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leukocyte esterase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910807/the-lectin-pathway-of-complement-in-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-review-of-its-significance-and-the-potential-impact-of-therapeutic-interference-by-c1-esterase-inhibitor
#1
REVIEW
Anneza Panagiotou, Marten Trendelenburg, Michael Osthoff
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern medicine. Early reperfusion accomplished by primary percutaneous coronary intervention is pivotal for reducing myocardial damage in ST elevation AMI. However, restoration of coronary blood flow may paradoxically trigger cardiomyocyte death secondary to a reperfusion-induced inflammatory process, which may account for a significant proportion of the final infarct size. Unfortunately, recent human trials targeting myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have yielded disappointing results...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910137/the-development-of-a-decision-tool-for-the-empiric-treatment-of-suspected-urinary-tract-infection-in-frail-older-adults-a-delphi-consensus-procedure
#2
Laura W van Buul, Hilde L Vreeken, Suzanne F Bradley, Christopher J Crnich, Paul J Drinka, Suzanne E Geerlings, Robin L P Jump, Lona Mody, Joseph J Mylotte, Mark Loeb, David A Nace, Lindsay E Nicolle, Philip D Sloane, Rhonda L Stuart, Pär-Daniel Sundvall, Peter Ulleryd, Ruth B Veenhuizen, Cees M P M Hertogh
OBJECTIVES: Nonspecific signs and symptoms combined with positive urinalysis results frequently trigger antibiotic therapy in frail older adults. However, there is limited evidence about which signs and symptoms indicate urinary tract infection (UTI) in this population. We aimed to find consensus among an international expert panel on which signs and symptoms, commonly attributed to UTI, should and should not lead to antibiotic prescribing in frail older adults, and to integrate these findings into a decision tool for the empiric treatment of suspected UTI in this population...
June 14, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887359/how-reliable-is-the-cell-count-analysis-in-the-diagnosis-of-prosthetic-joint-infection
#3
Akos Zahar, Christian Lausmann, Camila Cavalheiro, Anoop C Dhamangaonkar, Tommaso Bonanzinga, Thorsten Gehrke, Mustafa Citak
BACKGROUND: Synovial analysis of joint aspirates is a key diagnostic tool; all major diagnostic algorithms include cell count (CC) and polymorphonuclear percentage (PMN%) as important criteria to make the diagnosis. In this context, we conducted this study to analyze the overall accuracy of CC and PMN%. METHODS: A single-center retrospective analysis was performed with clinical data of included patients, with a total of 524 preoperative joint aspirations (255 hips, 269 knees)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777488/no-need-for-a-urine-culture-in-elderly-hospitalized-patients-with-a-negative-dipstick-test-result
#4
Zvi Shimoni, Vered Hermush, Joseph Glick, Paul Froom
To determine the clinical utility/disutility of canceling urine cultures in elderly patients with a negative dipstick. The cohort included consecutive patients aged ≥ 65 years hospitalized in internal medicine departments with an admission urinalysis and urine culture (January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016). We calculated the sensitivity of the dipstick (either a trace leukocyte esterase or a positive nitrite test result) to detect patients with bacteriuria, and the decrease in urine cultures resulting from cancelation in patients with a negative dipstick...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752029/centrifugation-may-change-the-results-of-leukocyte-esterase-strip-testing-in-the-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#5
Rui Li, Qiang Lu, Yong-Gang Zhou, Wei Chai, Shi-Bi Lu, Ji-Ying Chen
BACKGROUND: Centrifugation is used to remove the color interference by erythrocytes in blood-synovial fluid samples before leukocyte esterase (LE) strip testing. However, the impact of centrifugation requires further study. METHODS: From April 2016 to October 2017, 133 (53 infected and 80 noninfected) patients were included in this study. One drop of synovial fluid was applied to LE strips before and after centrifugation in 110 cases. The other 23 cases could not be read without centrifugation due to the color disturbance caused by blood contamination...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710324/development-and-validation-of-a-calculator-for-estimating-the-probability-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-young-febrile-children
#6
Nader Shaikh, Alejandro Hoberman, Stephanie W Hum, Anastasia Alberty, Gysella Muniz, Marcia Kurs-Lasky, Douglas Landsittel, Timothy Shope
Importance: Accurately estimating the probability of urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile preverbal children is necessary to appropriately target testing and treatment. Objective: To develop and test a calculator (UTICalc) that can first estimate the probability of UTI based on clinical variables and then update that probability based on laboratory results. Design, Setting, and Participants: Review of electronic medical records of febrile children aged 2 to 23 months who were brought to the emergency department of Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania...
