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VAC children

Alasdair Bamford, Emma C Manno, Maria Jose Mellado, Vana Spoulou, Laura Marques, Henriette J Scherpbier, Tim Niehues, Agnieszka Oldakowska, Paolo Rossi, Paolo Palma
BACKGROUND: Current national immunisation schedules differ between countries in terms of vaccine formulation, timing of vaccinations and immunisation programme funding and co-ordination. As a result, some HIV infected paediatric population may be left susceptible to vaccine preventable infections. Vaccines used in healthy population should be subjected to high quality ethical research and be explicitly validated for use in children with special vaccination needs such as those infected with HIV...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
Andrea L Wirtz, Carmen Alvarez, Alessandra C Guedes, Luisa Brumana, Cecilie Modvar, Nancy Glass
BACKGROUND: Violence against children (VAC) remains a global problem. The health sector has an opportunity and responsibility to be part of the multi-sector collaboration to prevent and respond to VAC. This review aimed to assess the health sector's response to VAC among Latin American & Caribbean (LAC) countries, particularly as it relates to physical violence, sexual violence, and neglect. METHOD: National protocols for the identification and provision of health care to child survivors of violence, abuse and neglect were solicited in partnership with UNICEF and PAHO/WHO country offices within the LAC region...
2016: BMC Public Health
Jon R Davids, Kevin Diaz, Thu-Ba Leba, Samuel Adams, David E Westberry, Anita M Bagley
BACKGROUND: Children who have had surgery involving the placement of an implant frequently undergo a subsequent surgery for hardware removal. The cosmesis of surgical scars following initial and subsequent surgeries is unpredictable. Scar incision (subsequent surgical incision through the initial scar) or excision (around the initial scar) is selected on the basis of the quality of the initial scar. The outcomes following these techniques have not been determined. METHODS: This prospective, consecutive case series was designed to compare outcomes following surgical scar incision versus excision at the time of implant removal in children with cerebral palsy...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Esra Akyuz Ozkan, Hashem E Khosroshahi, Mahmut Kilic, U Aliye Gecit, Esra Domur, Perihan Beysel
OBJECTIVE: To compare arterial and ventricular end-systolic elastance and ventriculo-arterial coupling between asthma and healthy children and correlate these all three parameters with pulmonary function tests in subjects with asthma. STUDY DESIGN: Across-sectional analytical study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatrics, Bozok University Medical Faculty,Yozgat, Turkey, from January 2012 to November 2014. METHODOLOGY: Transthoracic and Doppler echocardiography and pulmonary function tests in patients with asthma aged 7 - 12 years and control subjects...
July 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Elias Iosifidis, Elpis Chochliourou, Asimenia Violaki, Elisavet Chorafa, Stavroula Psachna, Afroditi Roumpou, Maria Sdougka, Emmanuel Roilides
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the new adult Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ventilator-associated event (VAE) module in critically ill children and compare with the traditionally used CDC definition for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). DESIGN Retrospective observational study of mechanically ventilated children in a pediatric intensive care unit in Greece January 1-December 31, 2011. METHODS Assessment of new adult CDC VAE module including 3 definition tiers: ventilator-associated condition (VAC), infection-related VAC, and possible/probable ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAE-VAP); comparison with traditional CDC criteria for clinically defined pneumonia in mechanically ventilated children (PNEU-VAP)...
October 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Alessandra Guedes, Sarah Bott, Claudia Garcia-Moreno, Manuela Colombini
BACKGROUND: The international community recognises violence against women (VAW) and violence against children (VAC) as global human rights and public health problems. Historically, research, programmes, and policies on these forms of violence followed parallel but distinct trajectories. Some have called for efforts to bridge these gaps, based in part on evidence that individuals and families often experience multiple forms of violence that may be difficult to address in isolation, and that violence in childhood elevates the risk of violence against women...
2016: Global Health Action
Jennifer Leontine Murphy, Norman Fenn, Laura Pyle, Heather Heizer, Shannon Hughes, Yosuke Nomura, Jason Child, Sarah K Parker
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Children receiving long-term antibiotic therapy (LTAT) at Children's Hospital Colorado (CHCO) are treated with both oral and intravenous (i.v.) agents and often experience complications not comprehensively described by the literature. We sought to describe adverse drug events (ADEs) and venous access complications (VACs) in pediatric patients managed with oral and i.v. antibiotics so as to inform clinical decision-making, drug monitoring, and patient counseling at CHCO...
