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leukocyte esterase

Wonmok Lee, Yukyung Kim, Soonhee Chang, A-Jin Lee, Chang-Ho Jeon
BACKGROUND: Vitamin C may interfere with the results of urine dipstick tests. We investigated the incidence of urinary vitamin C and its interference with urine dipstick reagents using a vitamin C dipstick. METHODS: The incidence of urinary vitamin C was determined in patients and healthy individuals undergoing routine medical check-ups. Interference tests were performed using samples with various amounts of added vitamin C. For clinical samples, we identified false-negative dipstick glucose, hemoglobin, and leukocyte esterase results based on the urine sediment and serum glucose results...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Friedrich Boettner, Gabriele Koehler, Alexander Wegner, Tom Schmidt-Braekling, Georg Gosheger, Christian Goetze
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigates the diagnostic accuracy of the criteria described for frozen sections and whether modern leukocyte specific staining techniques including leukocyte peroxidase and Naphtol-AS-D-chloroacetate-esterase will improve the accuracy of the intra-operative histology. METHOD: 77 patients undergoing revision total hip and knee arthroplasty were included in this retrospective study. Patients were grouped into septic and aseptic based on intraoperative cultures...
2016: Open Orthopaedics Journal
Hong Phuoc Duong, Karl Martin Wissing, Nathalie Tram, Georges Mascart, Philippe Lepage, Khalid Ismaili
Automated flow cytometry of urine remains incompletely validated to rule out urinary tract infection (UTI) in children. This cross-sectional analytical study was performed to compare the predictive values of flow cytometry and dipstick as initial diagnostic tests for UTI in febrile children and prospectively included 1106 children (1247 episodes). Urine culture was used as the gold standard test for UTI. The diagnostic performance of screening tests to diagnose UTI were established using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
R C Oey, J J Kuiper, H R van Buuren, R A de Man
BACKGROUND: The gold standard to diagnose spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a polymorphonuclear neutrophil count ≥ 250 cells/µl in ascitic fluid. This test is laborious and expensive. Urine reagent strips measuring leukocyte esterase activity have been proposed as a rapid and inexpensive alternative. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Combur reagent strip for diagnosing SBP. Furthermore the possible advantage of a photospectrometer reading over visual reading of the strip was investigated...
July 2016: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
K-D Heller
BACKGROUND: Periprothetic infection after primary or revision arthroplasty is of increasing importance. The incidence of infection in primary arthroplasty is approximately 1 %. Revision arthroplasty has higher infection rates, which increase with the number of revision surgeries. Aim of this Paper: An overview of the current diagnosis of periprosthetic infection. METHODS: This selective analysis is based on a lecture by the author at the DKOU 2015. RESULTS: Periprosthetic infection is taken as having been demonstrated when either two periprosthetic cultures contain the same microorganism, or if there is a fistula communicating with a joint...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
David C McNabb, Douglas A Dennis, Raymond H Kim, Todd M Miner, Charlie C Yang, Jason M Jennings
BACKGROUND: Use of leukocyte esterase (LE) testing of synovial fluid as an adjunct to the infection workup in total joint arthroplasty patients has been advocated. The purpose of this study was to determine the false positive rate of this test. METHODS: Two hundred patients with the diagnosis of degenerative osteoarthritis undergoing a total knee arthroplasty were identified for this study. The knee joint was aspirated under sterile conditions before performing the total knee arthroplasty...
June 7, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Kumara V Nibhanipudi
OBJECTIVE: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick) to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. HYPOTHESIS: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. METHODS: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates...
2015: Global Pediatric Health
M C Wyatt, A D Beswick, S K Kunutsor, M J Wilson, M R Whitehouse, A W Blom
BACKGROUND: Synovial biomarkers have recently been adopted as diagnostic tools for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), but their utility is uncertain. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize the evidence on the accuracy of the alpha-defensin immunoassay and leukocyte esterase colorimetric strip test for the diagnosis of PJI compared with the Musculoskeletal Infection Society diagnostic criteria. METHODS: We performed a systematic review to identify diagnostic technique studies evaluating the accuracy of alpha-defensin or leukocyte esterase in the diagnosis of PJI...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
S J M Middelkoop, L J van Pelt, G A Kampinga, J C Ter Maaten, C A Stegeman
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequently encountered. Diagnostics of UTI (urine dipstick, Gram stain, urine culture) lack proven accuracy and precision in the emergency department. Utility of automated urinalysis shows promise for UTI diagnosis but has not been validated. METHODS: A total of 381 cases presenting with fever and/or clinically suspected UTI were analyzed. Diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, urine culture and/ or blood culture, and successful treatment...
August 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Fiona Karen Harlan, Jason Scott Lusk, Breanna Michelle Mohr, Anthony Peter Guzikowski, Robert Hardy Batchelor, Ying Jiang, John Joseph Naleway
Lysosomes are acidic cytoplasmic organelles that are present in all nucleated mammalian cells and are involved in a variety of cellular processes including repair of the plasma membrane, defense against pathogens, cholesterol homeostasis, bone remodeling, metabolism, apoptosis and cell signaling. Defects in lysosomal enzyme activity have been associated with a variety of neurological diseases including Parkinson's Disease, Lysosomal Storage Diseases, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Fluorogenic lysosomal staining probes were synthesized for labeling lysosomes and other acidic organelles in a live-cell format and were shown to be capable of monitoring lysosomal metabolic activity...
