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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020720/pyelonephritis-can-lead-to-life-threatening-complications
#1
Declan B Keenan, Declan M O'Rourke, Aisling E Courtney
Acute pyelonephritis is suggested by the constellation of fever (temperature ≥ 38.5° C), flank pain (typically unilateral), nausea and vomiting, and costovertebral angle tenderness. Complaints typical of lower UTI are variably present. The severity of symptoms ranges from a mild pyrexial illness to life-threatening sepsis. The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis should be suspected on the basis of the history and clinical examination. If the urine dipstick is negative for nitrites and leukocyte esterase this does not exclude the diagnosis, but it should prompt a re-evaluation of the clinical features and consideration of other potential diagnoses...
February 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017944/immunological-responses-and-disease-resistance-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-juveniles-following-dietary-administration-of-stinging-nettle-urtica-dioica
#2
Mohammad Reza Saeidi Asl, Milad Adel, Christopher Marlowe A Caipang, Mahmoud A O Dawood
The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, skin mucus, immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with diets supplemented with U. dioica at 0, 1, 2 and 3%. After 8 weeks of feeding, the addition of U. dioica at 3% level resulted in improved weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio significantly when compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Hematological responses including: hematocrit (Htc), hemoglobin (Hb), lymphocyte and neutrophil populations enhanced significantly in fish fed 3% of stinging nettle when measured after 4 weeks; while, total red blood cells, white blood, Htc, Hb, lymphocyte and neutrophil populations significantly increased after 8 weeks in the same group (P < 0...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017265/antibiotic-overconsumption-in-pregnant-women-with-urinary-tract-symptoms-in-uganda
#3
Musa Sekikubo, Karolina Hedman, Florence Mirembe, Annelie Brauner
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections in women. During pregnancy physiological changes, like frequency, mimic UTI symptoms, and therefore bacteriological cultures are needed to confirm the diagnosis. However, in developing countries antibiotic therapy is commonly initiated without culture confirmation. Methods: We investigated the prevalence of bacteriuria among pregnant women with and without UTI symptoms in Uganda...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976123/immunostimulant-and-chemoprotective-effect-of-vivartana-a-polyherbal-formulation-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-toxicity-in-swiss-albino-mice
#4
Sadhana Gnanasekaran, Kunnathur Murugesan Sakthivel, Guruvayoorappan Chandrasekaran
The aim of the study is to develop a technology for cost effective immunomodulator from natural products to combat adverse effects during cancer chemotherapy. In the present study, the immunomodulatory efficacy of Vivartana, a poly herbal formulation in immunosuppressed animal model induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX) and its comparison with standard herbal immunostimulators Chyawanprash and Brahma Rasayana was investigated. The effect of Vivartana (500 mg/kg.bw) (p.o.), Chyawanprash (20 mg/kg.bw) (p.o.) and Brahma Rasayana (20 mg/kg...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940750/performing-a-urine-dipstick-test-with-a-clean-catch-urine-sample-is-an-accurate-screening-method-for-urinary-tract-infections-in-young-infants
#5
María Luisa Herreros, Alfredo Tagarro, Araceli García-Pose, Aida Sánchez, Alfonso Cañete, Pablo Gili
AIM: This study evaluated using urine dipstick tests with the clean-catch method to screen for urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile infants under 90 days of age. METHODS: We carried out a comparative diagnostic accuracy study of infants under 90 days old, who were studied for unexplained fever without any source, in the emergency room of a hospital in Madrid from January 2011 to January 2013. We obtained matched samples of urine using two different methods: a clean-catch, standardised stimulation technique and catheterisation collection...
September 23, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912417/comparison-of-leukocyte-esterase-testing-of-synovial-fluid-with-synovial-histology-for-the-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#6
Rui Li, Xiang Li, Baozhan Yu, Xin Li, Xinggui Song, Heng Li, Chi Xu, Jiying Chen
BACKGROUND Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a complication of total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The leukocyte esterase (LE) strip test and histology are diagnostic methods for PJI. The aims of this study were to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the LE strip test and to compare it with histology in the diagnosis of PJI. MATERIAL AND METHODS Between January and December 2015, 93 patients who underwent TJA with PJI were enrolled in the study. Synovial fluid samples were tested with an LE strip, and three synovial tissue samples from each patient underwent frozen section and formalin-fixed histology...
