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Eamonn Quigley

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997976/the-microbiome-what-will-the-future-hold
#1
Howard Paul Monsour, Eamonn M M Quigley
Current research on the human microbiome has opened our eyes to the intimate relationship that we have with the bacteria that populate our gastrointestinal tract and its potential relationship to health and disease. To date, clinical research on the microbiome has identified intriguing associations between an altered microbiome and disease states, but proven therapeutic applications have been very limited. The ingestion of prebiotics, probiotics, and/or synbiotics is appealing to the general public and has significant commercial value, but as yet, solid evidence for clinical efficacy in liver disease has been lacking due, in large part, to the paucity of high-quality clinical trials...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997975/primary-biliary-cirrhosis-and-the-microbiome
#2
Eamonn M M Quigley
Primary biliary cirrhosis is a rather uncommon, slowly progressive, cholestatic liver disease that predominantly affects middle-aged women. Apart from the changes in the gut microbiome that have been described in liver disease in general, little is known of the composition of the microbiome in primary biliary cirrhosis. Nevertheless, epidemiological, clinical, and some experimental evidence points to the possible role of a bacterium (or bacteria) in the initiation of the autoimmune process that leads to the development of this unique clinical phenotype...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997970/the-metabolic-role-of-the-microbiome-implications-for-nafld-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Eamonn M M Quigley, Ahmed Abu-Shanab, Eileen F Murphy, Catherine Stanton, Howard P Monsour
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has rapidly emerged as one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide and is set to achieve virtually epidemic proportions if current trends in obesity continue. A considerable volume of data from animal experiments has revealed the magnitude of the metabolic contribution of the gut microbiome and how a disordered microbial population could contribute to the development of obesity and its complications, including NAFLD. Although considerable progress has been made in developing a role for the microbiome in NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatosis (NASH), there are still many issues to be resolved, including the nature and location of the altered microbiome (i...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997968/the-microbiome-and-the-liver-the-basics
#4
David W Victor, Eamonn M M Quigley
The relationships between the microbiota and other aspects of normal human biology continue to be explored. Indeed, the volume of information relating to the interplay between the host and the microbiota has grown exponentially-especially with the advent of ever-improving techniques for rapidly sequencing and identifying bacterial populations and their functions. The gut is initially sterile at birth and colonization and dynamic changes occur during infancy and early childhood in order to establish a mature microbiome...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798439/colonic-ischemia-usual-and-unusual-presentations-and-their-management
#5
Ayah Oglat, Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of colonic ischemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Formerly regarded as a rare cause of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage, colonic ischemia is now recognized to be the most common manifestation of intestinal vascular compromise. In contrast to ischemic events in the small intestine wherein thrombotic and embolic events predominate, colonic ischemia typically results from a global reduction in blood flow to the colon and no occlusive lesion(s) are evident...
October 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676233/leptin-modifies-the-prosecretory-and-prokinetic-effects-of-the-inflammatory-cytokine-interleukin-6-on-colonic-function-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#6
Maria M Buckley, Rebecca O'Brien, Michelle Devlin, Aisling A Creed, Mark G Rae, Niall P Hyland, Eamonn M M Quigley, Declan P McKernan, Dervla O'Malley
What is the central question of this study? Does crosstalk exist between leptin and interleukin-6 in colonic enteric neurons, and is this a contributory factor in gastrointestinal dysfunction associated with irritable bowel syndrome? What is the main finding and its importance? Leptin ameliorates the prosecretory and prokinetic effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 on rat colon. Leptin also suppresses the neurostimulatory effects of irritable bowel syndrome plasma, which has elevated concentrations of interleukin-6, on enteric neurons...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623513/world-gastroenterology-organisation-global-guidelines-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-global-perspective-update-september-2015
#7
Eamonn M M Quigley, Michael Fried, Kok-Ann Gwee, Igor Khalif, A P S Hungin, Greger Lindberg, Zaigham Abbas, Luis B Fernandez, Shobna J Bhatia, Max Schmulson, Carolina Olano, Anton LeMair
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448618/progress-in-our-understanding-of-the-gut-microbiome-implications-for-the-clinician
#8
REVIEW
Sara Iqbal, Eamonn M M Quigley
The investigation of the role of the microbial communities of our gastrointestinal tract (microbiota) has accelerated dramatically in recent years thanks to rapid developments in the technologies that allow us to fully enumerate and evaluate the full complement of bacterial species and strains that normally inhabit the gut. Laboratory studies in a range of inventive animal models continue to provide insights into the role of the microbiota in health and to generate plausible hypotheses relating to its potential involvement in the pathogenesis of human disease...
September 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426409/immune-response-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-systematic-review-of-systemic-and-mucosal-inflammatory-mediators
#9
Juan J Martin-Viñas, Eamonn M M Quigley
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the available data on cytokine and immune cells in the peripheral blood and mucosal biopsy samples from patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: From a review of the literature, data on cytokines and immune cells that had been assayed in at least three independent studies were collated and trends examined. RESULTS: Levels of interleukin (IL)-10 tended to be decreased and those of IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β increased in the systemic circulation in IBS, while in the mucosa, IL-10 was decreased and IL-8, mast cells, enterochromaffin cells and CD3(+) T lymphocytes were increased...
September 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330495/diverticula-and-diverticulitis-time-for-a-reappraisal
#10
Alberto O Barroso, Eamonn M M Quigley
Colonic diverticula are very common and may be associated with symptoms or complicated by diverticulitis and its associated problems. Many of the traditional concepts relating to the pathophysiology, prevention, and management of these entities have been questioned recently based on findings from high-quality prospective studies. Although dietary fiber may protect against symptoms and complications, its impact on the formation of diverticula may be limited. It is now evident that the risk for an episode of diverticulitis in an individual with diverticula is lower than previously thought...
