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Ajay P Anvekar, Piyush S Shah, Elizabeth A Nathan, Dorota A Doherty, Sanjay K Patole, Karen N Simmer
OBJECTIVE: To assess if high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is associated with reduced odds of death or discharge home on oxygen in preterm infants. METHODS: A case control study (1 February 2010 - 1 June 2014) comparing the primary outcome as "death or discharge home on oxygen" in preterm infants who needed HFJV (Cases) versus those who did not (Controls). Controls were matched to cases (1:1) on gestation, birthweight, gender, place of birth, growth status, antenatal glucocorticoids, and dexamethasone as treatment for severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Soojin Park, Murad Megjhani, Hans-Peter Frey, Edouard Grave, Chris Wiggins, Kalijah L Terilli, David J Roh, Angela Velazquez, Sachin Agarwal, E Sander Connolly, J Michael Schmidt, Jan Claassen, Noemie Elhadad
To develop and validate a prediction model for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using a temporal unsupervised feature engineering approach, demonstrating improved precision over standard features. 488 consecutive SAH admissions from 2006 to 2014 to a tertiary care hospital were included. Models were trained on 80%, while 20% were set aside for validation testing. Baseline information and standard grading scales were evaluated: age, sex, Hunt Hess grade, modified Fisher Scale (mFS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Annemiek F Hoogerwaard, Mark R de Jong, Arif Elvan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) as treatment option for hypertension has a strong rationale; however, variable effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported ranging from non-response to marked reductions in BP. The absence of a procedural end point for RDN is one of the potential factors associated with the variable response. Studies have suggested the use of renal nerve stimulation (RNS) to adequately address this issue. This review aims to provide an overview of the clinical and experimental data available regarding the effects of RNS in the setting of RDN...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Hanna D Bremer, Nils Landegren, Ronald Sjöberg, Åsa Hallgren, Stefanie Renneker, Erik Lattwein, Dag Leonard, Maija-Leena Eloranta, Lars Rönnblom, Gunnel Nordmark, Peter Nilsson, Göran Andersson, Inger Lilliehöök, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Olle Kämpe, Helene Hansson-Hamlin
Dogs can spontaneously develop complex systemic autoimmune disorders, with similarities to human autoimmune disease. Autoantibodies directed at self-antigens are a key feature of these autoimmune diseases. Here we report the identification of interleukin enhancer-binding factors 2 and 3 (ILF2 and ILF3) as autoantigens in canine immune-mediated rheumatic disease. The ILF2 autoantibodies were discovered in a small, selected canine cohort through the use of human protein arrays; a method not previously described in dogs...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yufeng Li, Sanyuan Ma, Le Sun, Tong Zhang, Jiasong Chang, Wei Lu, Xiaoxu Chen, Yue Liu, Xiaogang Wang, Run Shi, Ping Zhao, Qingyou Xia
Genome editing using standard tools (ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9) rely on double strand breaks to edit the genome. A series of new CRISPR tools that convert cytidine to thymine (C to T) without the requirement for DNA double-strand breaks was developed recently and quickly applied in a variety of organisms. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-dependent base editor (BE3) converts C to T with a high frequency in the invertebrate Bombyx mori silkworm. Using BE3 as a knock-out tool, we inactivated exogenous and endogenous genes through base-editing-induced nonsense mutations with an efficiency of up to 66...
March 19, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Xiangyi Wen, Matthew J Van Hook, Justin J Grassmeyer, Alex I Wiesman, Grace M Rich, Karlene M Cork, Wallace B Thoreson
Endocytosis is an essential process at sites of synaptic release. Not only are synaptic vesicles recycled by endocytosis, but the removal of proteins and lipids by endocytosis is needed to restore release site function at active zones after vesicle fusion. Synaptic exocytosis from vertebrate photoreceptors involves synaptic ribbons that serve to cluster vesicles near the presynaptic membrane. In this study, we hypothesize that this clustering increases the likelihood that exocytosis at one ribbon release site may disrupt release at an adjacent site and therefore that endocytosis may be particularly important for restoring release site competence at photoreceptor ribbon synapses...
