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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782968/trainability-of-hemodynamic-parameters-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-based-neurofeedback-study
#1
Silvia Erika Kober, Vanessa Hinterleitner, Günther Bauernfeind, Christa Neuper, Guilherme Wood
We investigated the trainability of the hemodynamic response as assessed with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during one neurofeedback (NF) session. Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to four different groups that tried to either increase or decrease oxygenated (oxy-Hb) or deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) over the inferior frontal gyrus during imagery of swallowing movements. Deoxy-Hb could be successfully up-regulated while oxy-Hb could be successfully down-regulated during NF. Participants were not able to down-regulate deoxy-Hb or to up-regulate oxy-Hb...
May 18, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779292/paediatric-constipation-an-approach-and-evidence-based-treatment-regimen
#2
Harveen Singh, Frances Connor
BACKGROUND: Constipation affects 5-30% of children and is responsible for 3% of primary care visits. General practitioners (GPs) are frequently the first medical encounter for concerned parents regarding their child's bowel habit. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review the assessment and management of children with constipation to empower GPs to initiate treatment and know when to refer to a paediatrician. DISCUSSION: In the absence of organic aetiology, childhood constipation is almost always functional and often due to painful bowel movements that prompt the child to withhold stool...
May 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777713/development-and-psychometric-validation-of-capacity-assessment-of-prosthetic-performance-for-the-upper-limb-cappful
#3
Nathan T Kearns, Jennifer K Peterson, Lisa Smurr Walters, Warren T Jackson, John M Miguelez, Tiffany Ryan
OBJECTIVES: (1) Develop a performance-based measure for adult upper limb (UL) prosthetic functioning through broad (i.e. overall performance) and functional domain-specific (e.g., control skills) assessment of commonplace activities; (2) conduct initial psychometric evaluation of the Capacity Assessment of Prosthetic Performance for the Upper Limb (CAPPFUL). DESIGN: Internal consistency of CAPPFUL and interrater reliability for task, functional domain, and full scale (sub)scores among three independent raters were estimated...
May 16, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777676/cognitive-effects-of-rhythmic-auditory-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-p300-study
#4
Juan Lei, Nadine Conradi, Cornelius Abel, Stefan Frisch, Alla Brodski-Guerniero, Marcel Hildner, Christian A Kell, Jochen Kaiser, Maren Schmidt-Kassow
Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) may compensate dysfunctions of the basal ganglia (BG), involved with intrinsic evaluation of temporal intervals and action initiation or continuation. In the cognitive domain, RAS containing periodically presented tones facilitates young healthy participants' attention allocation to anticipated time points, indicated by better performance and larger P300 amplitudes to periodic compared to random stimuli. Additionally, active auditory-motor synchronization (AMS) leads to a more precise temporal encoding of stimuli via embodied timing encoding than stimulus presentation adapted to the participants' actual movements...
May 16, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777584/neuropsychiatric-expression-and-catatonia-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-an-overview-and-case-series
#5
Nancy J Butcher, Erik Boot, Anthony E Lang, Danielle Andrade, Jacob Vorstman, Donna McDonald-McGinn, Anne S Bassett
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are at elevated risk of developing treatable psychiatric and neurological disorders, including anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, seizures, and movement disorders, often beginning in adolescence or early to mid-adulthood. Here, we provide an overview of neuropsychiatric features associated with 22q11.2DS in adulthood. Results of a new case series of 13 individuals with 22q11.2DS and catatonic features together with 5 previously reported cases support a potential association of this serious psychomotor phenotype with the 22q11...