October 2015: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159638/irritable-bowel-syndrome
#11
Paul Enck, Qasim Aziz, Giovanni Barbara, Adam D Farmer, Shin Fukudo, Emeran A Mayer, Beate Niesler, Eamonn M M Quigley, Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović, Michael Schemann, Juliane Schwille-Kiuntke, Magnus Simren, Stephan Zipfel, Robin C Spiller
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with a high population prevalence. The disorder can be debilitating in some patients, whereas others may have mild or moderate symptoms. The most important single risk factors are female sex, younger age and preceding gastrointestinal infections. Clinical symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain or discomfort, stool irregularities and bloating, as well as other somatic, visceral and psychiatric comorbidities. Currently, the diagnosis of IBS is based on symptoms and the exclusion of other organic diseases, and therapy includes drug treatment of the predominant symptoms, nutrition and psychotherapy...
2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144620/the-intestinal-microenvironment-and-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#12
Giovanni Barbara, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Uday C Ghoshal, Eamonn M Quigley, Javier Santos, Steve Vanner, Nathalie Vergnolle, Erwin G Zoetendal
For decades, interactions between the enteric neuromuscular apparatus and the central nervous system have served as the primary focus of pathophysiological research in the functional gastrointestinal disorders. The accumulation of patient reports, as well as clinical observations, has belatedly led to an interest in the role of various luminal factors and their interactions with each other and the host in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Most prominent among these factors has been the role of food. As a consequence, while not always evidence-based, dietary interventions are enjoying a renaissance in irritable bowel syndrome management...
February 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27056037/efficacy-and-safety-of-prucalopride-in-chronic-constipation-an-integrated-analysis-of-six-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#13
Michael Camilleri, Hubert Piessevaux, Yan Yiannakou, Jan Tack, René Kerstens, Eamonn M M Quigley, MeiYun Ke, Susana Da Silva, Amy Levine
BACKGROUND: Prucalopride, a selective, high-affinity 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor agonist, stimulates gastrointestinal and colonic motility and alleviates common symptoms of chronic constipation (CC) in adults. The relative efficacy by gender has not been evaluated. AIM: To evaluate the global efficacy and safety of prucalopride 2 mg daily in men and women with CC using data from six large, randomized, controlled clinical trials. METHODS: Data were combined from six phase 3 and 4, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials...
August 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27013171/microbiota-gut-brain-signalling-in-parkinson-s-disease-implications-for-non-motor-symptoms
#14
REVIEW
Valeria D Felice, Eamonn M Quigley, Aideen M Sullivan, Gerard W O'Keeffe, Siobhain M O'Mahony
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 1-2% of the population over 65 years of age. The primary neuropathology is the loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, resulting in characteristic motor deficits, upon which the clinical diagnosis is based. However, a number of significant non-motor symptoms (NMS) are also evident that appear to have a greater impact on the quality of life of these patients. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that neurobiological processes can be modified by the bi-directional communication that occurs along the brain-gut axis...
June 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929782/overlapping-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-less-to-this-than-meets-the-eye
#15
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley
Though distinct in terms of pathology, natural history and therapeutic approach, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have some features in common. These include shared symptomatology and largely similar demographics. However, in most instances, clinical presentation, together with laboratory, imaging and endoscopic findings will readily permit the differentiation of active IBD from IBS. More problematic is the situation where a subject with IBD, in apparent remission, continues to complain of symptoms which, in aggregate, satisfy commonly employed criteria for the diagnosis of IBS...
March 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26840477/the-intestinal-microbiota-and-the-role-of-probiotics-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Joaquim Prado Moraes-Filho, Eamonn M M Quigley
Irritable bowel syndrome is a common, chronic relapsing gastrointestinal disorder that affects 7%-22% of the population worldwide. According to Rome III Criteria, the disorder is defined by the coexistence of abdominal discomfort or pain associated with an alteration in bowel habits. Its pathophysiology is not completely understood but, in addition to some important abnormalities, the disturbed intestinal microbiota has also been described supported by several strands of evidence. The treatment of irritable bowel syndrome is based upon several therapeutic approaches but few have been successful or without adverse events and more recently the gut microbiota and the use of probiotics have emerged as a factor to be considered...
December 2015: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26760399/leaky-gut-concept-or-clinical-entity
#17
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article evaluates the current status of the gut barrier in gastrointestinal disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The gut barrier is a complex, multicomponent, interactive, and bidirectional entity that includes, but is not restricted to, the epithelial cell layer. Intestinal permeability, the phenomenon most readily and commonly studied, reflects just one (albeit an important one) function of the barrier that is intimately related to and interacts with luminal contents, including the microbiota...
March 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26710987/constipation-and-the-microbiome-lumen-versus-mucosa
#18
EDITORIAL
Eamonn M M Quigley, Robin C Spiller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26707680/distinguishing-microscopic-colitis-from-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#19
EDITORIAL
Vineet S Gudsoorkar, Eamonn M M Quigley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26630260/advancing-treatment-options-for-chronic-idiopathic-constipation
#20
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley, Leila Neshatian
INTRODUCTION: Chronic constipation is a global problem affecting all ages and associated with considerable morbidity and significant financial burden for society. Though formerly defined on the basis of a single symptom, infrequent defecation; constipation is now viewed as a syndrome encompassing several complaints such as difficulty with defecation, a sense of incomplete evacuation, hard stools, abdominal discomfort and bloating. AREAS COVERED: The expanded concept of constipation has inevitably led to a significant change in outcomes in clinical trials, as well as in patient expectations from new therapeutic interventions...
2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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