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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214126/pharmacologic-complement-inhibition-in-clinical-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Vasishta S Tatapudi, Robert A Montgomery
Purpose of Review: Over the past two decades, significant strides made in our understanding of the etiology of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in transplantation have put the complement system in the spotlight. Here, we review recent progress made in the field of pharmacologic complement inhibition in clinical transplantation and aim to understand the impact of this therapeutic approach on outcomes in transplant recipients. Recent Findings: Encouraged by the success of agents targeting the complement cascade in disorders of unrestrained complement activation like paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), investigators are testing the safety and efficacy of pharmacologic complement blockade in mitigating allograft injury in conditions ranging from AMR to recurrent post-transplant aHUS, C3 glomerulopathies and antiphospholipid anti-body syndrome (APS)...
2017: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189595/fast-and-sensitive-automated-point-of-care-urine-dips
#2
Laurie Malia, Kaitlin Strumph, Sharon Smith, John Brancato, Stephanie T Johnson, Henry Chicaiza
OBJECTIVE: Point-of-care (POC) urine dipstick is a highly used test in the pediatric emergency department (PED) owing to its fast turn-around time and inexpensive cost. Past studies have shown hand-held urine dipsticks and automated urinalysis in children younger than 48 months to be sensitive predictors for urinary tract infection (UTI). It is hypothesized that POC dip testing is as accurate as laboratory urinalysis in the diagnosis of UTI. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients (aged birth through 18 years) presenting to a PED between January 2015 and December 2015...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146619/urinary-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-for-the-diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infections
#3
Tamar R Lubell, Jonathan M Barasch, Katherine Xu, Maria Ieni, Keven I Cabrera, Peter S Dayan
OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of the novel biomarker urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) to diagnose urinary tract infections (UTIs) in febrile infants and young children. METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study of febrile infants <3 months ( ≥ 38.0°C) and children 3 to 24 months (≥ 39.0°C) evaluated for UTIs. uNGAL levels, urinalysis, Gram-stain and culture were obtained. UTI was defined by colony counts. RESULTS: Of 260 patients, 35 (13...
November 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135902/should-the-absence-of-urinary-nitrite-influence-empiric-antibiotics-for-urinary-tract-infection-in-young-children
#4
Pradip P Chaudhari, Michael C Monuteaux, Richard G Bachur
OBJECTIVES: Screening for urinary tract infection (UTI) includes urinary nitrite testing by dipstick urinalysis. Gram-negative enteric organisms produce urinary nitrite and represent the most common uropathogens. Enterococcus, a less common uropathogen, does not produce nitrite and has a unique antibiotic resistance pattern. Whether to adjust empiric antibiotics in the absence of urinary nitrite has not been established. Our primary objective was to determine prevalence of enterococcal UTI among young children with a nitrite negative urinalysis...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099342/synovial-fluid-leukocyte-esterase-in-the-diagnosis-of-peri-prosthetic-joint-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Chi Wang, Rui Li, Qi Wang, Chengbin Wang
BACKGROUND: Peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious and frequent complication of total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Recently, synovial fluid leukocyte esterase (LE), measurement of which is convenient and fast, has been examined as a marker of PJI. We summarized the articles describing synovial fluid LE as a biomarker for the diagnosis of PJI and assessed its diagnostic value in patients suspected of having PJI. METHODS: We searched with appropriate key words in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane database, and Science Direct...
November 3, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059113/the-diagnostic-utility-of-synovial-fluid-markers-in-periprosthetic-joint-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Anas Saleh, Deepak Ramanathan, Marcelo Bogliolo P Siqueira, Alison K Klika, Wael K Barsoum, Carlos A Higuera Rueda
INTRODUCTION: This study is a systematic review of all reported synovial fluid markers for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection and a meta-analysis of the most frequently reported markers to identify those of greatest diagnostic utility. METHODS: A search of six databases was conducted to identify all studies evaluating the utility of synovial fluid markers in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. Two observers assessed methodologic quality and extracted data independently...
November 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020720/pyelonephritis-can-lead-to-life-threatening-complications
#7
Declan B Keenan, Declan M O'Rourke, Aisling E Courtney
Acute pyelonephritis is suggested by the constellation of fever (temperature ≥ 38.5° C), flank pain (typically unilateral), nausea and vomiting, and costovertebral angle tenderness. Complaints typical of lower UTI are variably present. The severity of symptoms ranges from a mild pyrexial illness to life-threatening sepsis. The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis should be suspected on the basis of the history and clinical examination. If the urine dipstick is negative for nitrites and leukocyte esterase this does not exclude the diagnosis, but it should prompt a re-evaluation of the clinical features and consideration of other potential diagnoses...
