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Steven J Norris
The spirochetes that cause Lyme disease have an elaborate antigenic variation system that produces millions of variants, thus evading the immune response. Verhey et al. have applied next-generation sequencing and computational analysis to gain new insights into how these bacteria keep 'one step ahead' of elimination by the host.
June 11, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Murillo Adrados, Daniel Howard Wiznia, Marjorie Golden, Richard Pelker
Lyme arthritis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, is a common tick-borne illness in New England and the upper Midwest. Most often, the disease affects the knee and has typically been reported as a cause of native joint infection. There has been only 1 case of Lyme periprosthetic joint infection (associated with a total knee arthroplasty) reported in the literature, and to our knowledge, no other reported cases of Lyme periprosthetic joint infections exist. In this article, we report on 2 patients diagnosed with prosthetic joint infections who were subsequently found to have Lyme prosthetic joint infections, with B burgdorferi as the infectious organism...
June 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Sanjiv Kumar, Melissa J Caimano, Arvind Anand, Abhishek Dey, Kelly L Hawley, Morgan E LeDoyt, Carson J La Vake, Adriana R Cruz, Lady G Ramirez, Lenka Paštěková, Irina Bezsonova, David Šmajs, Juan C Salazar, Justin D Radolf
In recent years, considerable progress has been made in topologically and functionally characterizing integral outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum , the syphilis spirochete, and identifying its surface-exposed β-barrel domains. Extracellular loops in OMPs of Gram-negative bacteria are known to be highly variable. We examined the sequence diversity of β-barrel-encoding regions of tprC , tprD , and bamA in 31 specimens from Cali, Colombia; San Francisco, California; and the Czech Republic and compared them to allelic variants in the 41 reference genomes in the NCBI database...
June 12, 2018: MBio
Ying-Han Lin, Yue Chen, Trever C Smith, S L Rajasekhar Karna, J Seshu
Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb ) responds to a variety of host-derived factors and appropriately alters its gene expression for adaptation under different host-specific conditions. We previously showed that varying levels of acetate, a <u>S</u>hort-<u>C</u>hain <u>F</u>atty <u>A</u>cid (SCFA), altered the protein profile of Bb In this study, we determined the effects of other physiologically relevant SCFAs in the regulation of metabolic/virulence-associated proteins using mutant borrelial strains...
June 11, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Kesia Backman, Barbro H Skogman
BACKGROUND: Erythema migrans (EM) is the most common manifestation of Lyme borreliosis (LB), caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The infection can disseminate into the nervous system and cause Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), the second most frequent LB manifestation in children. The aim of this prospective cohort study is to describe the occurrence of EM among children with LNB and to evaluate possible differences in clinical characteristics or outcome between LNB patients with and without EM...
June 11, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Aakash Desai, Gaurav Manek, Anand M Krishnan, Corina Iorgoveanu, Ahmed Zaghloul
Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused primarily by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi . The disease is most prevalent in forested areas endemic for Ixodes tick, which transmits the spirochete. Here, we describe a case of Lyme meningoencephalitis masquerading as normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) which initially presented with urinary incontinence, gait instability, and neurological decline. Due to its non-specific symptoms and low incidence, Lyme meningoencephalitis causing NPH like syndrome poses a diagnostic conundrum for clinicians...
