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Osman Yeşilbaş, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Hamdi Murat Yıldırım, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Esra Şevketoğlu
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Although it is usually asymptomatic and self-limited, severe potentially fatal illness accompanied by multi-organ failure may occur. CASE REPORT: Here we report an unusual case of severe leptospirosis successfully treated with continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVHF) and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). The patient presented with pericardial tamponade, renal failure and macrophage activation syndrome, and later suffered prolonged jaundice and sclerosing cholangitis during hospitalization in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Xenia Naj, Stefan Linder
The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, a multisystemic disorder affecting primarily skin, nervous system, and joints. If an infection with Borrelia proceeds unchecked, the disease can also enter a chronic stage, leading to the development of neuroborreliosis or cardiac arrhythmia. Successful elimination of B. burgdorferi by the host immune system is thus decisive for the positive outcome of a respective infection. Accordingly, host immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells have to be able to efficiently internalize and degrade infecting spirochetes...
October 16, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Momal Mazhar, Janet J Kao, Dennis Thomas Bolger
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by the spirochete Leptospira interrogans. Most cases of leptospirosis are mild to moderate, and self-limited. The course of disease, however, may be complicated by multiorgan dysfunction such as in Weil's disease. We present a case of Weil's disease with pancreatitis in a young Caucasian man residing in Hawai'i. Although leptospirosis is common in Hawai'i, few patients present with pancreatitis. This report of leptospirosis-induced pancreatitis should help raise awareness of clinicians to assess for pancreatitis when evaluating a patient with leptospirosis and acute abdominal pain...
October 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Diane G Edmondson, Sabitha Prabhakaran, Steven J Norris, Amy J Ullmann, Joe Piesman, Marc Dolan, Christian Probst, Christiane Radzimski, Winfried Stöcker, Lars Komorowski
Lyme borreliosis is caused by tick-transmitted spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a 23 kDa outer surface lipoprotein expressed during spirochete transmission from the tick to the vertebrate host. In a previous study, we found that immunization with a recombinant disulfide-bridged dimeric form of OspC (D-OspC) stimulates increased antibody responses relative to immunization with commonly employed monomeric OspC...
October 12, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Peter Kraiczy
Overcoming the first line of the innate immune system is a general hallmark of pathogenic microbes to avoid recognition and to enter the human host. In particular, spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex have developed various means to counter the immune response and to successfully survive in diverse host environments for a prolonged period of time. In regard to complement resistance, Borrelia utilize a plethora of immune evasion strategies involves capturing of host-derived complement regulators, terminating complement activation as well as shedding of cell-destroying complement complexes to manipulate and to expeditiously inhibit human complement...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Justin D Radolf, Ranjit K Deka, Arvind Anand, David Šmajs, Michael V Norgard, X Frank Yang
The past two decades have seen a worldwide resurgence in infections caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. The well-recognized capacity of the syphilis spirochete for early dissemination and immune evasion has earned it the designation 'the stealth pathogen'. Despite the many hurdles to studying syphilis pathogenesis, most notably the inability to culture and to genetically manipulate T. pallidum, in recent years, considerable progress has been made in elucidating the structural, physiological, and regulatory facets of T...
October 10, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Rebecca J Eisen, Rebecca J Clark, Andrew J Monaghan, Lars Eisen, Mark J Delorey, Charles B Beard
Local knowledge of when humans are at elevated risk for exposure to tick vectors of human disease agents is required both for the effective use of personal protection measures to avoid tick bites and for implementation of control measures to suppress host-seeking ticks. Here, we used previously published data on the seasonal density of host-seeking Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls nymphs, the primary vectors of Lyme disease spirochetes in the far western USA, collected across a broad habitat and climate gradient in northwestern California to identify predictors of periods of time within the year when questing nymphal density is elevated...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Setareh Jahfari, Agnetha Hofhuis, Manoj Fonville, Joke van der Giessen, Wilfrid van Pelt, Hein Sprong
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. METHODS: Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kurni Kurniyati, John F Kelly, Evgeny Vinogradov, Anna Robotham, Youbing Tu, Juyu Wang, Jun Liu, Susan M Logan, Chunhao Li
While protein glycosylation has been reported in several spirochetes including the syphilis bacterium Treponema pallidum and Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, the pertinent glycan structures and their roles remain uncharacterized. Herein, we report a novel glycan with an unusual chemical composition and structure in the oral spirochete Treponema denticola, a keystone pathogen of periodontitis. The identified glycan of mass 450.2 Da is composed of a monoacetylated nonulosonic acid (Non) with a novel extended N7 acyl modification, a 2-methoxy-4,5,6-trihydroxy-hexanoyl residue in which the Non has a pseudaminic acid configuration (L-glycero-L-manno) and is β-linked to serine or threonine residues...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Lauren M K Mason, Alex Wagemakers, Cornelis van 't Veer, Anneke Oei, Wouter J van der Pot, Kalam Ahmed, Tom van der Poll, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek, Joppe W R Hovius
Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted into the skin of the host where it encounters and interacts with two dendritic cell (DC) subsets; Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal DCs (DDCs). These cells recognize pathogens via pattern recognition receptors, mature and migrate out of the skin into draining lymph nodes, where they orchestrate adaptive immune responses. In order to investigate the response of skin DCs during the early immunopathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis, we injected B. burgdorferi intradermally into full-thickness human skin and studied the migration of DCs out of the skin, the activation profile and phenotype of migrated cells...
