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"Liver failure"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210759/-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-a%C3%A2-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge-for-intensive-care
#1
REVIEW
P Hübener, G Braun, V Fuhrmann
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is an emerging clinical syndrome in patients with underlying liver disease that is usually triggered by one or multiple insults and characterized by progressive hepatic and nonhepatic organ failure, a significant risk of infections, and high short-term mortality rates. Despite our incomplete understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, ACLF requires timely diagnostic and therapeutic measures aiming at the identification and elimination of causative factors as well as the prevention of complications to improve the prognosis of affected patients...
February 16, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210629/cellular-mechanisms-of-liver-regeneration-and-cell-based-therapies-of-liver-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Irina V Kholodenko, Konstantin N Yarygin
The emerging field of regenerative medicine offers innovative methods of cell therapy and tissue/organ engineering as a novel approach to liver disease treatment. The ultimate scientific foundation of both cell therapy of liver diseases and liver tissue and organ engineering is delivered by the in-depth studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration. The cellular mechanisms of the homeostatic and injury-induced liver regeneration are unique. Restoration of the mass of liver parenchyma is achieved by compensatory hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the differentiated parenchymal cells, hepatocytes, while expansion and differentiation of the resident stem/progenitor cells play a minor or negligible role...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209603/deoxyribonuclease-partially-ameliorates-thioacetamide-induced-hepatorenal-injury
#3
Lenka Vokálová, Lucia Lauková, Jozef Čonka, Veronika Melišková, Veronika Borbélyová, Janka Bábíčková, Ľubomíra Tóthová, Július Hodosy, Barbora Vlková, Peter Celec
Several recent studies have shown that liver injury is associated with the release of DNA from hepatocytes. This DNA stimulates innate immunity and induces sterile inflammation exacerbating the liver damage. Similar mechanisms have been described for acute renal injury. Deoxyribonuclease degrades cell-free DNA and can potentially prevent some of the induced tissue damage. In this study the effects of thioacetamide-induced hepatorenal injury on plasma DNA in rats were analysed. Plasma DNA of both nuclear and mitochondrial origin was higher in thioacetamide-treated animals...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209544/sestrin2-protects-against-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury
#4
Seung Jung Kim, Kyu Min Kim, Ji Hye Yang, Sam Seok Cho, Sang Kyu Lee, Sae Kwang Ku, Il Je Cho, Sung Hwan Ki
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose accounts for half of the cases of acute liver failure worldwide. We previously reported that that Sestrin2 (Sesn2) protects against d-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced acute fulminant liver failure. In this study, we demonstrated that Sesn2 protects APAP-induced liver injury in mice, using a recombinant adenovirus encoding Sesn2 (Ad-Sesn2). First, we found that treatment of mice with toxic levels of APAP significantly reduced Sesn2 expression. Tail-vein injection with Ad-Sesn2 inhibited APAP-induced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels and markedly reduced hepatocyte degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration...
February 13, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209134/first-clinical-experience-in-14-patients-treated-with-advos-a-study-on-feasibility-safety-and-efficacy-of-a-new-type-of-albumin-dialysis
#5
Wolfgang Huber, Benedikt Henschel, Roland Schmid, Ahmed Al-Chalabi
BACKGROUND: Liver failure (LF) is associated with prolonged hospital stay, increased cost and substantial mortality. Due to the limited number of donor organs, extracorporeal liver support is suggested as an appealing concept to "bridge to transplant" or to avoid transplant in case of recovery. ADVanced Organ Support (ADVOS) is a new type of albumin dialysis, that provides rapid regeneration of toxin-binding albumin by two purification circuits altering the binding capacities of albumin by biochemical (changing of pH) and physical (changing of temperature) modulation of the dialysate...
February 16, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209103/analysis-of-15-patients-with-abnormal-liver-function-as-the-first-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-symptom
#6
Y Gao, W Li, Q-H Meng, H-X Liu, Y-K Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To understand the clinical characteristics of patients with abnormal liver function as the first symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Here, 15 patients admitted to a hospital from January 2010 to December 2013 with initial presentation of lupus-related hepatitis or cirrhosis were included. Their SLE-DAI scores and clinical and laboratory data were collected. All cases received liver protection therapy and active SLE controlling treatment with methylprednisolone combined with rapamycin...
September 2016: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208022/protein-requirements-for-critically-ill-patients-with-renal-and-liver-failure
#7
Jayshil J Patel, Craig J McClain, Menaka Sarav, Jill Hamilton-Reeves, Ryan T Hurt
Diseases leading to critical illness induce proteolysis resulting in muscle wasting and negative nitrogen balance. Muscle wasting has been associated with poor intensive care unit (ICU)-related outcomes, including an increased risk for mortality. Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a common organ dysfunction associated with ICU-related disorders, such as sepsis, trauma, and respiratory failure. AKI and renal replacement therapy lead to amino acid loss. Decompensated liver cirrhosis (DLC) and acute liver failure (ALF) represent more severe forms of liver dysfunction leading to ICU admission...