April 3, 2018: Curēus
Elsio A Wunder, Leyla Slamti, David N Suwondo, Kimberley H Gibson, Zhiguo Shang, Charles V Sindelar, Felipe Trajtenberg, Alejandro Buschiazzo, Albert I Ko, Mathieu Picardeau
The spirochete endoflagellum is a unique motility apparatus among bacteria. Despite its critical importance for pathogenesis, the full composition of the flagellum remains to be determined. We have recently reported that FcpA is a novel flagellar protein and a major component of the sheath of the filament of the spirochete Leptospira . By screening a library of random transposon mutants in the spirochete Leptospira biflexa , we found a motility-deficient mutant harboring a disruption in a hypothetical gene of unknown function...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Hui Zhi, Jialei Xie, Jon T Skare
Activation of the classical complement pathway occurs to varying degrees within strains of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, which contain a group of pathogenic spirochetes that cause tick-borne Lyme borreliosis, including the agent of Lyme disease in the United States, B. burgdorferi . Despite this information, details related to the control of B. burgdorferi by the classical pathway are not clear. To address this question, we infected C1qα-/- mice, which cannot assemble the C1 complex and thus fail to activate the classical pathway, with B...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Maliha Batool, Salvador Eugenio C Caoili, Lawrence J Dangott, Ekaterina Gerasimov, Yurij Ionov, Helen Piontkivska, Alex Zelikovsky, Suryakant D Waghela, Artem S Rogovskyy
The tick-borne pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi , is responsible for approximately 300,000 Lyme disease (LD) cases per year in the United States. Recent increases in the number of LD cases in addition to the spread of the tick vector and a lack of vaccine highlights an urgent need for designing and developing an efficacious LD vaccine. Identification of protective epitopes that could be used to develop a second-generation vaccine is therefore imperative. Despite the antigenicity of several lipoproteins and integral outer membrane proteins (OMPs) on B...
June 4, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Claudia Toma, Nobuo Koizumi, Tetsuya Kakita, Takayoshi Yamaguchi, Idam Hermawan, Naomi Higa, Tetsu Yamashiro
Leptospirosis, caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira , is a globally widespread, neglected and emerging zoonotic disease. The currently used diagnostic tests are time-consuming, require technical expertise or require the use of sophisticated equipment. Clinicians have pointed out the urgent need to develop a rapid test for the diagnosis of acute leptospirosis with a non-invasive and easy sampling method. In this study, we have focused on a leptospiral enzyme, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (3-HADH), as a urinary biomarker of acute leptospirosis...
April 2018: Heliyon
Scott C Williams, Eliza A H Little, Kirby C Stafford, Goudarz Molaei, Megan A Linske
Lyme disease continues to be the most common vector-borne disease in the United States with an estimated 330,000 human cases annually. In the eastern United States, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the primary vector of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, is a primary reservoir host. In four residential neighborhoods in Connecticut over three years, we tested the effectiveness of different low-toxicity integrated tick management approaches to control larval and nymphal I...
May 28, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Alexis Lacout, Yves Mone, Michel Franck, Pierre-Yves Marcy, Marie Mas, Francisco Veas, Christian Perronne
Lyme disease is the most frequently reported zoonotic tick-borne disease worldwide, and the number of infected humans is increasing. Lyme disease (or Lyme borreliosis) is an affection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, sensu lato. Lyme disease is also reported as a variety of misleading clinical symptomatologies. Infected patient's blood serology is the most currently test used for its diagnosis. However, serology has a low sensitivity, which ranges from 34% to 70%. Thus, there are numerous subsequent false-negative diagnoses despite an active clinical infection profile...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Xiyang Dong, Chris Greening, Thomas Brüls, Ralf Conrad, Kun Guo, Svenja Blaskowski, Farnusch Kaschani, Markus Kaiser, Nidal Abu Laban, Rainer U Meckenstock
Spirochaetes are frequently detected in anoxic hydrocarbon- and organohalide-polluted groundwater, but their role in such ecosystems has remained unclear. To address this, we studied a sulfate-reducing, naphthalene-degrading enrichment culture, mainly comprising the sulfate reducer Desulfobacterium N47 and the rod-shaped Spirochete Rectinema cohabitans HM. Genome sequencing and proteome analysis suggested that the Spirochete is an obligate fermenter that catabolizes proteins and carbohydrates, resulting in acetate, ethanol, and molecular hydrogen (H2 ) production...
May 30, 2018: ISME Journal
Theodore B Verhey, Mildred Castellanos, George Chaconas
The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, uses antigenic variation as a strategy to evade the host's acquired immune response. New variants of surface-localized VlsE are generated efficiently by unidirectional recombination from 15 unexpressed vls cassettes into the vlsE locus. Using algorithms to analyze switching from vlsE sequencing data, we characterize a population of over 45,000 inferred recombination events generated during mouse infection. We present evidence for clustering of these recombination events within the population and along the vlsE gene, a role for the direct repeats flanking the variable region in vlsE, and the importance of sequence homology in determining the location of recombination, despite RecA's dispensability...