March 19, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
Spinello Antinori, Laura Galimberti, Romualdo Grande, Roberto Bianco, Letizia Oreni, Letizia Traversi, Davide Ricaboni, Giovanna Bestetti, Alessia Lai, Davide Mileto, Maria Rita Gismondo, Marina Petullà, Silvia Garelli, Gianfranco De Maio, Chiara Cogliati, Daniela Torzillo, Anna Maria Villa, Ada Maristella Egidi, Ernestina Carla Repetto, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Mario Corbellino, Massimo Galli
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors for Chagas Disease (CD) in Latin American immigrants and to evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Moreover, we offered to all positive subjects a complete free-of-charge clinical/instrumental evaluation as well as benznidazole treatment in order to stage the disease and verify drug tolerability. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of CD among Latin Americans living in Milan and its metropolitan area was conducted between July 2013 and July 2014...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
D Podbevsek, D Colombet, G Ledoux, F Ayela
We have performed hydrodynamic cavitation experiments with an aqueous luminol solution as the working fluid. Light emission, together with the high frequency noise which characterizes cavitation, was emitted by the two-phase flow, whereas no light emission from luminol was recorded in the single phase liquid flow. Light emission occurs downstream transparent microdiaphragms. The maximum level of the recorded signal was around 180 photons per second with flow rates of 380 µl/s, that corresponds to a real order of magnitude of the chemiluminescence of 75,000 photons per second...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Tianlin Wang, Xin Zhou, Yan Bai, Lan Zhang, Lin Li, Chunfu Wu
Uridine is a potential endogenous neuromodulator studied for several decades for its antiepileptic effect, but the results were controversial. One remarkable feature of uridine is its regulatory action on the dopaminergic pathways. In this study, the changes in uridine and dopamine (DA) release were examined in the mouse corpus striatum after pilocarpine (PC) intraperitoneal injection. Then, the effect of uridine pre-treatment on DA release and expression of dopamine receptor (DR) was determined. The results revealed an increased uridine release initially, followed by a downward trend after an injection of 400-mg/kg PC...
March 16, 2018: Brain Research
E González-Ortegón, V Amaral, F Baldó, Ricardo F Sánchez-Leal, María J Bellanco, María P Jiménez, J Forja, César Vilas, A Tovar-Sanchez
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a major component of the organic matter pool, playing a key role in the global ocean functioning. However, studies on DOM in waters of many ocean regions, such as the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC), are poorly known. Advanced aquatic sensors enable autonomous for long-term deployments in situ collection of high frequency DOM data using fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) as a proxy. The present study evaluates the relevance of FDOM, the estuarine influence and the environmental factors that determine its spatial distribution in the GoC...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yuchun Ma, Graeme Schwenke, Liying Sun, De Li Liu, Bin Wang, Bo Yang
Limited information exists on potential impacts of climate change on nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions by including N2 -fixing legumes in crop rotations from rain-fed cropping systems. Data from two 3-yr crop rotations in northern NSW, Australia, viz. chickpea-wheat-barley (CpWB) and canola-wheat-barley (CaWB), were used to gain an insight on the role of legumes in mitigation of N2 O emissions. High-frequency N2 O fluxes measured with an automated system of static chambers were utilized to test the applicability of Denitrification and Decomposition model...
March 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sarah Schnitzler, Christian Johannes Hartmann, Stefan Jun Groiss, Lars Wojtecki, Alfons Schnitzler, Jan Vesper, Jan Hirschmann
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high frequency oscillations (HFOs, >150 Hz), known to occur in basal ganglia nuclei, can be observed in the thalamus. METHODS: We recorded intraoperative local field potentials from the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus in patients with Essential Tremor (N = 16), Parkinsonian Tremor (3), Holmes Tremor (2) and Dystonic Tremor (1) during implantation of electrodes for deep brain stimulation. Recordings were performed with up to five micro/macro-electrodes that were simultaneously advanced to the stereotactic target...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Yeomin Yoon, Suwoo Noh, Jiseong Jeong, Kyihwan Park
The topology image is constructed from the 2D matrix (XY directions) of heights Z captured from the force-feedback loop controller. For small height variations, nonlinear effects such as hysteresis or creep of the PZT-driven Z nano scanner can be neglected and its calibration is quite straightforward. For large height variations, the linear approximation of the PZT-driven Z nano scanner fail and nonlinear behaviors must be considered because this would cause inaccuracies in the measurement image. In order to avoid such inaccuracies, an additional strain gauge sensor is used to directly measure displacement of the PZT-driven Z nano scanner...
