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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161567/the-biology-of-rem-sleep
#1
REVIEW
John Peever, Patrick M Fuller
Considerable advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep have occurred over the past decade. Much of this progress can be attributed to the development of new neuroscience tools that have enabled high-precision interrogation of brain circuitry linked with REM sleep control, in turn revealing how REM sleep mechanisms themselves impact processes such as sensorimotor function. This review is intended to update the general scientific community about the recent mechanistic, functional and conceptual developments in our current understanding of REM sleep biology and pathobiology...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161264/proprioceptive-assessment-in-clinical-settings-evaluation-of-joint-position-sense-in-upper-limb-post-stroke-using-a-robotic-manipulator
#2
Sara Contu, Asif Hussain, Simone Kager, Aamani Budhota, Vishwanath A Deshmukh, Christopher W K Kuah, Lester H L Yam, Liming Xiang, Karen S G Chua, Lorenzo Masia, Domenico Campolo
Proprioception is a critical component for motor functions and directly affects motor learning after neurological injuries. Conventional methods for its assessment are generally ordinal in nature and hence lack sensitivity. Robotic devices designed to promote sensorimotor learning can potentially provide quantitative precise, accurate, and reliable assessments of sensory impairments. In this paper, we investigate the clinical applicability and validity of using a planar 2 degrees of freedom robot to quantitatively assess proprioceptive deficits in post-stroke participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156431/pathway-of-oxfendazole-from-the-host-into-the-worm-trichuris-suis-in-pigs
#3
Tina V A Hansen, Andrew R Williams, Matthew Denwood, Peter Nejsum, Stig M Thamsborg, Christian Friis
It is well known that the efficacy of a single oral dose of benzimidazoles against Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is poor, but is currently still used in control programmes against human trichuriasis. However, the route of the benzimidazoles from the treated host to Trichuris remains unknown. As parts of adult Trichuris are situated intracellularly in the caecum, they might be exposed to anthelmintic drugs in the intestinal content as well as the mucosa. In this study, the pathway of oxfendazole and its metabolites was explored using a T...
November 9, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155752/sagittal-plane-kinematic-gait-analysis-in-c57bl-6-mice-subjected-to-mog35-55-induced-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#4
Maximillian Dj Fiander, Matthew Aj Chedrawe, Anna-Claire Lamport, Turgay Akay, George S Robertson
Kinematic gait analysis in the sagittal plane has frequently been used to characterize motor deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS). We describe the application of these techniques to identify gait deficits in a mouse model of MS, known as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Paralysis and motor deficits in mice subjected to EAE are typically assessed using a clinical scoring scale. However, this scale yields only ordinal data that provides little information about the precise nature of the motor deficits...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154676/effects-of-bone-regeneration-materials-and-tooth-movement-timing-on-canine-experimental-orthodontic-treatment
#5
Ferdinand Mabula Machibya, Yiyuan Zhuang, Weizhong Guo, Dongdong You, Shan Lin, Dong Wu, Jiang Chen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of bone regeneration materials and orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) timing on tooth movement through alveolar bone defects treated with guided bone regeneration (GBR) utilizing xenografts (Bio-Oss) and alloplast (β-TCP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four standard alveolar bone defects in six male beagle dogs were treated by GBR using either Bio-Oss or β-TCP (experimental), whereas the control defects were left empty. The defects were further grouped into early or late subgroups, depending on OTM timing after GBR (ie 1 month or 2 months, respectively)...