2016: PloS One
Deborah A Grosenbaugh, Daniel R Rissi, Paula M Krimer
Lyme disease in dogs can be effectively prevented by vaccination against antigens expressed by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi during transmission by the tick vector Ixodes sp. Lyme vaccine efficacy has traditionally been based on indicators of infection following wild-caught tick challenge whereas most other types of vaccine are required to demonstrate protection from clinical signs of disease. In this vaccination-challenge study we sought to demonstrate the ability of a nonadjuvanted, outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine to protect from infection and to prevent synovial lesions consistent with Borreliosis...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
M Daniel, N Rudenko, M Golovchenko, V Danielová, A Fialová, B Kříž, M Malý
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Three years long research study (2011-2013) on population density of Ixodes ricinus and the infection rate of the pathogens that they transmit was conducted in four topographically distant areas in the Czech Republic. In the previous decade (2001-2010) thirteen loci with increased incidence of tick borne encephalitis cases were defined, suggesting the permanent interaction of human population with ticks and indicating the landmarks for study of the presence of other tick borne pathogens...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Lars Eisen, Nicole E Breuner, Andrias Hojgaard, J Charles Hoxmeier, Mark A Pilgard, Adam J Replogle, Brad J Biggerstaff, Marc C Dolan
Borrelia mayonii, a recently recognized species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, has been detected in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and found to be associated with Lyme disease in the Upper Midwest. This spirochete has, to date, not been documented from the Northeast, but we previously demonstrated that I. scapularis ticks originating from Connecticut are capable of serving as a vector of B. mayonii In this follow-up study, we compared the vector efficiency for B. mayonii (strain MN14-1420) of I...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Sory J Ruiz, Gary W Procop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Michelle L Parker, Simon Houston, Helena Pětrošová, Karen V Lithgow, Rebecca Hof, Charmaine Wetherell, Wei-Chien Kao, Yi-Pin Lin, Tara J Moriarty, Rhodaba Ebady, Caroline E Cameron, Martin J Boulanger
Syphilis is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Treponema pallidum disseminates widely throughout the host and extravasates from the vasculature, a process that is at least partially dependent upon the ability of T. pallidum to interact with host extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Defining the molecular basis for the interaction between T. pallidum and the host is complicated by the intractability of T. pallidum to in vitro culturing and genetic manipulation. Correspondingly, few T...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
John V Stokes, Gail M Moraru, Chelsea McIntosh, Evangel Kummari, Keiko Rausch, Andrea S Varela-Stokes
: Tick-borne borreliae include Lyme disease and relapsing fever agents, and they are transmitted primarily by ixodid (hard) and argasid (soft) tick vectors, respectively. Tick-host interactions during feeding are complex, with host immune responses influenced by biological differences in tick feeding and individual differences within and between host species. One of the first encounters for spirochetes entering vertebrate host skin is with local antigen-presenting cells, regardless of whether the tick-associated Borrelia sp...
September 28, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Raphael B Stricker, Lorraine Johnson
Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has become a major worldwide epidemic. Recent studies based on Big Data registries show that >300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year in the USA, and up to two-thirds of individuals infected with B. burgdorferi will fail conventional 30-year-old antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease. In addition, animal and human evidence suggests that sexual transmission of the Lyme spirochete may occur. Improved companion diagnostic tests for Lyme disease need to be implemented, and novel treatment approaches are urgently needed to combat the epidemic...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
Luis M Aller-Morán, F Javier Martínez-Lobo, Pedro Rubio, Ana Carvajal
An emerging novel spirochete in swine, provisionally designated "Brachyspira hampsonii," has been detected worldwide. It has been associated with swine dysentery and cannot be differentiated from B. hyodysenteriae, the classical etiologic agent of this disease, using standard phenotypic methods. We evaluated cross-reactions of "B. hampsonii" isolates recovered from avian species in some of the currently available species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the identification of swine Brachyspira species...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Simon Kotlyar
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a zoonosis caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The zoonosis is endemic in higher-elevation coniferous forests of the western United States. CASE REPORT: We discuss the case of a 44-year-old male residing in the San Juan Mountains of Western Colorado who presented with fever, myalgia, vomiting, and "violent chills" to an emergency department. Laboratory studies were notable for bandemia and thrombocytopenia with mild hyperbilirubinemia...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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