September 15, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856346/systematic-review-of-novel-synovial-fluid-markers-and-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-the-diagnosis-of-prosthetic-joint-infection
#7
Duran Mitchell, Jose Perez, Luis Grau, Spencer Summers, Samuel Rosas, Alvin Ong, Michaela M Schneiderbauer, Victor H Hernandez
Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) may be underreported because of difficulty in making a diagnosis, especially in infections with low-virulence organisms. Reports of PJI cases misdiagnosed as aseptic loosening suggest that current screening and diagnostic tools are not sensitive enough to detect all infections and that PJI likely is underdiagnosed. We reviewed the literature on recently developed novel synovial biomarkers and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies, of which several have proved promising as highly sensitive and specific tools for detecting PJI...
July 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758790/the-accuracy-of-the-sysmex-uf-1000i-in-urine-bacterial-detection-compared-with-the-standard-urine-analysis-and-culture
#8
Patrick Erdman, Brian Anderson, J Christopher Zacko, Kirk Taylor, Keri Donaldson
CONTEXT: - Urinary tract infections are characterized by the presence of microbial pathogens within the urinary tract. They represent one of the most common infections in hospitalized and clinic patients. OBJECTIVES: - To model the parameters of the Sysmex UF-1000i to the gold standard, urine culture, and to compare the detection of dipstick leukocyte esterase and nitrates to urine cultures and UF-1000i results. DESIGN: - Data were compared from urine samples collected in sterile containers for bacterial culture and microscopic analysis...
July 31, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712799/diagnosing-periprosthetic-joint-infection-and-the-winner-is
#9
Alisina Shahi, Timothy L Tan, Michael M Kheir, Dean D Tan, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a challenge despite a wide variety of available diagnostic tests. The question that arises is which of these tests has a better performance for diagnosing PJI. Diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) has been described as the best indicator for test performance. METHODS: To compare the performance of the standard diagnostic tests, the DOR of serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), synovial fluid (SF) white blood cell (WBC) count, SF polymorphonuclear (PMN%), and leukocyte esterase (LE) were calculated...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712106/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-urinalysis-samples-in-critically-ill-patients
#10
Sean P Lee, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Thomas James Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Pre-emptive screening of urine for patients admitted to an intensive care unit can result in the misinterpretation of data and over- or under-treatment of urinary tract infection. METHODS: Data were studied from 169 consecutive patients admitted to the neurologic or burn intensive care unit at Shands Hospital at the University of Florida. All patients had a urinary catheter in place at the time of admission. Urinalysis and urine culture were sent for analysis...
2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683730/urinalysis-findings-and-urinary-kidney-injury-biomarker-concentrations
#11
Girish N Nadkarni, Steven G Coca, Allison Meisner, Shanti Patel, Kathleen F Kerr, Uptal D Patel, Jay L Koyner, Amit X Garg, Heather Thiessen Philbrook, Charles L Edelstein, Michael Shlipak, Joe El-Khoury, Chirag R Parikh
INTRODUCTION: Urinary biomarkers of kidney injury are presumed to reflect renal tubular damage. However, their concentrations may be influenced by other factors, such as hematuria or pyuria. We sought to examine what non-injury related urinalysis factors are associated with urinary biomarker levels. METHODS: We examined 714 adults who underwent cardiac surgery in the TRIBE-AKI cohort that did not experience post-operative clinical AKI (patients with serum creatinine change of ≥ 20% were excluded)...
July 6, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627813/effect-of-the-oxidant-antioxidant-system-in-seminal-plasma-on-varicocele-and-idiopathic-infertility-in-male-humans
#12
Hayrullah Yazar, Fikret Halis, Yasemin Nasir, Derya Guzel, Mehmet Akdogan, Ahmet Gokce
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate seminal oxidant-antioxidant activity in idiopathic and varicocele infertility in men. METHODS: Total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), paraoxonase (PON1), aryl esterase (ARE), and total thiol levels (TTL) were measured in seminal plasma with an autoanalyzer. The TOS/TAC ratio was determined as the oxidative stress index (OSI). A histopathological evaluation of the sperm was performed in the andrology laboratory of the hospital...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627004/utility-of-the-urine-reagent-strip-leucocyte-esterase-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-meningitis-in-resource-limited-settings-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
William Bortcosh, Mark Siedner, Ryan W Carroll
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis often requires cytometry, chemistry and/or microbiologic culture capabilities. Unfortunately, laboratory resources in low-resource settings (LRS) often lack the capacity to perform these studies. We sought to determine whether the presence of white blood cells in CSF detected by commercially available urine reagent strips could aid in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We searched PubMed for studies published between 1980 and 2016 that investigated the use of urine reagent strips to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis...
September 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622967/new-markers-of-urinary-tract-infection
#14
REVIEW
Anna Masajtis-Zagajewska, Michal Nowicki
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection independent of age. It is also one of the most common causes of hospitalizations for infections among elderly people and the most common indication for antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Both diagnostics and management of lower and upper urinary tract infections provide challenges in clinical practice due to their high prevalence and recurrence, and worldwide increase of antibiotic resistance. The clinical symptoms of UTI are often uncharacteristic or asymptomatic...