March 8, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Akram Hajisafari, Mohsen Bakhshandeh, Seyed Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, Mohammad Houshyari, Afshin Rakhsha, Eftekhar Rajab Bolokat, Abbas Rezazadeh
Patients with head and neck cancer after radiotherapy often suffer disability such as hearing disorders. In this study, the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on hearing function of patients with head and neck cancer after RT was determined according to the total dose delivered to specific parts of the auditory system. A total of 66 patients treated with primary or postoperative radiation therapy for various cancers in the head and neck region were selected. All patients had audiologic evaluation with pure tone audiometry for the frequencies of 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 6,000, and 8,000 Hz before and immediately after completion of treatment and again 3 months later...
March 2018: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
Joni A Mettler, Dillon M Magee, Barbara M Doucet
PURPOSE: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in rehabilitation settings to increase muscle mass and strength. However, the effects of NMES on muscle growth are not clear and no human studies have compared anabolic signaling between low-frequency (LF-) and high-frequency (HF-) NMES. The purpose of this study was to determine the skeletal muscle anabolic signaling response to an acute bout of LF- and HF-NMES. METHODS: Eleven young healthy volunteers (6 men; 5 women) received an acute bout of LF- (20 Hz) and HF- (60 Hz) NMES...
March 16, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Tao Jia, Di Gao
Molecular dynamics simulation is employed to investigate the microscopic heat current inside an argon-copper nanofluid. Wavelet analysis of the microscopic heat current inside the nanofluid system is conducted. The signal of the microscopic heat current is decomposed into two parts: one is the approximation part; the other is the detail part. The approximation part is associated with the low frequency part of the signal, and the detail part is associated with the high frequency part of the signal. Both the probability distributions of the high frequency and the low frequency parts of the signals demonstrate Gaussian-like characteristics...
March 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jacey L Janz Vernoski, Jack R Bjorkland, Talia J Kramer, Steven T Oczak, Alexandra L Borstad
Proprioception may be the least well measured of all contributors to the neural control of movement. New precise, reliable measures of proprioception are needed for clinical diagnosis of impairment, and to measure outcomes of proprioceptive training. The purpose of this simple, non-invasive method is to temporarily knockdown upper limb proprioception in healthy adults, to an extent that would be useful in the development and testing of upper limb proprioception measures. Knockdown models have two main advantages over studying humans with impaired proprioception: participant availability and the ability to control the extent of impairment across participants...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Huiling DI, Sisi Liang, Qingyang Li, Lei Shi, Ayaka Shima, Hecheng Meng, He Yan, Shinji Yamasaki
Bacteria of the genus Providencia are opportunistic pathogens of clinical significance due to their association with diarrhea and urinary tract infections. The present study was conducted to examine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Providencia spp. in retail meats sold in Guangzhou, China and Osaka, Japan. Out of 158 meat samples including beef, pork and chicken, 67 Providencia (42%) belonging to four species viz., P.alcalifaciens, P. rustigianii, P. stuartii and P. rettgeri were isolated, and most of them were resistant to tetracycline (91%) followed by ampicillin (69%) and streptomycin (49%)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Mikhail E Kandel, Michael Fanous, Catherine Best-Popescu, Gabriel Popescu
As a label-free, nondestructive method, phase contrast is by far the most popular microscopy technique for routine inspection of cell cultures. However, features of interest such as extensions near cell bodies are often obscured by a glow, which came to be known as the halo . Advances in modeling image formation have shown that this artifact is due to the limited spatial coherence of the illumination. Nevertheless, the same incoherent illumination is responsible for superior sensitivity to fine details in the phase contrast geometry...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Dennis H Li, Shruta Rawat, Jayson Rhoton, Pallav Patankar, Maria L Ekstrand, B R Simon Rosser, J Michael Wilkerson
On December 11, 2013, the Indian Supreme Court recriminalized non-peno-vaginal sex under Sec. 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), overturning a 2009 ruling that deemed IPC Sec. 377 unconstitutional. Similar "sodomy laws" in other countries have been associated with increased violence, harassment, and other discrimination against men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. However, few studies have looked at the effects of such a law in an Indian context. This study examined experiences of victimization among MSM and hijra/transgender women (MSM-H) in the State of Maharashtra using a mixed-method approach...
September 2017: Sexuality Research & Social Policy
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