June 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
Laura F Chiang, Howard Kress, Steven A Sumner, Jessie Gleckel, Philbert Kawemama, Rebecca N Gordon
OBJECTIVE: To describe the Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS). The survey is a national, household survey that systematically measures the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual, physical and emotional violence against children. DESIGN: This report provides information about the history, implementation, ethical protections, utility, results, limitations, and future directions of the VACS work. RESULTS: The study has been implemented in 11 countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean, providing each of these countries with baseline data and momentum to address violence against children as a public health and human rights priority...
April 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Sachin Mani, Thomas Wierzba, Richard I Walker
Shigella are gram-negative bacteria that cause severe diarrhea and dysentery. In 2013, Shigella infections caused an estimated 34,400 deaths in children less than five years old and, in 2010, an estimated 40,000 deaths in persons older than five years globally. New disease burden estimates from newly deployed molecular diagnostic assays with increased sensitivity suggest that Shigella-associated morbidity may be much greater than previous disease estimates from culture-based methods. Primary prevention of this disease should be based on universal provision of potable water and sanitation methods and improved personal and food hygiene...
June 3, 2016: Vaccine
Yu V Aver'yanova, S P Makarov, A E Stepanov, A Yu Razumovsky, K G Vasil'ev
AIM: To present results of VAC application in children with complicated wounds of anterior abdominal wall combined with intestinal and/or biliary fistulas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the last 7 years 8 patients aged from 1.5 months to 15 years with infected postoperative wounds of anterior abdominal wall complicated by intestinal fistulas (6), biliary and intestinal fistulas (1) and biliary fistula (1) have been treated at the surgical department №2 of Russian Children's Clinical Hospital...
2016: Khirurgiia
Sara Stulac, Richard B Mark Munyaneza, Jeanne Chai, Jean Bosco Bigirimana, Merab Nyishime, Neo Tapela, Sara Chaffee, Leslie Lehmann, Lawrence N Shulman
BACKGROUND: More than 85% of pediatric cancer cases and 95% of deaths occur in resource-poor countries that use less than 5% of the world's health resources. In the developed world, approximately 81% of children with cancer can be cured. Models applicable in the most resource-poor settings are needed to address global inequities in pediatric cancer treatment. PROCEDURE: Between 2006 and 2011, a cohort of children received cancer therapy using a new approach in rural Rwanda...
May 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Hajime Hosoi
This article reviews the current status of treatment for children with rhabdomyosarcoma, according to the four risk groups. Low-risk subgroup A: the Children's Oncology Group in the USA recently performed a clinical trial consisting of a chemotherapy regimen with a shortened treatment period and a reduced drug dosage. Patients in this group received only four cycles of vincristine and actinomycin D (VA) after four cycles of vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) with cyclophosphamide (CPM) 1...
February 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Suzanne L Wolden, Elizabeth R Lyden, Carola A Arndt, Douglas S Hawkins, James R Anderson, David A Rodeberg, Carol D Morris, Sarah S Donaldson
PURPOSE: To determine local control according to clinical variables for patients with intermediate-risk rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated on Children's Oncology Group protocol D9803. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 702 patients enrolled, we analyzed 423 patients with central pathology-confirmed group III embryonal (n=280) or alveolar (group III, n=102; group I-II, n=41) RMS. Median age was 5 years. Patients received 42 weeks of VAC (vincristine, dactinomycin, cyclophosphamide) or VAC alternating with VTC (T = topotecan)...
December 1, 2015: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
M Ried, J Graml, C Großer, H-S Hofmann, Z Sziklavari
INTRODUCTION: Parapneumonic pleural effusions arise from pneumonia and may develop into pleural empyema (PE). PE is defined as collection of pus in the pleural space with secondary inflammation of the visceral and parietal pleura. This review article describes the current treatment strategies for para- and postpneumonic PE both in children and adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Selective literature research via Medline (key words: pleural empyema, pleural empyema in children, thoracic empyema) and presentation of our own clinical experience with therapy recommendations...
