Read by QxMD icon Read


Michelle E Maxson, Xenia Naj, Teresa R O'Meara, Jonathan D Plumb, Leah E Cowen, Sergio Grinstein
Candida albicans hyphae can reach enormous lengths, precluding their internalization by phagocytes. Nevertheless, macrophages engulf a portion of the hypha, generating incompletely sealed tubular phagosomes. These frustrated phagosomes are stabilized by a thick cuff of F-actin that polymerizes in response to non-canonical activation of integrins by fungal glycan. Despite their continuity, the surface and invaginating phagosomal membranes retain a strikingly distinct lipid composition. PtdIns(4,5)P2 is present at the plasmalemma but is not detectable in the phagosomal membrane, while PtdIns(3)P and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 co-exist in the phagosomes yet are absent from the surface membrane...
March 19, 2018: ELife
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hong-Qiang Chen, Ji Zhao, Yan Li, Li-Xiong He, Yu-Jing Huang, Wei-Qun Shu, Jia Cao, Wen-Bin Liu, Jin-Yi Liu
Microcystin (MC) is a cyclic heptapeptide compound which could lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the underlying epigenetic regulation mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, microcystin-LR (L: lysine, R: arginine, MC-LR) was used to induce the malignant transformation of human hepatocyte L02 cell line. The profile of gene expression, microRNA (miRNA) and DNA methylation were detected through high-throughput sequencing. Compared with control group, the expression of 826 genes and 187 miRNAs changed significantly in MC-LR treated group...
March 5, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Dagan Segal, Assaf Zaritsky, Eyal D Schejter, Ben-Zion Shilo
Secretion of adhesive glycoproteins to the lumen of Drosophila melanogaster larval salivary glands is performed by contraction of an actomyosin network assembled around large secretory vesicles, after their fusion to the apical membranes. We have identified a cycle of actin coat nucleation and disassembly that is independent of myosin. Recruitment of active Rho1 to the fused vesicle triggers activation of the formin Diaphanous and actin nucleation. This leads to actin-dependent localization of a RhoGAP protein that locally shuts off Rho1, promoting disassembly of the actin coat...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Xiaoyan Zhou, Jie Weng, Jing Xu, Qiulin Xu, Weiju Wang, Weijin Zhang, Qiaobing Huang, Xiaohua Guo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Disruption of endothelial barrier integrity in response to advanced glycation end products (AEGs) stimulation contributes to vasculopathy associated with diabetes mellitus. Mammalian diaphanous-related formin (mDia1) has been reported to bind to the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which induces a series of cellular processes. This study directly evaluated the participation of mDia1 in AGE-induced hyperpermeability and revealed the precise intracellular signal transductions of this pathological process...
February 23, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ede Migh, Torsten Götz, István Földi, Szilárd Szikora, Rita Gombos, Zsuzsanna Darula, Katalin F Medzihradszky, József Maléth, Péter Hegyi, Stephan Sigrist, József Mihály
Regulation of the cytoskeleton is fundamental to the development and functioning of synaptic terminals, such as neuromuscular junctions. Nevertheless, despite identification of numerous proteins that regulate synaptic actin and microtubule dynamics, the mechanisms of cytoskeletal control during terminal arbor formation has remained largely elusive. Here, we show that DAAM, a member of the formin family of cytoskeleton organizing factors, is an important presynaptic regulator of neuromuscular junction development in Drosophila We demonstrate that the actin filament assembly activity of DAAM plays a negligible role in terminal formation; rather, DAAM is necessary for synaptic microtubule organization...
February 27, 2018: Development
Qing Wen, Elizabeth I Tang, Nan Li, Dolores D Mruk, Will M Lee, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis that supports meiosis and postmeiotic spermatid development since a delay in the establishment of a functional Sertoli cell barrier during postnatal development in rats or mice by 17-20 day postpartum (dpp) would lead to a delay of the first wave of meiosis. Furthermore, irreversible disruption of the BTB by toxicants also induces infertility in rodents. Herein, we summarize recent findings that BTB dynamics (i.e., disassembly, reassembly, and stabilization) are supported by the concerted efforts of the actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Stephen J Terry, Federico Donà, Paul Osenberg, Jeremy G Carlton, Ulrike S Eggert
During cytokinesis, a cleavage furrow generated by actomyosin ring contraction is restructured into the midbody, a platform for the assembly of the abscission machinery that controls the final separation of daughter cells. The polymerization state of F-actin is important during assembly, ingression, disassembly, and closure of the contractile ring and for the cytoskeletal remodeling that accompanies midbody formation and progression to abscission. Actin filaments must be cleared from the abscission sites before the final cut can take place...