May 19, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776967/multicentre-study-of-maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-individuals-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#6
Preeti Singh, Ranim Mahmoud, June-Anne Gold, Jennifer L Miller, Elizabeth Roof, Roy Tamura, Elisabeth Dykens, Merlin G Butler, Dan J Driscoll, Virginia Kimonis
INTRODUCTION: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder associated with three different genetic subtypes: deletion of the paternal copy of 15q11-q13, maternal UPD for chromosome 15 and imprinting defect. Patients are typically diagnosed because of neonatal hypotonia, dysmorphism and feeding difficulties; however, data on the prenatal features of PWS are limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify and compare frequencies of prenatal and neonatal clinical features of PWS among the three genetic subtypes...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776091/modeling-persistence-of-motion-in-a-crowded-environment-the-diffusive-limit-of-excluding-velocity-jump-processes
#7
Enrico Gavagnin, Christian A Yates
Persistence of motion is the tendency of an object to maintain motion in a direction for short time scales without necessarily being biased in any direction in the long term. One of the most appropriate mathematical tools to study this behavior is an agent-based velocity-jump process. In the absence of agent-agent interaction, the mean-field continuum limit of the agent-based model (ABM) gives rise to the well known hyperbolic telegraph equation. When agent-agent interaction is included in the ABM, a strictly advective system of partial differential equations (PDEs) can be derived at the population level...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773999/fitts-law-in-the-control-of-isometric-grip-force-with-naturalistic-targets
#8
Zachary C Thumser, Andrew B Slifkin, Dylan T Beckler, Paul D Marasco
Fitts' law models the relationship between amplitude, precision, and speed of rapid movements. It is widely used to quantify performance in pointing tasks, study human-computer interaction, and generally to understand perceptual-motor information processes, including research to model performance in isometric force production tasks. Applying Fitts' law to an isometric grip force task would allow for quantifying grasp performance in rehabilitative medicine and may aid research on prosthetic control and design...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773349/robot-assisted-training-using-hybrid-assistive-limb%C3%A2-for-cerebral-palsy
#9
Mayumi Matsuda, Nobuaki Iwasaki, Yuki Mataki, Hirotaka Mutsuzaki, Kenichi Yoshikawa, Kazushi Takahashi, Keiko Enomoto, Kumiko Sano, Aoi Kubota, Tomohiro Nakayama, Junko Nakayama, Haruka Ohguro, Masafumi Mizukami, Kazuhide Tomita
PURPOSE: The Hybrid Assistive Limb® (HAL®, CYBERDYNE) is a wearable robot that provides assistance to a patient while they are walking, standing, and performing leg movements based on the wearer's intended movement. The effect of robot-assisted training using HAL® for cerebral palsy (CP) is unknown. Therefore, we assessed the effect of robot-assisted training using HAL® on patients with CP, and compared walking and gross motor abilities between pre-intervention and post-intervention...
May 14, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772819/do-young-people-ever-sit-still-variations-in-accelerometer-counts-muscle-activity-and-heart-rate-across-various-sedentary-activities-in-youth
#10
Evi van Ekris, Mai J M Chinapaw, Joost Rotteveel, Teatske M Altenburg
Evidence of adverse health effects of TV viewing is stronger than for overall sedentary behaviour in youth. One explanation may be that TV viewing involves less body movement than other sedentary activities. Variations in body movement across sedentary activities are currently unknown, as are age differences in such variations. This study examined body movement differences across various sedentary activities in children and adolescents, assessed by hip-, thigh- and wrist-worn accelerometers, muscle activity and heart rate...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772388/key-risk-indicators-for-accident-assessment-conditioned-on-pre-crash-vehicle-trajectory
#11
X Shi, Y D Wong, M Z F Li, C Chai
Accident events are generally unexpected and occur rarely. Pre-accident risk assessment by surrogate indicators is an effective way to identify risk levels and thus boost accident prediction. Herein, the concept of Key Risk Indicator (KRI) is proposed, which assesses risk exposures using hybrid indicators. Seven metrics are shortlisted as the basic indicators in KRI, with evaluation in terms of risk behaviour, risk avoidance, and risk margin. A typical real-world chain-collision accident and its antecedent (pre-crash) road traffic movements are retrieved from surveillance video footage, and a grid remapping method is proposed for data extraction and coordinates transformation...
May 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772380/task-dependent-modulation-of-the-visual-sensory-thalamus-assists-visual-speech-recognition
#12
Begoña Díaz, Helen Blank, Katharina von Kriegstein
The cerebral cortex modulates early sensory processing via feed-back connections to sensory pathway nuclei. The functions of this top-down modulation for human behavior are poorly understood. Here, we show that top-down modulation of the visual sensory thalamus (the lateral geniculate body, LGN) is involved in visual-speech recognition. In two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, LGN response increased when participants processed fast-varying features of articulatory movements required for visual-speech recognition, as compared to temporally more stable features required for face identification with the same stimulus material...
May 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772269/a-new-method-for-determining-levels-of-sedation-in-dogs-a-pilot-study-with-propofol-and-a-novel-neuroactive-steroid-anesthetic
#13
B L Youngblood, Y Ueyama, W W Muir, G M Belfort, R H Hammond, J Dai, F G Salituro, A J Robichaud, J J Doherty
BACKGROUND: Different levels of consciousness are required in order to perform different medical procedures. Sedation scales established to objectively define various levels of sedation in humans have not been thoroughly characterized in non-human species. Postural changes in rats or dogs are useful as gross measures of sedation but are inadequate for quantitative assessment since graded levels of sedation are difficult to delineate and obscured by movement abnormalities. NEW METHOD: A new canine sedation scoring (CSS) method was developed based on the modified observer's assessment of alertness and sedation score (MOAA/S) used in humans...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769218/simulation-of-melanoblast-displacements-reveals-new-features-of-developmental-migration
#14
Pascal Laurent, Valérie Petit, Zackie Aktary, Stuart Gallagher, Luke Tweedy, Laura Machesky, Lionel Larue
To distribute and establish the melanocyte lineage throughout the skin and other developing organs, melanoblasts undergo several rounds of proliferation, accompanied by migration through complex environments and differentiation. Melanoblast migration requires interaction with extracellular matrix of the epidermal basement membrane and with surrounding keratinocytes in the developing skin. Migration has been characterized by measuring speed, trajectory and directionality of movement, but there are many unanswered questions about what motivates and defines melanoblast migration...
