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HIV pregnancy

Emily L Tuthill, Jennifer A Pellowski, Sera L Young, Lisa M Butler
Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) provides infants with optimal nutrition, and together with appropriate antiretroviral therapy has also been shown to decrease mother-to-child transmission of HIV from 45 to less than 1 %. However, rates of EBF are particularly low in South Africa, where rates of HIV are some of the highest in the world. Although perinatal depression has been identified as a potential barrier to EBF, little is known about its impact on EBF among HIV-infected women. A cohort study was conducted as part of a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) examining the effect of an Information, Motivation and Behavioral skills-based intervention promoting EBF among South African women living with HIV in their third trimester (28-42 weeks) of pregnancy...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Ellen P Carlin, Nichole Giller, Rebecca Katz
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the population at risk of serious adverse reactions to replicating smallpox vaccine. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Conditions known or suspected to carry risk were identified via Centers for Disease Control and Prevention planning documents, other federal publications, and peer-reviewed literature. Conditions identified were categorized as historically recognized risks or more recently recognized immunocompromised states that may pose risk. Major historical risk factors were as follows: eczema/atopic dermatitis, pregnancy, HIV, and primary immunodeficiency...
October 13, 2016: Public Health Nursing
Aastha Gupta, Sandeep Juneja, Marco Vitoria, Vincent Habiyambere, Boniface Dongmo Nguimfack, Meg Doherty, Daniel Low-Beer
With anti-retroviral treatment (ART) scale-up set to continue over the next few years it is of key importance that manufacturers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic are able to anticipate and respond to future changes to treatment regimens, generics pipeline and demand, in order to secure continued access to all ARV medicines required. We did a forecast analysis, using secondary WHO and UNAIDS data sources, to estimate the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and the market share and demand for a range of new and existing ARV drugs in LMICs up to 2025...
2016: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: In transitioning from the Millennium Development Goal to the Sustainable Development Goal era, it is imperative to comprehensively assess progress toward reducing maternal mortality to identify areas of success, remaining challenges, and frame policy discussions. We aimed to quantify maternal mortality throughout the world by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We estimated maternal mortality at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2015 for ages 10-54 years by systematically compiling and processing all available data sources from 186 of 195 countries and territories, 11 of which were analysed at the subnational level...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Lilian Gertrude Dodzo, Hilda Tandazani Mahaka, Doreen Mukona, Mathilda Zvinavashe, Clara Haruzivishe
HIV-related conditions are one of the indirect causes of maternal deaths in Zimbabwe and the prevalence rate was estimated to be 13.63% in 2009. The study utilised a descriptive correlational design on 80 pregnant women who were HIV positive at Mbuya Nehanda maternity hospital in Harare, Zimbabwe. Participants comprised a random sample of 80 postnatal mothers. Permission to carry out the study was obtained from the respective review boards. Participants signed an informed consent. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and record review from 1 to 20 March 2012...
October 13, 2016: AIDS Care
Eva Åkerman, Per-Olof Östergren, Birgitta Essén, Cecilia Fernbrant, Ragnar Westerling
BACKGROUND: Migration from Thailand to Sweden has increased threefold over the last 10 years. Today Thailand is one of the most common countries of origin among immigrants in Sweden. Since the year 2000, new HIV cases are also more prevalent among Thai immigrants compared to other immigrant nationalities in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and utilization of sexual and reproductive healthcare services, contraceptive knowledge and socio-demographic characteristics and social capital among Thai immigrant women in Sweden...
October 10, 2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Qian Wang, Linhong Wang, Liwen Fang, Ailing Wang, Xi Jin, Fang Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Yaping Qiao, Sheena G Sullivan, Shannon Rutherford, Lei Zhang
This study investigates the improvement of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in China during 2004-2011. A clinic-based prospective study was conducted among HIV-positive pregnant women and their children in eight counties across China. Associated factors of mother-to-child transmission were analyzed using regression analysis. A total of 1,387 HIV+ pregnant women and 1,377 HIV-exposed infants were enrolled. The proportion of pregnant women who received HIV testing increased significantly from 45...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jennifer Jao, Laura Freimanis, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Rachel A Cohen, Jacqueline Pontes Monteiro, Maria Leticia Cruz, Andrea Branch, Rhoda S Sperling, George K Siberry
Background Low maternal vitamin D has been associated with preterm birth (PTB). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women are at risk for PTB, but data on maternal vitamin D and PTB in this population are scarce. Methods In a cohort of Latin American HIV-infected pregnant women from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative protocol, we examined the association between maternal vitamin D status and PTB. Vitamin D status was defined as the following 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: severe deficiency (< 10 ng/mL), deficiency (10-20 ng/mL), insufficiency (21-29 ng/mL), and sufficiency (≥30 ng/mL)...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Sophie Desmonde, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Valériane Leroy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants exposed to both HIV and multiple antiretroviral drugs in utero and during prolonged breastfeeding is increasing in low-income countries where HIV prevalence is the highest. We review recent evidence on the effects of perinatal/postnatal exposure to maternal HIV and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on health outcomes of HEU children (mitochondrial and metabolic toxicity, adverse pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, growth, infectious morbidity, and mortality)...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
V Dorsamy, C Vallen, F Haffejee, J Moodley, T Naicker
OBJECTIVE: To compare expression of markers of HIV and associated receptors (p24, CD4, CCR5 and ICAM-2) in placentae and umbilical cords of HIV-associated and pre-eclamptic pregnancies to elucidate any association between these conditions in mother-to-child transmission. DESIGN: Cross-sectional immunohistochemical analysis of target receptor expression. SETTING: Laboratory-based study of primigravidae attending a district hospital in South Africa...
