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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169050/the-importance-of-urine-concentration-on-the-diagnostic-performance-of-the-urinalysis-for-pediatric-urinary-tract-infection
#1
Pradip P Chaudhari, Michael C Monuteaux, Pinkey Shah, Richard G Bachur
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The presence of leukocyte esterase by urine dipstick and microscopic pyuria are both indicators of possible urinary tract infection. The effect of urine concentration on the diagnostic performance of the urinalysis for pediatric urinary tract infection has not been studied. Our objective is to determine whether the urinalysis performance for detecting urinary tract infection varies by urine concentration as measured by specific gravity. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of the urine laboratory results of children younger than 13 years who presented to the emergency department during 68 months and had a paired urinalysis and urine culture obtained...
February 3, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161186/a-dairy-herd-level-study-of-postpartum-diseases-and-their-association-with-reproductive-performance-and-culling
#2
J Dubuc, J Denis-Robichaud
The objectives of this study were to quantify the herd-level prevalence of postpartum diseases in a large number of dairy farms, and to identify prevalence alarm levels of these diseases based on association with a low prevalence of success at first service, with a high prevalence of pregnancy loss following pregnancy diagnosis at first service, and with a high prevalence of postpartum culling. A total of 126 commercial dairy herds were enrolled in this cohort study, and the herd was the unit of interest. Twenty cows from every herd were enrolled during the study period (a total of 2,520 lactating cows in the study)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108745/leukocyte-esterase-as-a-biomarker-in-the-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#3
Chi Wang, Rui Li, Qi Wang, Jinyan Duan, Chengbin Wang
BACKGROUND Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has been one of the most rewarding interventions for treating patients suffering from joint disorders. However, periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication that frequently accompanies TJA. Our study aimed to investigate the application of the leukocyte esterase (LE) strip in the diagnosis of PJI. MATERIAL AND METHODS From October 2014 to July 2015, 72 patients who had undergone joint puncture after arthroplasty in our hospital were enrolled in this trial...
January 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010959/urine-culture-guided-antibiotic-interventions-a-pharmacist-driven-antimicrobial-stewardship-effort-in-the-emergency-department
#4
Xi Zhang, Nicole Rowan, Bethann Mangel Pflugeisen, Sanjin Alajbegovic
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are overprescribed for abnormal urine tests including asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), contributing to rising antimicrobial resistance rates. Pharmacists reviewed urine cultures daily from emergency department (ED) encounters to assess antibiotic appropriateness. We studied antibiotic prescribing practices and assessed compliance to national guidelines, correlations with urine analysis (UA) components, and opportunities for antimicrobial stewardship in the ED. METHODS: This quality improvement project (QIP) was a prospective cohort study at a community hospital ED, with data collected from finalized urine cultures resulting October 30, 2014 through January 5, 2015...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940788/urine-concentration-and-pyuria-for-identifying-uti-in-infants
#5
Pradip P Chaudhari, Michael C Monuteaux, Richard G Bachur
BACKGROUND: Varying urine white blood cell (WBC) thresholds have been recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) among young infants. These thresholds have not been studied with newer automated urinalysis systems that analyze uncentrifuged urine that might be influenced by urine concentration. Our objective was to determine the optimal urine WBC threshold for UTI in young infants by using an automated urinalysis system, stratified by urine concentration...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891369/the-diagnostic-value-of-urinalysis-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-fever-sepsis-or-suspected-urinary-tract-infection
#6
Katerina G Oikonomou, Adib Alhaddad
INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic validity of urinalysis in asymptomatic Hemodialysis (HD) patients is low and there is limited data on the diagnostic value of urinalysis in HD patients with fever, sepsis, or suspected Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of pyuria, bacteriuria, Leukocyte Esterase (LE) and nitrite positivity in symptomatic, febrile or/and septic HD patients...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869063/screening-patients-undergoing-total-hip-or-knee-arthroplasty-with-perioperative-urinalysis-and-the-effect-of-a-practice-change-on-antimicrobial-use
#7
Samuel Bailin, Nicolas Noiseux, Jean M Pottinger, Birgir Johannsson, Ambar Haleem, Sarah Johnson, Loreen A Herwaldt
OBJECTIVE To identify predictors of treatment for urinary tract infections (UTI) among patients undergoing total hip (THA) or knee (TKA) arthroplasties and to assess an intervention based on these predictors. DESIGN We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 200 consecutive patients undergoing THA/TKA between February 21, 2011, and June 30, 2011, to identify predictors of treatment for UTI and a prospective cohort study of 50 patients undergoing these procedures between May 21, 2012, and July 17, 2012, to assess the association of signs or symptoms and UTI treatment...
