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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238558/environmental-change-shifting-distributions-and-habitat-conservation-plans-a-case-study-of-the-california-gnatcatcher
#1
Heather L Hulton VanTassel, Michael D Bell, John Rotenberry, Robert Johnson, Michael F Allen
Many species have already experienced distributional shifts due to changing environmental conditions, and analyzing past shifts can help us to understand the influence of environmental stressors on a species as well as to analyze the effectiveness of conservation strategies. We aimed to (1) quantify regional habitat associations of the California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica); (2) describe changes in environmental variables and gnatcatcher distributions through time; (3) identify environmental drivers associated with habitat suitability changes; and (4) relate habitat suitability changes through time to habitat conservation plans...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230712/sensitivity-of-the-medication-possession-ratio-to-modelling-decisions-in-large-claims-databases
#2
Margret V Bjarnadottir, David Czerwinski, Eberechukwu Onukwugha
OBJECTIVES: When preparing administrative medical and pharmacy claims data for analysis, decisions about data clean up and analytical approach need to be made. However, information about the effects of various modelling decisions on adherence measures such as the medication possession ratio (MPR) is limited. We address this gap with this study. METHODS: We utilized cross-sectional administrative claims data for commercially insured members filling at least two prescriptions for drugs within five classes of hypertension medication between 2008 and 2010...
December 11, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227322/no-clear-benefit-of-chlorhexidine-use-at-home-before-surgical-preparation
#3
Melvin Chugh Makhni, Kolawole Jegede, Joseph Lombardi, Susan Whittier, Prakash Gorroochurn, Ronald A Lehman, K Daniel Riew
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have evaluated the efficacy of home use of chlorhexidine before surgery to reduce bacterial colonization. However, these studies have provided conflicting evidence about the potential efficacy of this strategy in decreasing bacterial loads and infection rates across surgical populations, and no prior study has analyzed the benefit of this intervention before spine surgery. We prospectively analyzed the effectiveness of chlorhexidine gluconate wipes for decreasing bacterial counts on the posterior neck...
December 11, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219196/evaluation-of-efficacy-of-repeated-decontamination-and-sterilization-of-single-incision-laparoscopic-surgery-ports-intended-for-1-time-use
#4
Brian Petrovsky, Eric Monnet
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of repeated decontamination and sterilization of a disposable port intended for 1-time use during single-incision laparoscopy. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental; prospective, controlled design. METHODS: Six single-access ports used 4 times and 6 single-access ports used 8 times to perform various clean, minimally invasive surgeries were evaluated. Ports were decontaminated in an enzymatic cleaner (dilution, 3:100) and cleaned with a scrub brush for 5 minutes...
December 8, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218696/a-modular-vascular-access-training-program-for-higher-surgical-trainees
#5
Mark Edwards, Alexander D Rodway, Islam G Ahmed, Richard A Harvey, Tamer S Foad, Karim M El Sakka
INTRODUCTION: Access surgery is delivered by vascular/transplant surgeons with a division that is defined by historic practice. This has resulted in an inconsistent training pattern. We aimed to design a focused, modular training program (The Brighton Vascular Access Fellowship) providing trainees with a reproducible level of exposure and competence. METHODS: The programme was 16 days over 8 weeks on a one-to-one basis with candidates expected to be performing procedures as first surgeon with ongoing, formative assessment...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217880/renal-manifestation-in-scrub-typhus-during-a-major-outbreak-in-central-nepal
#6
A Sedhain, G R Bhattarai
Renal involvement and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common clinical manifestations seen in scrub typhus, a vector-borne tropical disease. There are no data on renal manifestation in scrub typhus in Nepal. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the incidence, urinary abnormalities, course, severity, outcome, and the predictors of AKI in patients with scrub typhus during a major outbreak in Central Nepal. Total 1398 patients admitted with acute febrile illness were subjected for Scrub Typhus Detect™ Immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, of which 502 (35...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217466/influence-of-corticosterone-treatment-on-nestling-begging-in-florida-scrub-jays-aphelocoma-coerulescens
#7
Emily K Elderbrock, Thomas W Small, Stephan J Schoech
Altricial young are dependent on adults for protection and food, and they display nutritional need by begging to elicit feeding from parents. Begging at high levels can be energetically expensive and attract predators; thus, an individual must balance its nutritional needs with these potential costs. Further, because a parent is limited in the amount of food it can provide, begging can contribute to both parent-offspring conflict and sibling-sibling competition. Many extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to begging behavior...