February 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017944/immunological-responses-and-disease-resistance-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-juveniles-following-dietary-administration-of-stinging-nettle-urtica-dioica
#8
Mohammad Reza Saeidi Asl, Milad Adel, Christopher Marlowe A Caipang, Mahmoud A O Dawood
The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, skin mucus, immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with diets supplemented with U. dioica at 0, 1, 2 and 3%. After 8 weeks of feeding, the addition of U. dioica at 3% level resulted in improved weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio significantly when compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Hematological responses including: hematocrit (Htc), hemoglobin (Hb), lymphocyte and neutrophil populations enhanced significantly in fish fed 3% of stinging nettle when measured after 4 weeks; while, total red blood cells, white blood, Htc, Hb, lymphocyte and neutrophil populations significantly increased after 8 weeks in the same group (P < 0...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017265/antibiotic-overconsumption-in-pregnant-women-with-urinary-tract-symptoms-in-uganda
#9
Musa Sekikubo, Karolina Hedman, Florence Mirembe, Annelie Brauner
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections in women. During pregnancy physiological changes, like frequency, mimic UTI symptoms, and therefore bacteriological cultures are needed to confirm the diagnosis. However, in developing countries antibiotic therapy is commonly initiated without culture confirmation. Methods: We investigated the prevalence of bacteriuria among pregnant women with and without UTI symptoms in Uganda...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976123/immunostimulant-and-chemoprotective-effect-of-vivartana-a-polyherbal-formulation-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-toxicity-in-swiss-albino-mice
#10
Sadhana Gnanasekaran, Kunnathur Murugesan Sakthivel, Guruvayoorappan Chandrasekaran
The aim of the study is to develop a technology for cost effective immunomodulator from natural products to combat adverse effects during cancer chemotherapy. In the present study, the immunomodulatory efficacy of Vivartana, a poly herbal formulation in immunosuppressed animal model induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX) and its comparison with standard herbal immunostimulators Chyawanprash and Brahma Rasayana was investigated. The effect of Vivartana (500 mg/kg.bw) (p.o.), Chyawanprash (20 mg/kg.bw) (p.o.) and Brahma Rasayana (20 mg/kg...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940750/performing-a-urine-dipstick-test-with-a-clean-catch-urine-sample-is-an-accurate-screening-method-for-urinary-tract-infections-in-young-infants
#11
María Luisa Herreros, Alfredo Tagarro, Araceli García-Pose, Aida Sánchez, Alfonso Cañete, Pablo Gili
AIM: This study evaluated using urine dipstick tests with the clean-catch method to screen for urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile infants under 90 days of age. METHODS: We carried out a comparative diagnostic accuracy study of infants under 90 days old, who were studied for unexplained fever without any source, in the emergency room of a hospital in Madrid from January 2011 to January 2013. We obtained matched samples of urine using two different methods: a clean-catch, standardised stimulation technique and catheterisation collection...
September 23, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912417/comparison-of-leukocyte-esterase-testing-of-synovial-fluid-with-synovial-histology-for-the-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#12
Rui Li, Xiang Li, Baozhan Yu, Xin Li, Xinggui Song, Heng Li, Chi Xu, Jiying Chen
BACKGROUND Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a complication of total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The leukocyte esterase (LE) strip test and histology are diagnostic methods for PJI. The aims of this study were to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the LE strip test and to compare it with histology in the diagnosis of PJI. MATERIAL AND METHODS Between January and December 2015, 93 patients who underwent TJA with PJI were enrolled in the study. Synovial fluid samples were tested with an LE strip, and three synovial tissue samples from each patient underwent frozen section and formalin-fixed histology...
September 15, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856346/systematic-review-of-novel-synovial-fluid-markers-and-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-the-diagnosis-of-prosthetic-joint-infection
#13
Duran Mitchell, Jose Perez, Luis Grau, Spencer Summers, Samuel Rosas, Alvin Ong, Michaela M Schneiderbauer, Victor H Hernandez
Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) may be underreported because of difficulty in making a diagnosis, especially in infections with low-virulence organisms. Reports of PJI cases misdiagnosed as aseptic loosening suggest that current screening and diagnostic tools are not sensitive enough to detect all infections and that PJI likely is underdiagnosed. We reviewed the literature on recently developed novel synovial biomarkers and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies, of which several have proved promising as highly sensitive and specific tools for detecting PJI...