November 21, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775178/the-influence-of-vitamin-c-on-the-urine-dipstick-tests-in-the-clinical-specimens-a-multicenter-study
#8
Wonmok Lee, Yukyung Kim, Soonhee Chang, A-Jin Lee, Chang-Ho Jeon
BACKGROUND: Vitamin C may interfere with the results of urine dipstick tests. We investigated the incidence of urinary vitamin C and its interference with urine dipstick reagents using a vitamin C dipstick. METHODS: The incidence of urinary vitamin C was determined in patients and healthy individuals undergoing routine medical check-ups. Interference tests were performed using samples with various amounts of added vitamin C. For clinical samples, we identified false-negative dipstick glucose, hemoglobin, and leukocyte esterase results based on the urine sediment and serum glucose results...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708741/the-rule-of-histology-in-the-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-infection-specific-granulocyte-counting-methods-and-new-immunohistologic-staining-techniques-may-increase-the-diagnostic-value
#9
Friedrich Boettner, Gabriele Koehler, Alexander Wegner, Tom Schmidt-Braekling, Georg Gosheger, Christian Goetze
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigates the diagnostic accuracy of the criteria described for frozen sections and whether modern leukocyte specific staining techniques including leukocyte peroxidase and Naphtol-AS-D-chloroacetate-esterase will improve the accuracy of the intra-operative histology. METHOD: 77 patients undergoing revision total hip and knee arthroplasty were included in this retrospective study. Patients were grouped into septic and aseptic based on intraoperative cultures...
2016: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682127/accuracy-of-automated-flow-cytometry-based-leukocyte-counts-to-rule-out-urinary-tract-infection-in-febrile-children-a-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#10
Hong Phuoc Duong, Karl Martin Wissing, Nathalie Tram, Georges Mascart, Philippe Lepage, Khalid Ismaili
Automated flow cytometry of urine remains an incompletely validated method to rule out urinary tract infection (UTI) in children. This cross-sectional analytical study was performed to compare the predictive values of flow cytometry and a dipstick test as initial diagnostic tests for UTI in febrile children and prospectively included 1,106 children (1,247 episodes). Urine culture was used as the gold standard test for diagnosing UTI. The performance of screening tests to diagnose UTI were established using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571723/reagent-strips-are-efficient-to-rule-out-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-in-cirrhotics
#11
R C Oey, J J Kuiper, H R van Buuren, R A de Man
BACKGROUND: The gold standard to diagnose spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a polymorphonuclear neutrophil count ≥ 250 cells/µl in ascitic fluid. This test is laborious and expensive. Urine reagent strips measuring leukocyte esterase activity have been proposed as a rapid and inexpensive alternative. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Combur reagent strip for diagnosing SBP. Furthermore the possible advantage of a photospectrometer reading over visual reading of the strip was investigated...
July 2016: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538253/-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-infection-what-s-obligation-what-s-optional
#12
K-D Heller
BACKGROUND: Periprothetic infection after primary or revision arthroplasty is of increasing importance. The incidence of infection in primary arthroplasty is approximately 1 %. Revision arthroplasty has higher infection rates, which increase with the number of revision surgeries. Aim of this Paper: An overview of the current diagnosis of periprosthetic infection. METHODS: This selective analysis is based on a lecture by the author at the DKOU 2015. RESULTS: Periprosthetic infection is taken as having been demonstrated when either two periprosthetic cultures contain the same microorganism, or if there is a fistula communicating with a joint...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27369297/determining-false-positive-rates-of-leukocyte-esterase-reagent-strip-when-used-as-a-detection-tool-for-joint-infection
#13
David Clinton McNabb, Douglas A Dennis, Raymond H Kim, Todd M Miner, Charlie C Yang, Jason M Jennings
BACKGROUND: Use of leukocyte esterase (LE) testing of synovial fluid as an adjunct to the infection workup in total joint arthroplasty patients has been advocated. The purpose of this study was to determine the false positive rate of this test. METHODS: Two hundred patients with the diagnosis of degenerative osteoarthritis undergoing a total knee arthroplasty were identified for this study. The knee joint was aspirated under sterile conditions before performing the total knee arthroplasty...
