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General movement

Haley Adams, Gayathri Narasimham, John Rieser, Sarah Creem-Regehr, Jeanine Stefanucci, Bobby Bodenheimer
As virtual reality expands in popularity, an increasingly diverse audience is gaining exposure to immersive virtual environments (IVEs). A significant body of research has demonstrated how perception and action work in such environments, but most of this work has been done studying adults. Less is known about how physical and cognitive development affect perception and action in IVEs, particularly as applied to preteen and teenage children. Accordingly, in the current study we assess how preteens (children aged 8-12 years) and teenagers (children aged 15-18 years) respond to mismatches between their motor behavior and the visual information presented by an IVE...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Yasmine Mosleh, Martin Cajka, Bart Depreitere, Jos Vander Sloten, Jan Ivens
Oblique impact is the most common accident situation that occupants in traffic accidents or athletes in professional sports experience. During oblique impact, the human head is subjected to a combination of linear and rotational accelerations. Rotational movement is known to be responsible for traumatic brain injuries. In this article, composite foam with a column/matrix composite configuration is proposed for head protection applications to replace single-layer uniform foam, to better attenuate rotational movement of the head during oblique impacts...
March 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Laura M Scorr, Michael R Silver, John Hanfelt, Elaine Sperin, Alan Freeman, H A Jinnah, Stewart A Factor
Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) causes involuntary movements of masticatory and lingual muscles impairing eating, speaking, and swallowing. Treatment options are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of abobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNTA) in OMD. A dose-finding study (phase 1) followed by a single session, prospective, single-blind trial (phase 2) was carried out. OMD subjects were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Muscles injected were tailored to individual symptoms using EMG guidance, but the aboBoNTA dose for each muscle was pre-specified based on phase 1 results...
March 14, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Armin H Paravlic, Maamer Slimani, David Tod, Uros Marusic, Zoran Milanovic, Rado Pisot
BACKGROUND: Motor imagery (MI), a mental simulation of a movement without overt muscle contraction, has been largely used to improve general motor tasks. However, the effects of MI practice on maximal voluntary strength (MVS) remain equivocal. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this meta-analysis were to (1) estimate whether MI practice intervention can meaningfully improve MVS in healthy adults; (2) compare the effects of MI practice on MVS with its combination with physical practice (MI-C), and with physical practice (PP) training alone; and (3) investigate the dose-response relationships of MI practice...
March 14, 2018: Sports Medicine
Jennifer A Bunn, James W Navalta, Charles J Fountaine, Joel D Reece
Wearable physical activity trackers are a popular and useful method to collect biometric information at rest and during exercise. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize recent findings of wearable devices for biometric information related to steps, heart rate, and caloric expenditure for several devices that hold a large portion of the market share. Searches were conducted in both PubMed and SPORTdiscus. Filters included: humans, within the last 5 years, English, full-text, and adult 19+ years...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Thomas Germe, Judit Vörös, Frederic Jeannot, Thomas Taillier, Robert A Stavenger, Eric Bacqué, Anthony Maxwell, Benjamin D Bax
Imidazopyrazinones (IPYs) are a new class of compounds that target bacterial topoisomerases as a basis for their antibacterial activity. We have characterized the mechanism of these compounds through structural/mechanistic studies showing they bind and stabilize a cleavage complex between DNA gyrase and DNA ('poisoning') in an analogous fashion to fluoroquinolones, but without the requirement for the water-metal-ion bridge. Biochemical experiments and structural studies of cleavage complexes of IPYs compared with an uncleaved gyrase-DNA complex, reveal conformational transitions coupled to DNA cleavage at the DNA gate...
March 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Haoyu Wen, Massimo Pica Ciamarra, Siew Ann Cheong
There is growing interest in the use of critical slowing down and critical fluctuations as early warning signals for critical transitions in different complex systems. However, while some studies found them effective, others found the opposite. In this paper, we investigated why this might be so, by testing three commonly used indicators: lag-1 autocorrelation, variance, and low-frequency power spectrum at anticipating critical transitions in the very-high-frequency time series data of the Australian Dollar-Japanese Yen and Swiss Franc-Japanese Yen exchange rates...
2018: PloS One
Niklas Wilming, Peter König, Seth König, Elizabeth A Buffalo
Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex allow for the precise decoding of position in space. Along with potentially playing an important role in navigation, grid cells have recently been hypothesized to make a general contribution to mental operations. A prerequisite for this hypothesis is that grid cell activity does not critically depend on physical movement. Here, we show that movement of covert attention, without any physical movement, also elicits spatial receptive fields with a triangular tiling of space...