July 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758790/the-accuracy-of-the-sysmex-uf-1000i-in-urine-bacterial-detection-compared-with-the-standard-urine-analysis-and-culture
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Patrick Erdman, Brian Anderson, J Christopher Zacko, Kirk Taylor, Keri Donaldson
CONTEXT: - Urinary tract infections are characterized by the presence of microbial pathogens within the urinary tract. They represent one of the most common infections in hospitalized and clinic patients. OBJECTIVES: - To model the parameters of the Sysmex UF-1000i to the gold standard, urine culture, and to compare the detection of dipstick leukocyte esterase and nitrates to urine cultures and UF-1000i results. DESIGN: - Data were compared from urine samples collected in sterile containers for bacterial culture and microscopic analysis...
November 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712799/diagnosing-periprosthetic-joint-infection-and-the-winner-is
#15
Alisina Shahi, Timothy L Tan, Michael M Kheir, Dean D Tan, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a challenge despite a wide variety of available diagnostic tests. The question that arises is which of these tests has a better performance for diagnosing PJI. Diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) has been described as the best indicator for test performance. METHODS: To compare the performance of the standard diagnostic tests, the DOR of serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), synovial fluid (SF) white blood cell (WBC) count, SF polymorphonuclear (PMN%), and leukocyte esterase (LE) were calculated...
September 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712106/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-urinalysis-samples-in-critically-ill-patients
#16
Sean P Lee, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Thomas James Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Pre-emptive screening of urine for patients admitted to an intensive care unit can result in the misinterpretation of data and over- or under-treatment of urinary tract infection. METHODS: Data were studied from 169 consecutive patients admitted to the neurologic or burn intensive care unit at Shands Hospital at the University of Florida. All patients had a urinary catheter in place at the time of admission. Urinalysis and urine culture were sent for analysis...
2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683730/urinalysis-findings-and-urinary-kidney-injury-biomarker-concentrations
#17
Girish N Nadkarni, Steven G Coca, Allison Meisner, Shanti Patel, Kathleen F Kerr, Uptal D Patel, Jay L Koyner, Amit X Garg, Heather Thiessen Philbrook, Charles L Edelstein, Michael Shlipak, Joe El-Khoury, Chirag R Parikh
INTRODUCTION: Urinary biomarkers of kidney injury are presumed to reflect renal tubular damage. However, their concentrations may be influenced by other factors, such as hematuria or pyuria. We sought to examine what non-injury related urinalysis factors are associated with urinary biomarker levels. METHODS: We examined 714 adults who underwent cardiac surgery in the TRIBE-AKI cohort that did not experience post-operative clinical AKI (patients with serum creatinine change of ≥ 20% were excluded)...
July 6, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627813/effect-of-the-oxidant-antioxidant-system-in-seminal-plasma-on-varicocele-and-idiopathic-infertility-in-male-humans
#18
Hayrullah Yazar, Fikret Halis, Yasemin Nasir, Derya Guzel, Mehmet Akdogan, Ahmet Gokce
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate seminal oxidant-antioxidant activity in idiopathic and varicocele infertility in men. METHODS: Total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), paraoxonase (PON1), aryl esterase (ARE), and total thiol levels (TTL) were measured in seminal plasma with an autoanalyzer. The TOS/TAC ratio was determined as the oxidative stress index (OSI). A histopathological evaluation of the sperm was performed in the andrology laboratory of the hospital...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627004/utility-of-the-urine-reagent-strip-leucocyte-esterase-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-meningitis-in-resource-limited-settings-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
William Bortcosh, Mark Siedner, Ryan W Carroll
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis often requires cytometry, chemistry and/or microbiologic culture capabilities. Unfortunately, laboratory resources in low-resource settings (LRS) often lack the capacity to perform these studies. We sought to determine whether the presence of white blood cells in CSF detected by commercially available urine reagent strips could aid in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We searched PubMed for studies published between 1980 and 2016 that investigated the use of urine reagent strips to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis...
September 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622967/new-markers-of-urinary-tract-infection
#20
REVIEW
Anna Masajtis-Zagajewska, Michal Nowicki
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection independent of age. It is also one of the most common causes of hospitalizations for infections among elderly people and the most common indication for antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Both diagnostics and management of lower and upper urinary tract infections provide challenges in clinical practice due to their high prevalence and recurrence, and worldwide increase of antibiotic resistance. The clinical symptoms of UTI are often uncharacteristic or asymptomatic...
August 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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