December 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216429/insights-into-the-chemical-mechanism-for-co2-aq-and-h-in-aqueous-di-amine-solutions-an-experimental-stopped-flow-kinetic-and-1h-13c-nmr-study-of-aqueous-solutions-of-n-n-dimethylethylenediamine-dmeda-for-post-combustion-co2-capture
#8
Bing Yu, Lichun Li, Hai Yu, Marcel Maeder, Graeme Puxty, Qi Yang, Paul H M Feron, William Owen Conway, Zuliang Chen
CO2 capture processes involving absorbent scrubbing will play a vital role in large scale industrial CO2 emissions reductions into the future. Despite the relative maturity of amine based absorbent technologies, few have attempted to examine the fundamental chemistry of di-amines in detail due to the complex reaction mechanisms. In an effort to advance this understanding we report here the determination of the kinetic and equilibrium constants for a simple linear di-amine N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (DMEDA) via stopped-flow spectrophotometric and 1H/13C NMR titrations at 25...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208659/rapid-diagnosis-of-tick-borne-illnesses-by-use-of-one-step-isothermal-nucleic-acid-amplification-and-bio-optical-sensor-detection
#9
Ji Yeun Kim, Bonhan Koo, ChoongEun Jin, Min Chul Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Yong Shin, Sung-Han Kim
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) are the most common tick-borne illnesses in South Korea. Early differentiation of SFTS from scrub typhus in emergency departments is essential but difficult because of their overlapping epidemiology, shared risk factors, and similar clinical manifestations. METHODS: We compared the diagnostic performance of one-step isothermal nucleic acid amplification with bio-optical sensor detection (iNAD) under isothermal conditions, which is rapid (20-30 min), with that of real-time PCR, in patients with a confirmed tick-borne illness...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207762/guillain-barre-syndrome-with-falciparum-malaria-and-scrub-typhus-mixed-infection-an-unusual-combination
#10
Rahul Sai Gangula, Weena Stanley, Arunsheshu Vandanapu, M Mukhyaprana Prabhu
Guillain-Barre Syndrome is very rare in parasitic and rickettsial infection. Here we report a case of Plasmodium falciparum and scrub typhus mixed infection, presented with quadriparesis. Clinical, Serological, CSF analysis and Nerve Conduction Studies were consistent with Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (variant of GBS). After administration of antimalarials and antibiotics for the mixed infection, patient gradually improved.
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206463/rigorous-pka-estimation-of-amine-species-using-density-functional-tight-binding-based-metadynamics-simulations
#11
Aditya Wibawa Sakti, Yoshifumi Nishimura, Hiromi Nakai
Predicting pKa values for different types of amine species with high accuracy and efficiency is of critical importance for the design of high performance and economical solvents in carbon capture and storage with aqueous amine solutions. In this study, we demonstrate that density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) metadynamics simulations are a promising approach to calculate the free energy difference between the protonated and neutral states of amines in aqueous solution with inexpensive computational cost. The calculated pKa values were in satisfactory agreement with the experimental values, the mean absolute deviation being only 0...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196340/dynamics-of-gaps-vegetation-and-plant-species-with-and-without-fire
#12
Eric S Menges, Sarah J H Crate, Pedro F Quintana-Ascencio
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Areas lacking dominant plants, or gaps, can support high diversity and specialist species. Previous chronosequence research in Florida rosemary scrub showed indistinct gap area patterns with fire and the dependence of certain species on gaps. We hypothesized that fire and gap size would affect extinction, colonization, diversity, and vegetation composition. METHODS: In 2011-12, we revisited gaps first sampled in 2003, recording vascular plant and ground lichen occurrence by species, gap area, and burn history...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189856/-the-impact-of-the-orthopedic-surgeons-attire-on-patient-preferences
#13
Stefan Lozic, Pedro Christian Aravena, Nicolás Martínez, Catalina Proboste, Nicolás Pinto, Gabriel Albornoz, Pablo Larraguibel
BACKGROUND: The formal appearance of health care professionals may influence their trustworthiness. AIM: To determine the effect of the orthopedic surgeon's attire on patients' perceptions of credibility and reliability of professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, 351 patients (mean age 43 ± 17 years, 62% males) from the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology of a Chilean regional hospital in southem of Chile were chosen to complete a questionnaire of attire preferences, in which five photographs with male and female orthopedic surgeons appeared (executive, formal attire, informal attire, scrubs and casual clothing)...
August 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181858/relationship-between-salivary-haemoglobin-and-number-of-remaining-teeth-in-older-koreans
#14
Jun-Seon Choi, Hee-Eun Kim, Leeann R Donnelly
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between saliva and dental biofilm characteristics, oral hygiene behaviours and the number of remaining teeth in a sample of older Koreans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 133 participants, aged 65 years and older, recruited from senior welfare facilities in Incheon, South Korea. The outcome variable was the number of remaining teeth, and its associations with the independent variables of participants' general characteristics, salivary haemoglobin level, dental biofilm acidogenicity, salivary flow rate and oral hygiene behaviours were assessed...