March 14, 2018: ELife
Daniel P Sheppard, Jelle P Bruineberg, Anett Kretschmer-Trendowicz, Mareike Altgassen
OBJECTIVE: The current article set out to review all research conducted to date investigating prospective memory (PM) in autism. METHOD: All studies on PM in autism are first described, followed by a critical review and discussion of experimental findings within the multiprocess framework. PM in autism is then considered through an embodied predictive-coding account of autism. RESULTS: Overall, despite somewhat inconsistent methodologies, a general deficit in PM in autism is observed, with evidence mostly in line with the multiprocess framework...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Steffi L Colyer, Polly M McGuigan
Textile electromyography (EMG) electrodes embedded in clothing allow muscle excitation to be recorded in previously inaccessible settings; however, their ability to accurately and reliably measure EMG during dynamic tasks remains largely unexplored. To quantify the validity and reliability of textile electrodes, 16 recreationally active males completed two identical testing sessions, within which three functional movements (run, cycle and squat) were performed twice: once wearing EMG shorts (measuring quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals myoelectric activity) and once with surface EMG electrodes attached to the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Pei-Lin Lee, Kun-Hsien Chou, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Nai-Wen Tsai, Ai-Ling Hsu, Meng-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Che Lin, Ching-Po Lin
OBJECTIVES: To identify disease-related spatial covariance patterns of grey matter volume as an aid in the classification of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Seventy structural covariance networks (SCNs) based on grey matter volume covariance patterns were defined using independent component analysis with T1-weighted structural MRI scans (discovery sample, 70 PD patients and 70 healthy controls). An image-based classifier was constructed from SCNs using a multiple logistic regression analysis with a leave-one-out cross-validation-based feature selection scheme...
March 12, 2018: European Radiology
Ross Arena, Amy McNeil, Steven Street, Samantha Bond, Deepika R Laddu, Carl J Lavie, Andrew P Hills
Noncommunicable and chronic disease are interchangeable terms. According to the World Health Organization, "they are of long duration and generally slow progression. The 4 main types of chronic diseases are cardiovascular diseases (ie, heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma), and diabetes." We have known about the benefits of physical activity (PA) for thousands of years. Perhaps our approach, from public health messaging to the individual clinical encounter, as to how PA and exercise are discussed and prescribed can be improved upon, with the ultimate goal of increasing the likelihood that an individual moves more; ultimately moving more should be the goal...
April 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
Anke Langenfeld, Carolien Bastiaenen, Judith Sieben, B Kim Humphreys, Jaap Swanenburg
STUDY DESIGN: Mixed-method. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between objective and subjective cervical range of motion (ROM) among patients with neck pain, and to assess the awareness of impairments. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Cervical ROM is frequently used to evaluate neck pain, but it is also important to know what a patient expects from treatment, because this can profoundly affect treatment outcomes and patient satisfaction. METHODS: We used a cervical ROM instrument, the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a self-administered ROM questionnaire for the neck (S-ROM-Neck)...
March 9, 2018: Spine
Angelo Quartarone, Diane Ruge
Dystonia can be seen in a number of different phenotypes that may arise from different etiologies. The pathophysiological substrate of dystonia is related to three lines of research. The first postulate a loss of inhibition which may account for the excess of movement and for the overflow phenomena. A second abnormality is sensory dysfunction which is related to the mild sensory complaints in patients with focal dystonias and may be responsible for some of the motor dysfunction. Finally, there are strong pieces of evidence from animal and human studies suggesting that alterations of synaptic plasticity characterized by a disruption of homeostatic plasticity, with a prevailing facilitation of synaptic potentiation may play a pivotal role in primary dystonia...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Sumito Maruyama, Kenzo Muroi, Yoshiyuki Hosokai
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In general functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis, the task onset time of the statistical model is typically set according to the timing of stimulation. In this study, using a high temporal resolution fMRI data, we examined the way of dynamically visualizing the difference in the activation timing between the brain activation areas by analyzing the task onset time of the statistical model shifted from the actual stimulation timing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: fMRI data with high temporal resolution was acquired using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging for 10 right-handed healthy volunteers...
March 7, 2018: Academic Radiology
Richard S Marken, Dennis M Shaffer
Marken and Shaffer (Exp Brain Res 235:1835-1842, 2017) have argued that the power law of movement, which is generally thought to reflect the mechanisms that produce movement, is actually an example of what Powers (Psychol Rev 85:417-435, 1978) dubbed a behavioral illusion, where an observed relationship between variables is seen as revealing something about the mechanisms that produce a behavior when, in fact, it does not. Zago et al. (Exp Brain Res. , 2017) and Taylor (Exp Brain Res, https://doi...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Feixia Zheng, Xiuyun Ye, Xulai Shi, Neha Devi Poonit, Zhongdong Lin
The use of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT-A) injections for the treatment of orofacial dyskinesia secondary to anti- N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is rarely reported. Here, we report a case of an urgent, successful management of severe orofacial dyskinesia in an 8-year-old girl with anti-NMDAR encephalitis using BoNT-A injection. The patient presented with de novo unilateral paroxysmal movement disorder progressing to generalized dystonia and repetitive orofacial dyskinesia. Diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of NMDAR antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Leslie Citrome
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) has long been thought to be a generally irreversible consequence of the use of dopamine receptor blocking agents. There is now an opportunity to successfully manage this condition with agents approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. This is important because TD has not been eliminated with the use of second-generation antipsychotics, and the expansion of antipsychotics to treat conditions other than schizophrenia has resulted in millions of additional individuals at risk for developing TD...
February 28, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Jae Jin Kim, Eun Young Lee, Hyun Seok, Ji Yeon Kang
Zygoma reduction malarplasty is a standard procedure primarily performed in Asia on patients who prefer an oval facial shape. The technique is well established and standardized. However, the esthetic results are frequently unsatisfactory or accompanied by complications such as nonunion, malunion, and cheek drooping. These complications are generally attributed to postoperative bone fragment movement. In this study, we present an improvement to this standard procedure that involves modifying the surgical technique...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Nathalie Maitre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
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