2016: PloS One
Tamar R Lubell, David Schnadower, Stephen B Freedman, Charles G Macias, Dewesh Agrawal, Nathan Kuppermann, Peter S Dayan
BACKGROUND: Few data exist on the presentations and clinical courses of infants with enterococcal urinary tract infections (UTI). The objective of this study was to compare the clinical presentation, sensitivity of urinalysis (UA) and Gram's stain, radiological abnormalities and adverse events of febrile infants with enterococcal UTIs to those with Gram-negative UTIs. METHODS: Retrospective study of febrile (≥38.0°C) infants 29-60 days of age with UTIs at 20 emergency departments...
September 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
F A Kaiksow, D Bhatnagar
A 26-year-old woman with no prior medical history presented post-partum with altered mental status. She had no complications during pregnancy and had a spontaneous vaginal delivery at term one week prior. On post-partum day five, she began complaining of headaches, initially responsive to ibuprofen but eventually worsened with no relief. On the evening of admission, her boyfriend noted strange behavior and movements consistent with a tonic-clonic seizure. On the way to the hospital, she had two more similar seizures witnessed by emergency medical serevices (EMS)...
May 2015: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
Rebecca Anne Shuford, Caleb R Dulaney, Omer L Burnett, Kevin W Byram, Andrew M McDonald
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to analyze the effectiveness of urinalysis parameters in predicting positive urine culture and to characterize urinary tract infections in gynecologic cancer patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. METHODS: The records of 134 women receiving pelvic radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed with a total of 241 urine specimens. Dipstick, urine microscopy, and urine culture data were recorded. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and diagnostic odds ratios of dipstick and microscopy components for predicting positive urine culture were calculated...
April 21, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Eric H Tischler, Darren R Plummer, Antonia F Chen, Craig J Della Valle, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) and periprosthetic joint infection can occur after metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA), both potentially generating purulent synovial fluid (SF) and elevated white cell count. This makes it difficult to distinguish between diagnoses; therefore, we evaluated leukocyte esterase (LE) strip test's reliability in ruling out periprosthetic joint infection in ALTR revision THA. METHODS: Sixty-one patients with ALTRs and an LE strip test were evaluated, excluding 15 cases with SF metallic debris...
October 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Chiung-Wen Hu, Ying-Ming Shih, Hung-Hsin Liu, Yi-Chen Chiang, Chih-Ming Chen, Mu-Rong Chao
N-nitrosamines (NAms) are well-documented for their carcinogenic potential. Human exposure to NAms may arise from the daily environment and endogenous formation via the reaction of secondary amines with nitrites or from bacteria infection. We describe the use of isotope dilution online solid-phase extraction (SPE) LC-MS/MS to quantify nine NAms in human urine. This method was validated and further applied to healthy subjects and patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were analyzed with an APCI source, while N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA) were quantified with an ESI source, due to their effect on the sensitivity and chromatography...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Joshua R Watson, David S Hains, Daniel M Cohen, John David Spencer, Jennifer M Kline, Han Yin, Andrew L Schwaderer
BACKGROUND: Pediatricians frequently use urinalysis to diagnose urinary tract infection (UTI) while awaiting urine culture results, but sensitivity and specificity of urinalysis are limited. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) human α-defensin 5 (HD5) and human neutrophil peptides (HNP) 1-3 as novel UTI biomarkers in children. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 199 pediatric Emergency Department or Urgent Care patients evaluated for a UTI...
June 2016: Pediatric Research
Joshua R Watson, Pablo J Sánchez, John David Spencer, Daniel M Cohen, David S Hains
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess empiric antibiotic use for presumed urinary tract infection (UTI) in the emergency department (ED) and to determine how often urine culture results subsequently do not confirm the diagnosis. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort study of patients aged 21 years or younger in the Nationwide Children's Hospital ED from May 1, 2012, to October 31, 2012, who had a urinalysis and urine culture performed and were discharged home with empiric antibiotic therapy for presumed UTI...
February 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Fengjiao Wu, Qiang Zou, Xiaodan Ding, Dongyan Shi, Xingxing Zhu, Weiguo Hu, Lixin Liu, Hong Zhou
BACKGROUND: The complement system is becoming increasingly recognized as a key participant in many neurodegenerative diseases of the brain. Complement-deficient animals exhibit reduced neuroinflammation. METHODS: In the present study, we administered intracerebroventricularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic local infection of the brain and investigated the role of key complement component C3 in brain vasculature endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Karam Choi, Ikwan Chang, Jung Chan Lee, Do Kyun Kim, Seungwoo Noh, Heejeong Ahn, Jun Hwi Cho, Young Ho Kwak, Sungwan Kim, Hee Chan Kim
BACKGROUND: Although a smartphone could be used for a urine reagent strip test, few studies have reported on the reliability of the test in a clinical setting. The objective of our study was to access the smartphone-based urine reagent strip test in the clinical emergency department (ED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a smartphone-based urine reagent strip reader for a rapid and accurate screening of leukocyte esterase (LE) and nitrite (NIT) in urine. The developed reader was evaluated with the clinical urine samples (n = 81)...
June 2016: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
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