenecks in leptospirosis laboratories. In addition, its molecular characterization using genomic approaches is oftentimes not simple and time-consuming...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158428/borrelia-burgdorferi-glycosaminoglycan-binding-protein-bgp-in-the-b31-strain-is-not-essential-for-infectivity-despite-facilitating-adherence-and-tissue-colonization
#16
Samantha Schlachter, Janakiram Seshu, Tao Lin, Steven Norris, Nikhat Parveen
Lyme disease causing Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted into the mammalian host by an infected tick bite. Successful infection relies on the ability of this extracellular pathogen to persist and colonize different tissues. B. burgdorferi encodes a large number of adhesins that are able to interact with host ligands to facilitate adherence, and tissue colonization. Multiple glycosaminoglycan binding proteins presence in B. burgdorferi offer a degree of redundancy of function during infection, and highlights the importance for glycosaminoglycans as host cell receptors for spirochete adherence...
November 20, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149107/treponema-denticola-chymotrypsin-like-proteinase-may-contribute-to-orodigestive-carcinogenesis-through-immunomodulation
#17
Mikko T Nieminen, Dyah Listyarifah, Jaana Hagström, Caj Haglund, Daniel Grenier, Dan Nordström, Veli-Jukka Uitto, Marcela Hernandez, Tülay Yucel-Lindberg, Taina Tervahartiala, Mari Ainola, Timo Sorsa
BACKGROUND: Periodontal pathogens have been linked to oral and gastrointestinal (orodigestive) carcinogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Treponema denticola (Td) is associated with severe periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease leading to tooth loss. The anaerobic spirochete Td is an invasive bacteria due to its major virulence factor chymotrypsin-like proteinase. Here we aimed to investigate the presence of Td chymotrypsin-like proteinase (Td-CTLP) in major orodigestive tumours and to elucidate potential mechanisms for Td to contribute to carcinogenesis...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146596/structure-and-function-of-the-leptospira-interrogans-peroxide-stress-regulator-perr-an-atypical-perr-devoid-of-a-structural-metal-binding-site
#18
Mounira Kebouchi, Frederick Saul, Raleb Taher, Annie Landier, Benedicte Beaudeau, Sarah Dubrac, Patrick Weber, Ahmed Haouz, Mathieu Picardeau, Nadia Benaroudj
Peroxide sensing is essential for bacteria survival during aerobic metabolism and host infection. Peroxide stress regulators (PerRs) are homodimeric transcriptional repressors with each monomer typically containing both structural and regulatory metal-binding sites. PerR binding to gene promoters is controlled by the presence of iron in the regulatory site, and iron-catalyzed oxidation of PerR by H2O2 leads to the dissociation of PerR from DNA. In addition to a regulatory metal, most PerRs require a structural metal for proper dimeric assembly...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145798/experimental-transmission-of-bovine-digital-dermatitis-to-sheep-development-of-an-infection-model
#19
Jennifer H Wilson-Welder, Jarlath E Nally, David P Alt, Mitchell V Palmer, John Coatney, Paul Plummer
Digital dermatitis is an infectious cause of lameness primarily affecting cattle but also described in sheep, goats, and wild elk. Digital dermatitis is a polymicrobial infection, involving several Treponema species and other anaerobic bacteria. Although the exact etiology has not been demonstrated, a number of bacterial, host, and environmental factors are thought to contribute to disease development. To study host-bacterial interactions, a reproducible laboratory model of infection is required. The objective of this study was to demonstrate key aspects of bovine digital dermatitis lesions in an easy-to-handle sheep model...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135519/syphilis-of-the-aerodigestive-tract
#20
Julie Y Tse, May P Chan, Judith A Ferry, Vikram Deshpande, Aliyah R Sohani, Valentina Nardi, Andras Schaffer, Rosalynn M Nazarian, Lawrence R Zukerberg
Syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Treponema pallidum, is increasing in prevalence in the United States. It has been our experience that primary and secondary syphilis of the aerodigestive tract can afflict a large age spectrum with varied clinical and histopathologic findings, which can lead to diagnostic problems and frequent misdiagnosis. In this study, we describe the histopathologic patterns of syphilis of the aerodigestive tract to expand awareness of its varied appearance...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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