January 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335975/usefulness-of-leukocyte-esterase-test-versus-rapid-strep-test-for-diagnosis-of-acute-strep-pharyngitis
#14
Kumara V Nibhanipudi
OBJECTIVE: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick) to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. HYPOTHESIS: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. METHODS: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates...
2015: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307370/a-compelling-new-diagnostic-option-for-identification-of-orthopaedic-infections-commentary-on-an-article-by-m-c-wyatt-bsc-hons-mbchb-mrcs-ed-fracs-tr-orth-et-al-the-alpha-defensin-immunoassay-and-leukocyte-esterase-colorimetric-strip-test-for-the-diagnosis
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307359/the-alpha-defensin-immunoassay-and-leukocyte-esterase-colorimetric-strip-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
M C Wyatt, A D Beswick, S K Kunutsor, M J Wilson, M R Whitehouse, A W Blom
BACKGROUND: Synovial biomarkers have recently been adopted as diagnostic tools for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), but their utility is uncertain. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize the evidence on the accuracy of the alpha-defensin immunoassay and leukocyte esterase colorimetric strip test for the diagnosis of PJI compared with the Musculoskeletal Infection Society diagnostic criteria. METHODS: We performed a systematic review to identify diagnostic technique studies evaluating the accuracy of alpha-defensin or leukocyte esterase in the diagnosis of PJI...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241566/routine-tests-and-automated-urinalysis-in-patients-with-suspected-urinary-tract-infection-at-the-ed
#17
S J M Middelkoop, L J van Pelt, G A Kampinga, J C Ter Maaten, C A Stegeman
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequently encountered. Diagnostics of UTI (urine dipstick, Gram stain, urine culture) lack proven accuracy and precision in the emergency department. Utility of automated urinalysis shows promise for UTI diagnosis but has not been validated. METHODS: A total of 381 cases presenting with fever and/or clinically suspected UTI were analyzed. Diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, urine culture and/ or blood culture, and successful treatment...
August 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228111/fluorogenic-substrates-for-visualizing-acidic-organelle-enzyme-activities
#18
Fiona Karen Harlan, Jason Scott Lusk, Breanna Michelle Mohr, Anthony Peter Guzikowski, Robert Hardy Batchelor, Ying Jiang, John Joseph Naleway
Lysosomes are acidic cytoplasmic organelles that are present in all nucleated mammalian cells and are involved in a variety of cellular processes including repair of the plasma membrane, defense against pathogens, cholesterol homeostasis, bone remodeling, metabolism, apoptosis and cell signaling. Defects in lysosomal enzyme activity have been associated with a variety of neurological diseases including Parkinson's Disease, Lysosomal Storage Diseases, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Fluorogenic lysosomal staining probes were synthesized for labeling lysosomes and other acidic organelles in a live-cell format and were shown to be capable of monitoring lysosomal metabolic activity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195600/comparison-of-febrile-infants-with-enterococcal-and-gram-negative-urinary-tract-infections
#19
Tamar R Lubell, David Schnadower, Stephen B Freedman, Charles G Macias, Dewesh Agrawal, Nathan Kuppermann, Peter S Dayan
BACKGROUND: Few data exist on the presentations and clinical courses of infants with enterococcal urinary tract infections (UTI). The objective of this study was to compare the clinical presentation, sensitivity of urinalysis (UA) and Gram's stain, radiological abnormalities and adverse events of febrile infants with enterococcal UTIs to those with Gram-negative UTIs. METHODS: Retrospective study of febrile (≥38.0°C) infants 29-60 days of age with UTIs at 20 emergency departments...
September 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159471/-baby-baby-i-ve-got-headache
#20
F A Kaiksow, D Bhatnagar
A 26-year-old woman with no prior medical history presented post-partum with altered mental status. She had no complications during pregnancy and had a spontaneous vaginal delivery at term one week prior. On post-partum day five, she began complaining of headaches, initially responsive to ibuprofen but eventually worsened with no relief. On the evening of admission, her boyfriend noted strange behavior and movements consistent with a tonic-clonic seizure. On the way to the hospital, she had two more similar seizures witnessed by emergency medical serevices (EMS)...
May 2015: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
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