June 1, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710295/effect-of-5-day-nitrofurantoin-vs-single-dose-fosfomycin-on-clinical-resolution-of-uncomplicated-lower-urinary-tract-infection-in-women-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Angela Huttner, Anna Kowalczyk, Adi Turjeman, Tanya Babich, Caroline Brossier, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Katarzyna Kosiek, Begoña Martinez de Tejada, Xavier Roux, Shachaf Shiber, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Elodie von Dach, Dafna Yahav, Leonard Leibovici, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Johan W Mouton, Stephan Harbarth
Importance: The use of nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin has increased since guidelines began recommending them as first-line therapy for lower urinary tract infection (UTI). Objective: To compare the clinical and microbiologic efficacy of nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin in women with uncomplicated cystitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multinational, open-label, analyst-blinded, randomized clinical trial including 513 nonpregnant women aged 18 years and older with symptoms of lower UTI (dysuria, urgency, frequency, or suprapubic tenderness), a positive urine dipstick result (with detection of nitrites or leukocyte esterase), and no known colonization or previous infection with uropathogens resistant to the study antibiotics...
May 1, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679431/synthesis-and-characterization-of-pyridine-compounds-for-amperometric-measurements-of-leukocyte-esterase
#8
Douglas Hanson, Travis Menard, Teresa Blazek, Stanton McHardy, Waldemar Gorski
We introduce a new class of substrates (compounds I-III) for leukocyte esterase (LE) that react with LE yielding anodic current in direct proportion to LE activity. The kinetic constants Km and kcat for the enzymatic reactions were determined by amperometry at a glassy carbon electrode. The binding affinity of I-III for LE was two orders of magnitude better than that of existing optical LE substrates. The specificity constant kcat /Km was equal to 2.7, 3.8, and 5.8×105  m-1  s-1 for compounds containing the pyridine (I), methoxypyridine (II), and (methoxycarbonyl)pyridine (III), respectively, thus showing an increase in catalytic efficiency in this order...
April 20, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656969/the-leukocyte-esterase-test-strip-is-a-poor-rule-out-test-for-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#9
Carl A Deirmengian, Lihua Liang, John P Rosenberger, Tony R Joaquim, Martin R Gould, Patrick A Citrano, Keith W Kardos
BACKGROUND: The urinary leukocyte esterase (LE) test strip has been suggested as a good screening test for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic profile of LE assays from different manufacturers and determine whether the LE test strip is a good rule-out test. METHODS: Synovial fluid samples (N = 344), sent to 1 laboratory for PJI testing, were used in this prospective study. Four different tests for synovial fluid LE were simultaneously evaluated for their performance in detecting white blood cell (WBC) positive samples (>3000 cells/µL)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618582/uropathogens-and-pyuria-in-children-with-neurogenic-bladders
#10
Catherine S Forster, Nader Shaikh, Alejandro Hoberman, Elizabeth Jackson
: media-1vid110.1542/5727212324001PEDS-VA_2017-3006 Video Abstract BACKGROUND: A recent study revealed that specific uropathogens are associated with lower odds of pyuria in a general pediatrics population. Children with neurogenic bladders who require clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) frequently have pyuria. Our objective with this study was to determine if an association exists between pyuria and type of uropathogen in CIC-dependent children. METHODS: We obtained urinalysis and urine culture results from electronic medical records from January 2008 through December 2014 for patients ≤18 years of age with neurogenic bladders managed at a single institution...