May 29, 2018: Cell Reports
Anjali Malge, Vikas Ghai, Panga Jaipal Reddy, David Baxter, Taek-Kyun Kim, Robert L Moritz, Kai Wang
Borrelia burgdorferi, a bacterium in the spirochete phylum, is the causative agent of Lyme disease. B. burgdorferi has a linear chromosome with a number of circular and linear plasmids. Bacteria, including B. burgdorferi, release spherical outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that are known to carry secretory products including metabolites, nucleic acids and proteins. Herein, we provide the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of the vesicles released from B. burgdorferi. We identified a total of ∼1200 unique transcripts with at least one mapped read from the bacterial cell and its OMVs...
May 28, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Thomas Hart, Ngoc Thien Thu Nguyen, Nancy A Nowak, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Sanjay Ram, Peter Kraiczy, Yi-Pin Lin
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl), the causative agent of Lyme disease, establishes an initial infection in the host's skin following a tick bite, and then disseminates to distant organs, leading to multisystem manifestations. Tick-to-vertebrate host transmission requires that Bbsl survives during blood feeding. Complement is an important innate host defense in blood and interstitial fluid. Bbsl produces a polymorphic surface protein, CspA, that binds to a complement regulator, Factor H (FH) to block complement activation in vitro...
May 29, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Katrin Blazejak, Marie-Kristin Raulf, Elisabeth Janecek, Daniela Jordan, Volker Fingerle, Christina Strube
BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) complex is still the most common tick-borne disease in Europe, posing a considerable threat to public health. The predominant vector in Europe is the widespread hard tick Ixodes ricinus, which also transmits the relapsing fever spirochete B. miyamotoi as well as pathogenic Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp.). To assess the public health risk, a long-term monitoring of tick infection rates with the named pathogens is indispensable...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Patricia Guzman Rojas, Jelena Catania, Jignesh Parikh, Tran C Phung, Glenn Speth
Intestinal spirochetosis (IS) is an infestation defined by the presence of spirochetes on the surface of the colonic mucosa. The implicated organisms can be Brachyspira aalborgi or Brachyspira pilosicoli . We present the case of a 66-year-old man with a past medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, morbid obesity, and gastroesophageal reflux. The patient was sent to the gastroenterology clinic for a screening colonoscopy due to a prior history of colonic polyps. The patient was completely asymptomatic as he denies any abdominal pain, diarrhea, melena, or hematochezia...
March 15, 2018: Curēus
Jing Zhou, Jiwei Duan, Mingkun Gao, Ying Wang, Xiaohua Wang, Kai Zhao
Termites are global pests and can cause serious damage to buildings, crops, and plantation forests. The symbiotic intestinal flora plays an important role in the digestion of cellulose and nitrogen in the life of termites. Termites and their symbiotic microbes in the gut form a synergistic system. These organism work together to digest lignocellulose to make the termites grow on nitrogen deficient food. In this paper, the diversity of symbiotic microorganisms in the gut of termites, including protozoan, spirochetes, actinomycetes, fungus and bacteria, and their role in the digestion of lignocellulose and also the biotechnological applications of these symbiotic microorganisms are discussed...
May 12, 2018: Current Microbiology
Angélica Hernández-Jarguín, Sandra Díaz-Sánchez, Margarita Villar, José de la Fuente
An innovative metaomics approach integrating metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics was used to characterize bacterial communities in the microbiota of the Lyme borreliosis spirochete vector, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae). Whole internal tissues and salivary glands from unfed larvae and female ticks, respectively were used. Reused I. ricinus RNA-sequencing data for metranscriptomics analysis together with metaproteomics provided a better characterization of tick bacterial microbiota by increasing bacteria identification and support for identified bacteria with putative functional implications...
May 5, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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