August 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608672/electrochemical-substrate-and-assay-for-esterolytic-activity-of-human-white-blood-cells
#15
Douglas Hanson, Travis Menard, Stanton McHardy, Andrew Fleischman, Waldemar Gorski
The ester 4-((tosyl-l-alanyl)oxy)phenyl tosyl-l-alaninate (TAPTA) was synthesized and tested as a substrate for leukocyte esterase (LE), an enzyme produced by leukocytes (white blood cells). In the presence of LE, TAPTA released a redox-active fragment whose oxidation at an electrode provided a direct numerical measure of LE activity. The assays showed that LE recognized TAPTA as its substrate with the Michaelis constant Km and Imax equal to 0.24 mM and 0.13 mA cm(-1), respectively. The esterolytic activity of leukocyte suspensions was determined by using the internally calibrated electrochemical continuous enzyme assay (ICECEA)...
June 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587696/uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-emergency-department-a-review-of-local-practice-patterns
#16
Elizabeth Poon, Lauren Self, Shelley L McLeod, Sean Caine, Bjug Borgundvaag
OBJECTIVES: To determine the number of urine cultures ordered for women who presented to the emergency department (ED) with symptoms of uncomplicated UTI, and whether a culture result impacted subsequent management. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of non-pregnant women aged 18-39 presenting to one of two academic EDs with a discharge diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI over a one-year study period. Patients were excluded if there was documentation of fever, immunocompromised state, diabetes mellitus, absence of lower urinary tract symptoms, ED administration of intravenous antibiotics, a previous UTI treated with antibiotics in the last 90 days, two weeks post-partum or post-instrumentation...
June 7, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570146/recombinant-c1-esterase-inhibitor-reduces-cytokine-storm-in-an-ex-vivo-whole-blood-model
#17
Vladimir A Bobkov, Roman V Tikhonov, Alexander M Shuster, Dmitry A Poteryaev, Veronika N Bade
C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) is an abundant component of blood plasma (the average concentration is 250 mg/L); it is known to be involved in several biological processes, for instance, in the regulation of the coagulation system, adhesion of leukocytes on endothelial cells, and in the regulation of complement and kallikrein cascades. Lately, the role of C1INH in immunomodulation has gained considerable attention. We used an ex vivo whole blood model to examine the influence of C1INH and its mutated variants on the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and IL-1β...
July 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558478/bacteria-on-urine-microscopy-is-not-associated-with-systemic-infection-in-patients-with-obstructing-urolithiasis
#18
Felix Cheung, Charles A Loeb, Michael P Croglio, Wayne C Waltzer, Steven J Weissbart
INTRODUCTION: Determining whether bacterial presence in urine microscopy represents infection is important as ureteral stent placement is indicated in patients with obstructing urolithiasis and infection. We aim to investigate whether the presence of bacteria on urine microscopy is associated with other markers of infection in patients with obstructing urolithiasis presenting to the emergency room. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 199 patients with obstructing urolithiasis and divided patients into two groups according to the presence of bacteria on urine microscopy...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549361/-leukocyte-esterase-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-an-infectious-disease-of-the-knee
#19
S U Ceja-Picazo, S Fuentes-Figueroa, A H Rivera-Villa, A R Hernández-Salgado, R Torres-González, A M Pérez, J A Hernández-García, J M Pérez-Atanasio
BACKGROUND: Articular infection is an orthopedic challenge due to its difficult diagnosis and devastating results. Various diagnostic studies exist: culture, ESR, CRP, count of leukocytes, among others, but none is specific, they all take more than 30 minutes to complete, and require complex infrastructure. In this study, we determine the sensitivity and specificity of the leukocyte esterase for detection of an infectious process joint in Mexican population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During November 2015 to April 2016, we obtained synovial fluid from two groups of patients: one with a diagnosis of synovial joint infection with or without implant, and the control group, without infection but with degenerative pathology of the knee...
November 2016: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483211/interpretation-of-leukocyte-esterase-for-the-detection-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-based-on-serologic-markers
#20
Majd Tarabichi, Andrew N Fleischman, Alisina Shahi, Shaoqi Tian, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte esterase (LE) is a rapid, point-of-care test for periprosthetic joint infection. The purpose of this study was to provide a tool for interpreting LE based on an initial serologic screening. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 319 patients who had erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) screening before hip or knee aspiration; 102 had elevated ESR and CRP levels, 64 had an elevated ESR or CRP level, and 153 had normal serology...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
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