February 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tim B Fessenden, Yvonne Beckham, Mathew Perez-Neut, Guillermina Ramirez-San Juan, Aparajita H Chourasia, Kay F Macleod, Patrick W Oakes, Margaret L Gardel
Developing tissues change shape and tumors initiate spreading through collective cell motility. Conserved mechanisms by which tissues initiate motility into their surroundings are not known. We investigated cytoskeletal regulators during collective invasion by mouse tumor organoids and epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) acini undergoing branching morphogenesis in collagen. Use of the broad-spectrum formin inhibitor SMIFH2 prevented the formation of migrating cell fronts in both cell types. Focusing on the role of the formin Dia1 in branching morphogenesis, we found that its depletion in MDCK cells does not alter planar cell motility either within the acinus or in two-dimensional scattering assays...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Ramon J Whitson, Alex Lee, Nicole M Urman, Amar Mirza, Catherine Y Yao, Alexander S Brown, Jiang R Li, Gautam Shankar, Micah A Fry, Scott X Atwood, Eunice Y Lee, S Tyler Hollmig, Sumaira Z Aasi, Kavita Y Sarin, Matthew P Scott, Ervin H Epstein, Jean Y Tang, Anthony E Oro
Hedgehog pathway-dependent cancers can escape Smoothened (SMO) inhibition through mutations in genes encoding canonical hedgehog pathway components; however, around 50% of drug-resistant basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) lack additional variants of these genes. Here we use multidimensional genomics analysis of human and mouse drug-resistant BCCs to identify a noncanonical hedgehog activation pathway driven by the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF). Active SRF along with its coactivator megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MKL1) binds DNA near hedgehog target genes and forms a previously unknown protein complex with the hedgehog transcription factor glioma-associated oncogene family zinc finger-1 (GLI1), causing amplification of GLI1 transcriptional activity...
February 5, 2018: Nature Medicine
MaryPeace McRae, Lindsay M LaFratta, Benjamin M Nguyen, Jason J Paris, Kurt F Hauser, Daniel E Conway
A principal function of endothelial cells is the formation of a barrier between the blood and tissues.  This barrier arises from the physical connections at cell-cell junctions, which includes cytoskeletal tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Methods that alter barrier function must therefore affect these cell-cell connections. The blood brain barrier (BBB) represents perhaps the most selective endothelial barrier, which arises from endothelial cell interactions with astrocytes and pericytes. Even in non-central nervous system (CNS) endothelial cells, barrier properties can be enhanced, mimicking the BBB, through induction of intercellular junctions, by either direct co-culture with astrocytes, supplementation with astrocyte conditioned medium (ACM) and/or pharmacologic enhancement of cAMP...
February 1, 2018: Tissue Barriers
X L Ren, Y D Qiao, J Y Li, X M Li, D Zhang, X J Zhang, X H Zhu, W J Zhou, J Shi, W Wang, W T Liao, Y Q Ding, L Liang
Recently, invadopodia have been increasingly recognized as important drivers of local invasion and metastasis. Cortactin, as an actin-binding protein, is closely associated with invadopodia through interacting with proteins. Formin-like 2 (FMNL2), a member of diaphanous-related formins which act as nucleation factors, plays an important role in tumor progression. But whether cortactin can interact with FMNL2 to promote invadopodia formation and the role of FMNL2 in invadopodia formation are still unknown. Here we found that cortactin directly bound to FMNL2 and elevated the activities of actin polymerization and recycling endosome motility...