May 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557491/a-meta-analysis-of-synovial-biomarkers-in-periprosthetic-joint-infection-synovasure%C3%A2-is-less-effective-than-the-elisa-based-alpha-defensin-test
#11
REVIEW
Sufian S Ahmad, Michael T Hirschmann, Roland Becker, Ahmed Shaker, Atesch Ateschrang, Marius J B Keel, Christoph E Albers, Lukas Buetikofer, Sithombo Maqungo, Ulrich Stöckle, Sandro Kohl
PURPOSE: (1) To determine the overall accuracy of synovial alpha-defensin, synovial C-reactive protein (sCRP), interleukin-6 (sIL-6), and leukocyte esterase (sLE) as diagnostic markers for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and (2) to independantly evaluate the accuracy of both the laboratory-based ELISA alpha-defensin test and the Synovasure™ alpha-defensin test kit. METHODS: An EMBASE and MEDLINE (PubMed) database search was performed using a set of professionally set search terms...
March 20, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551303/the-2018-definition-of-periprosthetic-hip-and-knee-infection-an-evidence-based-and-validated-criteria
#12
Javad Parvizi, Timothy L Tan, Karan Goswami, Carlos Higuera, Craig Della Valle, Antonia F Chen, Noam Shohat
BACKGROUND: The introduction of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in 2011 resulted in improvements in diagnostic confidence and research collaboration. The emergence of new diagnostic tests and the lessons we have learned from the past 7 years using the MSIS definition, prompted us to develop an evidence-based and validated updated version of the criteria. METHODS: This multi-institutional study of patients undergoing revision total joint arthroplasty was conducted at 3 academic centers...
May 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479748/ascorbic-acid-a-black-hole-of-urine-chemistry-screening
#13
Adriana Unic, Nora Nikolac Gabaj, Marijana Miler, Jelena Culej, Adrijana Lisac, Anita Horvat, Nada Vrkic
BACKGROUND: Study was performed in order: (i) to assess the comparability of glucose, bilirubin, hemoglobin, leukocyte esterase, and protein; (ii) to assess accuracy of glucose, bilirubin, hemoglobin, leukocyte esterase, and protein; and (iii) to evaluate interference of ascorbic acid on the glucose, bilirubin, hemoglobin, and nitrite determination using 2 different dipsticks: iChem Velocity, Iris Diagnostics and Combur-10M, Roche Diagnostics. METHODS: Random urine specimens were included in the study...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470628/bladder-debris-on-ultrasound-in-the-emergency-department-correlation-with-urinalysis
#14
Ghaneh Fananapazir, Behrad Golshani, Ling-Xin Chen, John P McGahan, Angelo M de Mattos, Michael T Corwin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between the presence of bladder debris on ultrasound and urinalysis results in the emergency department setting. METHODS: Adult patients presenting to the emergency department with an ultrasound of the bladder and a urinalysis performed within 24 h of the ultrasound were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists in consensus evaluated for the presence or absence of debris within the bladder. Urinalysis results were recorded including continuous variables (specific gravity and pH) and categorical variables (presence of occult blood, bilirubin, ketones, glucose, protein, urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocyte esterase, white blood cells, and red blood cells)...