November 27, 2017: Gerodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180198/surgical-tray-optimization-as-a-simple-means-to-decrease-perioperative-costs
#15
James S Farrelly, Crystal Clemons, Sherri Witkins, Walter Hall, Emily R Christison-Lagay, Doruk E Ozgediz, Robert A Cowles, David H Stitelman, Michael G Caty
BACKGROUND: Health care spending in the US remains excessively high. Aside from complicated, large-scale efforts at health care cost reduction, there are still relatively simple ways in which individual hospitals can cut unnecessary costs from everyday operations. Inspired by recent publications, our group sought to decrease the costs associated with surgical instrument processing at a large, multihospital academic center. METHODS: This was a single-site observational study conducted at a large academic medical center...
December 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176880/seroprevalence-of-rickettsial-infections-and-q-fever-in-bhutan
#16
Tshokey Tshokey, John Stenos, David N Durrheim, Keith Eastwood, Chelsea Nguyen, Stephen R Graves
BACKGROUND: With few studies conducted to date, very little is known about the epidemiology of rickettsioses in Bhutan. Due to two previous outbreaks and increasing clinical cases, scrub typhus is better recognized than other rickettsial infections and Q fever. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted from January to March 2015 in eight districts of Bhutan. Participants were 864 healthy individuals from an urban (30%) and a rural (70%) sampling unit in each of the eight districts...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173047/epidemiological-clinical-and-laboratory-profile-of-scrub-typhus-cases-detected-by-serology-and-rt-pcr-in-kumaon-uttarakhand-a-hospital-based-study
#17
Vinita Rawat, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Ashok Kumar, Sandip R Saxena, Umesh Varshney, Mukesh Kumar
We analysed the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory data of the 168 scrub typhus cases confirmed by a combination of any one of the following: reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or immunofluorescence assay (IFA) (IgM and/or IgG). The peak season for scrub typhus is from July to October. By multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, the risk of scrub typhus was about four times in those working in occupation related to forest work. Major clinical manifestations were fever (100%), myalgia (65%), cough (51%) and vomiting (46%); major complications were meningitis/meningoencephatilitis (12...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167156/rapid-root-responses-of-seedlings-exposed-to-a-postdrought-water-pulse
#18
Monica A Nguyen, Julie E Larson, Megan D Blair, Darcy D Hardwick, Nilsha Khurana, Joanne S Kim, Marc V Rosenfield, Jennifer L Funk
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Mediterranean-type climate ecosystems experience significant variability in precipitation within and across years and may be characterized by periods of extreme drought followed by a brief, high-intensity precipitation pulse. Rapid root growth could be a key factor in effective utilization of precipitation pulses, leading to higher rates of seedling establishment. Changes in root growth rate are rarely studied, however, and patterns in seedling root traits are not well explored...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156257/surrounding-land-cover-types-as-predictors-of-palustrine-wetland-vegetation-quality-in-conterminous-usa
#19
Martin A Stapanian, Brian Gara, William Schumacher
The loss of wetland habitats and their often-unique biological communities is a major environmental concern. We examined vegetation data obtained from 380 wetlands sampled in a statistical survey of wetlands in the USA. Our goal was to identify which surrounding land cover types best predict two indices of vegetation quality in wetlands at the regional scale. We considered palustrine wetlands in four regions (Coastal Plains, North Central East, Interior Plains, and West) in which the dominant vegetation was emergent, forested, or scrub-shrub...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153551/remote-sensing-based-deforestation-analysis-in-mahanadi-and-brahmaputra-river-basin-in-india-since-1985
#20
M D Behera, P Tripathi, P Das, S K Srivastava, P S Roy, C Joshi, P R Behera, J Deka, P Kumar, M L Khan, O P Tripathi, T Dash, Y V N Krishnamurthy
Land use and land cover (LULC) change has been recognized as a key driver of global climate change by influencing land surface processes. Being in constant change, river basins are always subjected to LULC changes, especially decline in forest cover to give way for agricultural expansion, urbanization, industrialization etc. We used on-screen digital interpretation technique to derive LULC maps from Landsat images at three decadal intervals i.e., 1985, 1995 and 2005 of two major river basins of India. Rain-fed, Mahanadi river basin (MRB) attributed to 55% agricultural area wherein glacier-fed, Brahmaputra river basin (BRB) had only 16% area under agricultural land...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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