January 25, 2018: Cancer Letters
Peter A C van Gisbergen, Shu-Zon Wu, Mingqin Chang, Kelli A Pattavina, Madelaine E Bartlett, Magdalena Bezanilla
Exocytosis, facilitated by the exocyst, is fundamentally important for remodeling cell walls and membranes. Here, we analyzed For1F, a novel gene that encodes a fusion of an exocyst subunit (Sec10) and an actin nucleation factor (formin). We showed that the fusion occurred early in moss evolution and has been retained for more than 170 million years. In Physcomitrella patens, For1F is essential, and the expressed protein is a fusion of Sec10 and formin. Reduction of For1F or actin filaments inhibits exocytosis, and For1F dynamically associates with Sec6, another exocyst subunit, in an actin-dependent manner...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Alaina H Willet, K Adam Bohnert, Kathleen L Gould
In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cytokinesis requires the assembly and constriction of an actomyosin-based contractile ring (CR). A single essential formin, Cdc12, localizes to the cell middle upon mitotic onset and nucleates the F-actin of the CR. Cdc12 medial recruitment is mediated in part by its direct binding to the F-BAR scaffold Cdc15. Given that Cdc12 is hyper-phosphorylated in M phase, we explored whether Cdc12 phospho-regulation impacts its association with Cdc15 during mitosis. We found that Cdk1, a major mitotic kinase, phosphorylates Cdc12 on six N-terminal residues near the Cdc15-binding site...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Huaping Xiong, Ting Yan, Weijie Zhang, Fangfang Shi, Xuesong Jiang, Xiaohua Wang, Shoushan Li, Ying Chen, Cheng Chen, Yichao Zhu
Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam1) is a formin protein and participates in regulating cell migration of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. The specific miRNA targeting Daam1 and mediating cell migration and invasion remains obscure. This experiment investigated the suppressive role of miR-613 in TNBC cells. The luciferase activity of Daam1 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) based reporters constructed in HEK-293T and MCF-7 cells suggested that Daam1 was the target gene of miR-613...
January 12, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Spencer A Freeman, Anthony Vega, Magdalena Riedl, Richard F Collins, Phillip P Ostrowski, Elliot C Woods, Carolyn R Bertozzi, Markku I Tammi, Diane S Lidke, Pauline Johnson, Satyajit Mayor, Khuloud Jaqaman, Sergio Grinstein
Phagocytic receptors must diffuse laterally to become activated upon clustering by multivalent targets. Receptor diffusion, however, can be obstructed by transmembrane proteins ("pickets") that are immobilized by interacting with the cortical cytoskeleton. The molecular identity of these pickets and their role in phagocytosis have not been defined. We used single-molecule tracking to study the interaction between Fcγ receptors and CD44, an abundant transmembrane protein capable of indirect association with F-actin, hence likely to serve as a picket...
January 11, 2018: Cell
István Foldi, Szilárd Szikora, József Mihály
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
Jaime Fernández-Barrera, Miguel Bernabé-Rubio, Javier Casares-Arias, Laura Rangel, Laura Fernández-Martín, Isabel Correas, Miguel A Alonso
The role of formins in microtubules is not well understood. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism by which INF2, a formin mutated in degenerative renal and neurological hereditary disorders, controls microtubule acetylation. We found that silencing of INF2 in epithelial RPE-1 cells produced a dramatic drop in tubulin acetylation, increased the G-actin/F-actin ratio, and impaired myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)/serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription, which is known to be repressed by increased levels of G-actin...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Yang Mei, Gong Feng, Nina Rahimi, Baobing Zhao, Jingxin Zhang, Lan Cao, Jing Yang, Juehua Gao, Yihua Chen, Ronen Sumagin, William A Muller, Ling Zhang, Peng Ji
Formin protein mDia1 is involved in actin polymerization and plays important roles in the migration and adhesion of hematopoietic cells. The mDia1 encoding gene is located on chromosome 5q, which is commonly deleted in patients with del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs). We previously reported that mice with mDia1 deficiency developed neutropenia that closely mimics MDS. However, the mechanism of neutropenia in these mice and patients with del(5q) MDS remains incompletely defined. Here, we reveal that mDia1 knockout mice show cell-autonomously increased CD11b expression on neutrophils in the peripheral blood and bone marrow...
September 12, 2017: Blood Advances
William T Silkworth, Kristina L Kunes, Grace C Nickel, Martin L Phillips, Margot E Quinlan, Christina L Vizcarra
The formin Delphilin binds the glutamate receptor, GluRδ2, in dendritic spines of Purkinje cells. Both proteins play a role in learning. To understand how Delphilin functions in neurons, we studied the actin assembly properties of this formin. Formins have a conserved formin homology 2 domain, which nucleates and associates with the fast growing end of actin filaments, influencing filament growth together with the formin homology 1 (FH1) domain. The strength of nucleation and elongation varies widely across formins...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"