November 20, 2017: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154627/distinct-kinematic-markers-of-demonstration-and-joint-action-coordination-evidence-from-virtual-xylophone-playing
#6
Luke McEllin, Günther Knoblich, Natalie Sebanz
When performing joint actions, people modulate instrumental actions to provide additional information for a coactor (Pezzulo, Donnarumma, & Dindo, 2013). Similarly, demonstrators adjust instrumental actions to make them more informative for novice learners (Brand, Baldwin, & Ashburn, 2002). It is unknown whether the kinematic modulations performed to facilitate prediction in joint action coordination and the modulations performed to transmit information about the structure of novel actions are unique, or whether a general type of modulation can take on multiple functions...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154262/review-of-scapular-movement-disorders-among-office-workers-having-ergonomic-risk
#7
Ö Depreli, E Angın
BACKGROUND: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most common health problems which affect millions of office workers. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine scapular positioning at rest and different anatomical planes, the assessment of pain, postural changes and the functionality of upper extremity that is caused by the lack of ergonomic principles among office workers of civil servants in TRNC (Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus). METHODS: One hundred and eighty-three individuals participated in the study and 2 groups were created by grand scores of Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) tool...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153996/clinical-presentation-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-and-anti-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-complex-antibodies-in-children-a-series-of-24-cases
#8
Bahadir Konuskan, Mirac Yildirim, Haluk Topaloglu, Ilknur Erol, Ulkuhan Oztoprak, Huseyin Tan, Rahsan Gocmen, Banu Anlar
OBJECTIVE: The symptomatology and paraclinical findings of antibody-mediated encephalitis, a relatively novel disorder, are still being characterized in adults and children. A high index of suspicion is needed in order to identify these cases among children presenting with various neurological symptoms. The aim of this study is to examine the clinical, demographic and laboratory findings and outcome of children with anti-NMDAR and anti-VGKC encephalitis for any typical or distinctive features...
November 7, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153478/reliability-of-upper-limb-and-trunk-joint-angles-in-healthy-adults-during-activities-of-daily-living
#9
Susannah M Engdahl, Deanna H Gates
Assessments of upper limb performance should require participants to perform tasks that challenge the limits of their ability. In order to select appropriate tasks, it is important to know which joints are used to perform the movement and how reliably those movements can be measured. The purpose of this work was to quantify the reliability of upper limb and trunk joint angles in healthy adults during common activities of daily living (ADLs). Nineteen participants performed six ADLs with the right arm (applying deodorant, turning a doorknob, answering a desk telephone, placing a pushpin in a bulletin board, wiping a plate with a towel, and pouring water from a pitcher) during two separate sessions...
November 8, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152904/creating-time-social-collaboration-in-music-improvisation
#10
Ashley E Walton, Auriel Washburn, Peter Langland-Hassan, Anthony Chemero, Heidi Kloos, Michael J Richardson
Musical collaboration emerges from the complex interaction of environmental and informational constraints, including those of the instruments and the performance context. Music improvisation in particular is more like everyday interaction in that dynamics emerge spontaneously without a rehearsed score or script. We examined how the structure of the musical context affords and shapes interactions between improvising musicians. Six pairs of professional piano players improvised with two different backing tracks while we recorded both the music produced and the movements of their heads, left arms, and right arms...
November 20, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151108/a-phenomenological-account-of-sensorimotor-difficulties-in-autism-intentionality-movement-and-proprioception
#11
Till D A Grohmann
During the last decades, the focus in autism research has been progressively extended. Today it offers a large amount of material on sensorimotor disturbances as well as perceptive-cognitive preferences of people with autism. However, there are more and more critical voices against an intellectualist perspective in the cognitive sciences. The "enactive approach" as well as a new "movement perspective" to autism challenge the view of autism as a mere "cognitive" disturbance. They criticize the conception of a cognizing subject which is only interested in the world in as much as she/he can extract knowledge and organize it rationally...
November 18, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148087/an-agent-based-model-of-evolving-community-flood-risk
#12
Gina L Tonn, Seth D Guikema
Although individual behavior plays a major role in community flood risk, traditional flood risk models generally do not capture information on how community policies and individual decisions impact the evolution of flood risk over time. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of the temporal aspects of flood risk through a combined analysis of the behavioral, engineering, and physical hazard aspects of flood risk. Additionally, the study aims to develop a new modeling approach for integrating behavior, policy, flood hazards, and engineering interventions...
November 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147565/operating-room-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#13
Ahmad M Mansour, Rola Hamam
Objectives: The operating room is a place of surgical intervention with its accompanying bodily and cognitive strain on the performers. Stress in the operating room may lead to the onset of central serous chorioretinopathy as reported hereby in a retina surgeon and is labeled as operating room central serous chorioretinopathy. Methods: The same operator performed the optical coherence tomography scans on one retina surgeon. A masked observer estimated the maximal height of the subretinal fluid...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144840/feasibility-of-using-the-general-movements-assessment-of-infants-in-the-united-states
#14
Eileen Ricci, Christa Einspieler, Alexa K Craig
AIMS: To pilot the practicality of administering the Prechtl General Movements Assessment of infants (GMA) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) setting and at home to infants at risk for developing cerebral palsy (CP). Additional aims included assessing inter-rater reliability and comparing GMA predictions to AIMS motor assessment at 12 months. METHODS: 12 "at risk" infants were recruited by convenience sample. Video recordings were obtained in the NICU and provided by parents after discharge...