May 16, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768121/a-biomechanical-comparison-of-initial-sprint-acceleration-performance-and-technique-in-an-elite-athlete-with-cerebral-palsy-and-able-bodied-sprinters
#15
Ian N Bezodis, James Cowburn, Adam Brazil, Rhian Richardson, Cassie Wilson, Timothy A Exell, Gareth Irwin
Cerebral palsy is known to generally limit range of motion and force producing capability during movement. It also limits sprint performance, but the exact mechanisms underpinning this are not well known. One elite male T36 multiple-Paralympic sprint medallist (T36) and 16 well-trained able-bodied (AB) sprinters each performed 5-6 maximal sprints from starting blocks. Whole-body kinematics (250 Hz) in the block phase and first two steps, and synchronised external forces (1,000 Hz) in the first stance phase after block exit were combined to quantify lower limb joint kinetics...
May 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766338/an-unusual-surgical-indication-for-cerebral-tuberculosis-status-dystonicus-case-report
#16
Andrea Franzini, Angelo Franzini, Vincenzo Levi, Roberto Cordella, Giuseppe Messina
Actual indications for surgery in tuberculosis are limited to obtaining a diagnosis, acquiring tissue for culture studies, treating hydrocephalus, aspiring a brain abscess, and reducing intracranial pressure in patients with multiple tuberculomas. Tuberculosis-related movement disorders are usually treated pharmacologically. We report on a child affected by post-tubercular generalized dystonia, who progressed to status dystonicus (SD) and underwent stereotactic bilateral pallidotomy. After surgery, SD resolved, and drugs were rapidly tapered...
May 15, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765883/the-validity-of-two-neuromotor-assessments-for-predicting-motor-performance-at-12-months-in-preterm-infants
#17
You Hong Song, Hyun Jung Chang, Yong Beom Shin, Young Sook Park, Yun Hee Park, Eun Sol Cho
Objective: To evaluate the validity of the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) and general movements (GMs) assessment for predicting Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) score at 12 months in preterm infants. Methods: A total of 44 preterm infants who underwent the GMs and TIMP at 1 month and 3 months of corrected age (CA) and whose motor performance was evaluated using AIMS at 12 months CA were included. GMs were judged as abnormal on basis of poor repertoire or cramped-synchronized movements at 1 month CA and abnormal or absent fidgety movement at 3 months CA...
April 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765877/gender-related-differences-in-reliability-of-thorax-lumbar-and-pelvis-kinematics-during-gait-in-patients-with-non-specific-chronic-low-back-pain
#18
Rasool Bagheri, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Mehdi Dadgoo, Amir Ahmadi, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Amir-Salar Jafarpisheh
Objective: To evaluate test-retest reliability of trunk kinematics relative to the pelvis during gait in two groups (males and females) of patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (NCLBP) using three-dimensional motion capture system. Methods: A convenience sample of 40 NCLBP participants (20 males and 20 females) was evaluated in two sessions. Participants were asked to walk with self-selected speed and kinematics of thorax and lumbar spine were captured using a 6-infrared-cameras motion-analyzer system...
April 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764480/a-stepped-approach-for-the-management-of-symptomatic-internal-derangement-of-the-temporomandibular-joint
#19
Candan Efeoglu, Aylin Sipahi Calis, Huseyin Koca, Esra Yuksel
BACKGROUND: Internal derangement is the clinical and pathological condition of disc displacement of the temporomandibular joint. Management of these cases involve conservative and surgical treatment options. Minimally invasive surgical procedures namely arthrocentesis and arthroscopy are promising techniques in the management of internal derangement. However patient selection algorithms, indications for minimally invasive procedures and details of the techniques should be further studied for safe and cost effective management of these cases...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763813/age-and-gymnastic-experience-effects-on-sensory-reweighting-processes-during-quiet-stand
#20
Albert Busquets, Silvia Aranda-Garcia, Blai Ferrer-Uris, Michel Marina, Rosa Angulo-Barroso
BACKGROUND: The relative contribution of sensory inputs to control balance while standing is dynamically adjusted. These sensory reweighting processes could be impacted by age and sport expertise capabilities, especially when the sport emphasizes equilibrium like artistic gymnastics. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to explore the sensory reweighting processes to adjust standing posture in children and adults with different gymnastic expertise (gymnasts, G, and non-gymnast, NG)...
May 8, 2018: Gait & Posture
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