October 3, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Patrícia de Brum Vieira, Tiana Tasca, W Evan Secor
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. It is considered the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Recently, the infection has been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy and increased risks of HIV acquisition and transmission, besides the association with cervical and prostate cancers. The consequences of trichomoniasis are likely much greater than previously recognized, both at the individual and the community level...
September 30, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Firoza Haffejee, Thajasvarie Naicker, Moganavelli Singh, Ayesha B M Kharsany, Miriam Adhikari, Ravesh Singh, Niren Maharaj, Jagidesa Moodley
Leptin, primarily produced by adipocytes, is implicated in the development of pre-eclampsia. This study examines placental leptin production and serum leptin levels in HIV infected and uninfected normotensive and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Placental leptin production was analysed by RT-PCR and serum leptin levels by ELISA in normotensive (n = 90) and pre-eclamptic (n = 90) pregnancies which were further stratified by HIV status. Placental leptin production was higher in pre-eclampsia compared to normotensive pregnancies irrespective of HIV status (p = ...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Stanley Luchters, Wilkister Bosire, Amy Feng, Marlise L Richter, Nzioki King'ola, Frances Ampt, Marleen Temmerman, Matthew F Chersich
INTRODUCTION: Female sex workers (FSW) have high rates of unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections including HIV, and other adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Few services for FSWs include contraception. This mixed-methods study aimed to determine the rate, predictors and consequences of unintended pregnancy among FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of non-pregnant FSWs was conducted. Quantitative data were collected quarterly, including a structured questionnaire and testing for pregnancy and HIV...
2016: PloS One
Susan C Potter, Karin K Coyle, Jill R Glassman, Sarah Kershner, Mary S Prince
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of an evidence-based HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI)/pregnancy prevention program for middle schools implemented by school staff in South Carolina. METHODS: Twenty-four schools, representing 3143 youths, participated in a randomized trial from 2011 to 2014. Students completed surveys before programming (fall of seventh grade), after completing the 2-year It's Your Game…Keep It Real program (spring of eighth grade), and 1-year postprogram (spring of ninth grade)...
September 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Rebecca Firestone, Reid Moorsmith, Simon James, Marilyn Urey, Rena Greifinger, Danielle Lloyd, Lisa Hartenberger-Toby, Jewel Gausman, Musa Sanoe
INTRODUCTION: Young Liberians, particularly undereducated young adults, face substantial sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges, with low uptake of contraceptive methods, high rates of unintended pregnancy, and low levels of knowledge about HIV status. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a 6-day intensive group learning intervention combined with on-site SRH services (called HealthyActions) among out-of-school young adults, implemented through an existing alternative education program, on uptake of contraception and HIV testing and counseling (HTC)...
September 28, 2016: Global Health, Science and Practice
Florence Mgawadere, Regine Unkels, Adetoro Adegoke, Nynke van den Broek
BACKGROUND: Assessing the feasibility of conducting a prospective Reproductive Age Mortality Survey (RAMOS) study in the low-income setting of Mangochi District, Malawi to obtain cotemporaneous estimates of the number, cause of and conditions associated with maternal deaths (MD) in all women of reproductive age (WRA) (n = 207 688). METHODS: MD among all deaths of WRA were identified using the ICD-10 definition. Cause of death and contributing conditions identified by a panel of experts using the classification system for deaths during pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium (ICD-MM)...
September 29, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
L M Yee, A R Goldberger, P M Garcia, E S Miller
OBJECTIVE: To characterize pregnant patients' knowledge, attitudes and preferences regarding antenatal HIV testing for themselves and their sexual partners. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, mixed methods study of HIV-negative pregnant women from a university-based urban clinic. Participants completed an anonymous survey about HIV testing for themselves and their partners. Descriptive statistics, bivariable analyses, multivariable logistic regression and qualitative thematic analysis were utilized...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Charlotte G Neumann, Winstone Nyandiko, Abraham Siika, Natalie Drorbaugh, Goleen Samari, Grace Ettyang, Judith A Ernst
This paper describes morbidity in a group of HIV-positive drug-naïve rural women in western Kenya. A total of 226 drug-naïve HIV-positive women were evaluated for baseline morbidity, immune function, and anthropometry before a food-based nutrition intervention. Kenyan nurses visited women in their homes and conducted semi-structured interviews regarding symptoms and physical signs experienced at the time of the visit and during the previous week and physical inspection. Blood and urine samples were examined for determination of immune function (CD4, CD8, and total lymphocyte counts), anaemia, malaria, and pregnancy status...
September 2016: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Larske M Soepnel, Shane A Norris, Verena J M M Schrier, Joyce L Browne, Marcus J Rijken, Glenda Gray, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch
OBJECTIVES: The widespread, chronic use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) raises questions concerning the metabolic consequences of HIV infection and treatment. Antiretroviral therapy, and specifically protease inhibitors (PIs), has been associated with hyperglycaemia. As pregnant women are vulnerable to development of hyperglycaemia, the objective of this study was to explore existing literature on the relationship between HIV infection, HIV treatment and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
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