November 16, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144549/zuclopenthixol-dihydrochloride-for-schizophrenia
#15
REVIEW
Edward J Bryan, Marie Ann Purcell, Ajit Kumar
BACKGROUND: Oral zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride (Clopixol) is an anti-psychotic treatment for people with psychotic symptoms, especially those with schizophrenia. It is associated with neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a prolongation of the QTc interval, extra-pyramidal reactions, venous thromboembolism and may modify insulin and glucose responses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride for treatment of schizophrenia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (latest search 09 June 2015)...
November 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143094/the-application-of-a-performance-based-self-administered-intra-procedural-checklist-on-surgical-trainees-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#16
Michael El Boghdady, Afshin Alijani
INTRODUCTION: Surgical checklists are in use to reduce errors for safer surgery. We aimed to study the effect of a previously designed performance-based self-administered intra-procedural checklist on the performance of trainees during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Twenty-four laparoscopic cholecystectomies were enrolled into the study. Six surgical trainees each performed four procedures, two without the checklist and directly followed by two procedures with the checklist...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141124/the-effects-of-valbenazine-in-participants-with-tardive-dyskinesia-results-of-the-1-year-kinect-3-extension-study
#17
Stewart A Factor, Gary Remington, Cynthia L Comella, Christoph U Correll, Joshua Burke, Roland Jimenez, Grace S Liang, Christopher F O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Valbenazine, a highly selective vesicular monoamine transporter 2 inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. This is the first report of long-term effects in adults with tardive dyskinesia. METHODS: Participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or a mood disorder who completed the 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled period of KINECT 3 were eligible to enter the 42-week valbenazine extension (VE) period and subsequent 4-week washout period...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138504/facilitation-of-information-processing-in-the-primary-somatosensory-area-in-the-ball-rotation-task
#18
Toshiaki Wasaka, Tetsuo Kida, Ryusuke Kakigi
Somatosensory input to the brain is known to be modulated during voluntary movement. It has been demonstrated that the response in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is generally gated during simple movement of the corresponding body part. This study investigated sensorimotor integration in the SI during manual movement using a motor task combining movement complexity and object manipulation. While the amplitude of M20 and M30 generated in the SI showed a significant reduction during manual movement, the subsequent component (M38) was significantly higher in the motor task than in the stationary condition...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135316/final-visual-outcomes-and-treatment-received-for-children-referred-from-a-uk-primary-school-visual-screening-program-a-comparison-of-an-orthoptic-led-program-with-orthoptic-delivered-services
#19
Tess Garretty
There is little published evidence relating to the final visual acuity of children who are identified as having reduced vision at a school screening program. The school vision screening program in Leeds (led by an orthoptist but delivered by health care support workers within the school nursing team) is examined. RESULTS: 7807 children were screened in school between November 1, 2013, and September 1, 2014. Of these, 319 (4%) failed the screen and were referred to the general optometry service and 547 (7%) were referred to the Children's Community Eye Service (CCES)...
November 14, 2017: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134576/comparing-speech-and-nonspeech-context-effects-across-timescales-in-coarticulatory-contexts
#20
Navin Viswanathan, Damian G Kelty-Stephen
Context effects are ubiquitous in speech perception and reflect the ability of human listeners to successfully perceive highly variable speech signals. In the study of how listeners compensate for coarticulatory variability, past studies have used similar effects speech and tone analogues of speech as strong support for speech-neutral, general auditory mechanisms for compensation for coarticulation. In this manuscript, we revisit compensation for coarticulation by replacing standard button-press responses with mouse-tracking responses and examining both standard geometric measures of uncertainty as well as newer information-theoretic measures that separate fast from slow mouse movements...
November 13, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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