February 22, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427551/quantitative-urine-test-strip-reading-for-leukocyte-esterase-and-hemoglobin-peroxidase
#15
Matthijs N Oyaert, Jonas Himpe, Marijn M Speeckaert, Veronique V Stove, Joris R Delanghe
BACKGROUND: Recently, urine test strip readers have become available for automated test strip analysis. We explored the possibilities of the Sysmex UC-3500 automated urine chemistry analyzer based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor technology with regard to accuracy of leukocyte esterase and hemoglobin peroxidase results. We studied the influence of possible confounders on these measurements. METHODS: Reflectance data of leukocyte esterase and hemoglobin peroxidase were measured using CMOS technology on the Sysmex UC-3500 automated urine chemistry analyzer...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417012/the-reliability-and-validity-of-using-the-urine-dipstick-test-by-patient-self-assessment-for-urinary-tract-infection-screening-in-spinal-cord-injury-patients
#16
Krit Duanngai, Patpiya Sirasaporn, Siriwan Surapaitoon Ngaosinchai
Aims: The aim of this is to evaluate the reliability of the urine dipstick test by patients' self-assessment for urinary tract infection (UTI) screening and to determine the validity of urine dipstick test. Settings: Rehabilitation Department, Srinagarind Hospital, Thailand. Study Design: A diagnostic study. Subjects and Methods: This study compared the urine dipstick test (index test) with the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) criteria (gold standard test) in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339564/accuracy-of-the-urinalysis-for-urinary-tract-infections-in-febrile-infants-60-days-and-younger
#17
Leah Tzimenatos, Prashant Mahajan, Peter S Dayan, Melissa Vitale, James G Linakis, Stephen Blumberg, Dominic Borgialli, Richard M Ruddy, John Van Buren, Octavio Ramilo, Nathan Kuppermann
OBJECTIVES: Reports of the test accuracy of the urinalysis for diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in young febrile infants have been variable. We evaluated the test characteristics of the urinalysis for diagnosing UTIs, with and without associated bacteremia, in young febrile infants. METHODS: We performed a planned secondary analysis of data from a prospective study of febrile infants ≤60 days old at 26 emergency departments in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network...
February 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332864/associations-of-periparturient-plasma-biochemical-parameters-endometrial-leukocyte-esterase-and-myeloperoxidase-and-bacterial-detection-with-clinical-and-subclinical-endometritis-in-postpartum-dairy-cows
#18
Sayed Ahmad Nazhat, Go Kitahara, Nobutoshi Kozuka, Shogo Mido, Mohammed Sadawy, Hossam El-Sheikh Ali, Takeshi Osawa
This study was aimed at demonstrating associations between peripheral biochemical parameters, endometrial leukocyte esterase (LE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), and bacterial detection with the degree of endometrial inflammation, and determining the best time postpartum for diagnosing endometritis to predict subsequent fertility in dairy cows. Plasma albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total cholesterol (T-cho), NEFA, and BHBA concentrations were analyzed in 43 Holstein cows at 3, 5 and 7 weeks postpartum (W3, W5 and W7)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298259/the-accuracy-of-the-alpha-defensin-lateral-flow-device-for-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-comparison-with-a-gold-standard
#19
Thorsten Gehrke, Christian Lausmann, Mustafa Citak, Tommaso Bonanzinga, Lars Frommelt, Akos Zahar
BACKGROUND: Alpha defensin is a new biomarker that has been shown to have a very high accuracy to rule out periprosthetic joint infection. Recently, a new rapid lateral flow version of the alpha defensin test was developed and introduced to detect high levels of alpha defensin in synovial fluid quickly and with ease. We conducted a single-center prospective clinical study to compare the results of the Synovasure Alpha Defensin Test with those of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria, which are considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279452/prevalence-and-genotype-distribution-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-in-urine-among-men-attending-sexually-transmitted-disease-clinics-in-guangdong-province-china-in-2016
#20
Yaohua Xue, Heping Zheng, Weiming Tang, Zhida Mai, Jinmei Huang, Shujie Huang, Xiaolin Qin, Lei Chen, Lei Zheng
Studies have rarely assessed the genotype distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in urine among men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics (MSCs) in China. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of CT infection by examining urine samples among MSCs from different geographic areas of Guangdong Province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSCs from 10 human immunodeficiency virus sentinel surveillance sites in Guangdong Province. CT DNA was extracted from male urine samples and analyzed using a Roche cobas 4800 CT/NG...
March 22, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
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