October 2015: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Rachel S Beaty, M Brooke Bernhardt, Amanda H Berger, Joy E Hesselgrave, Heidi V Russell, M Fatih Okcu
BACKGROUND: Approximately 18% of the United States' gross domestic product is attributed to healthcare expenditures. Several studies have illustrated that shifting healthcare from the inpatient to the outpatient setting is more cost effective, in addition to improving patient satisfaction. Vincristine, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) are used together to treat children with solid tumors. Our traditional treatment approach included a two day inpatient admission. The purpose of this project was to establish a process for the administration of VAC in the outpatient setting to improve satisfaction, and reduce costs...
November 2015: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Mohammad Qawasmi, Monjed Samuh, Dieter Glebe, Wolfram H Gerlich, Maysa Azzeh
Immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV) has proven to be highly effective and led to significant reduction of new infections worldwide. However, protective immunity measured by anti-HBs titers may decrease to critical levels in the years after basal immunization, particularly in case of exposure to HBV variants different from the vaccine strain. We tested 400 Palestinian children between one and 19 years of age for their anti-HBs titer, challenged the immune memory of those with low or absent anti-HBs with 2 types of hepatitis B vaccines and determined thereafter the anti-HBs titer...
2015: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Merav Heshin-Bekenstein, Dan Turner, Raanan Shamir, Maskit Bar-Meir, Ron Dagan, Noam Zevit, Ari Silbermintz
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines may be less immunogenic in individuals with celiac disease (CD). A pre-S vaccine (Sci-B-Vac) has demonstrated superior immunogenicity compared with standard HBV vaccines in several diseases. We compared the short-term immunogenicity of a pre-S vaccine with a HBV vaccine (Engerix B) for repeat vaccination of seronegative, previously immunized patients with CD. METHODS: Participants were 1 to 18-year-old children with CD who despite standard HBV vaccines in infancy had nonprotective hepatitis B surface antibody (HBs-Ab) concentrations (≤10 mIU/mL)...
October 2015: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Robert Diaz-Beveridge, David Lorente, Barbara Torres, Adela Cañete, Esteban Rodrigo, Gema Bruixola, Pablo Berlanga, Encarnacion Reche, Joaquin Montalar, Amparo Verdeguer, Jorge Aparicio
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of Ewing Sarcoma family of tumors is multimodal, both in children and adults. Axial location and metastases are classic prognostic factors. However, the worse prognosis in older patients is more controversial. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed of pediatric and adult patients treated with the 2001 SEOP protocol: 6 cycles of VIDE chemotherapy (CT). If no progression was observed, local (surgery and/or radiotherapy) and consolidation treatments were performed adjusted to prognosis: 8 cycles of VAC in standard-risk patients or 1 cycle of VAC and high-dose CT and autologous transplant in the case of increased risk...
July 2015: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Naphavanh Nanthavong, Antony P Black, Phonethipsavanh Nouanthong, Chanthasone Souvannaso, Keooudomphone Vilivong, Claude P Muller, Sylvie Goossens, Fabrice Quet, Yves Buisson
BACKGROUND: During late 2012 and early 2013 several outbreaks of diphtheria were notified in the North of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. The aim of this study was to determine whether the re-emergence of this vaccine-preventable disease was due to insufficient vaccination coverage or reduction of vaccine effectiveness within the affected regions. METHODS: A serosurvey was conducted in the Huaphan Province on a cluster sampling of 132 children aged 12-59 months...
2015: PloS One
H E Khosroshahi, E A Ozkan, M Kilic
OBJECTIVE: Assessing the left ventricular (LV) functions in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, and those pediatric patients with compromised ventricular performance or enhanced systolic or diastolic load e.g. congestive heart failure, hypertension, dilated/hypertrophic cardiomyopathies is a real challenge. Currently used noninvasive methods fail giving quantitative measures to asses cardiac performance and do not allow evaluation of ventriculo-arterial interaction. Non-invasive method of cardiovascular performance determination by measuring left ventricle end-systolic elastance (Ees), arterial elastance (Ea) and the ventriculoarterial coupling (VAC), though interaction between LV and arterial network, is possible...
2014: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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