February 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207633/acute-liver-failure-injury-related-to-drug-reaction-with-eosinophilia-and-systemic-symptoms-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors
#8
Philippe Ichai, Astrid Laurent-Bellue, Faouzi Saliba, David Moreau, Camille Besch, Claire Francoz, Laurence Valeyrie-Allanore, Sylvie Roussin Bretagne, Marc Boudon, Teresa Maria Antonini, Florent Artru, Gabriella Pittau, Olivier Roux, Daniel Azoulay, Eric Levesque, François Durand, Catherine Guettier, Didier Samuel
BACKGROUND: Drug Reaction With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) is a rare severe adverse drug induced reaction with multiorgan involvement. The outcome and prediction of those patients who develop severe acute liver injury (sALI) or acute liver failure (ALF) remain little known. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study of patients admitted with a diagnosis of DRESS-related sALI or ALF. Histological review was performed on liver core biopsies from native livers...
February 15, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207518/virological-and-serological-features-of-acute-hepatitis-b-in-adults
#9
Xiaofei Du, Yali Liu, Lina Ma, Junfeng Lu, Yi Jin, Shan Ren, Zhimin He, Xinyue Chen
Various viral kinetics among patients with acute hepatitis B (AHB) have been observed in clinical practice. This study investigated the virological, biochemical, and serological characteristics of AHB in adults.A total of 192 adult patients with AHB were recruited between December 2010 and January 2014. The quantification of biochemical and serologic markers for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was monitored from the onset.Of the 192 patients, 113 patients were followed up. One patient died due to acute liver failure, 2 developed chronic HBV infection...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207511/autoimmune-hepatitis-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-case-reports-of-a-rare-but-important-diagnosis-with-therapeutic-implications
#10
Leila Kia, Adam Beattie, Richard M Green
RATIONALE: Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV. However, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in patients with HIV has rarely been reported. Our aim was to evaluate a cohort of patients with HIV and AIH and identify clinical presentations and outcomes. PATIENT CONCERNS: Management of autoimmune hepatitis in context of human immunodeficiency virus, long-term outcomes, and safety in setting of underlying immunocompromised state...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205121/effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-on-mortality-and-liver-transplantation-rate-in-non-acetaminophen-induced-acute-liver-failure-a-multicenter-study
#11
Samar K Darweesh, Mona F Ibrahim, Mahmoud A El-Tahawy
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Previous studies and systematic reviews have not provided conclusive evidence on the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (NAI-ALF). We aimed to study the value of intravenous NAC in reducing liver transplantation and mortality in NAI-ALF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter, observational study, acute liver failure patients without clinical or historical evidence of acetaminophen overdose were enrolled...
February 15, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198914/action-of-vitamin-e-on-experimental-severe-acute-liver-failure
#12
Fabiano Moraes Miguel, Elizângela Gonçalves Schemitt, Josieli Raskopf Colares, Renata Minuzzo Hartmann, Maria Isabel Morgan-Martins, Norma Possa Marroni
BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Liver Failure (ALF) is a life-threatening clinical syndrome characterized by hepatocyte necrosis, loss of hepatic architecture, and impairment of liver functions. One of the main causes of ALF is hepatotoxicity from chemical agents, which damage hepatocytes and result in increase of reactive oxygen species. The vitamin E isoform is the one with the strongest biological antioxidant activity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antioxidant effect of vitamin E in this ALF model...
February 13, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197978/managing-cardiovascular-risk-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#13
REVIEW
James J Maciejko
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare, life-threatening, autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the LIPA gene, which encodes for lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). This enzyme is necessary for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride in lysosomes. Deficient LAL activity causes accumulation of these lipids in lysosomes and a marked decrease in the cytoplasmic free cholesterol concentration, leading to dysfunctional cholesterol homeostasis. The accumulation of neutral lipid occurs predominantly in liver, spleen, and macrophages throughout the body, and the aberrant cholesterol homeostasis causes a marked dyslipidemia...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197212/herbal-compound-jiedu-huayu-reduces-liver-injury-in-rats-via-regulation-of-il-2-tlr4-and-pcna-expression-levels
#14
Minggang Wang, Qinglan Shi, Rongzhen Zhang, Hua Qiu, Dewen Mao, Fuli Long
Aim of the Study. To investigate the preventative effects of Jiedu Huayu (JDHY) on D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver failure (ALF) and to evaluate the possible mechanisms of action. Materials and Methods. ALF was induced in Wistar rats by administrating D-GalN (900 mg/kg) and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/kg). After treatment with JDHY granules, the levels of blood alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, and prothrombin time were determined. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry staining...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196354/effect-of-age-on-liver-function-in-patients-undergoing-partial-hepatectomy
#15
T M Lodewick, P H Alizai, R M van Dam, A A J Roeth, M Schmeding, C Heidenhain, A Andert, N Gassler, C H C Dejong, U P Neumann
BACKGROUND: Postresectional liver failure is the most frequent cause of fatal outcome following liver surgery. Diminished preoperative liver function in the elderly might contribute to this. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate preoperative liver function in patients <60 or >70 years of age scheduled for liver resection. METHODS: All consecutive patients aged <60 or >70 years who are about to undergo elective liver surgery between 2011 and 2013 and underwent the methacetin breath liver function test (LiMAx) preoperatively were included...
February 15, 2017: Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196282/phosphatidylethanol-peth-detects-moderate-to-heavy-alcohol-use-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#16
Michael Francis Fleming, Matthew J Smith, Erika Oslakovic, Michael R Lucey, Jenny X Vue, Patrice Al-Saden, Josh Levitsky
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependent liver transplantation (LT) patients who resume alcohol are at risk for a number of alcohol related problems including liver injury and liver failure. Post LT patients are strongly advised to remain abstinent. However, we don't know how well this population complies due to a lack of valid methods (self-report and/or biomarkers) to identify alcohol use. Studies suggest as many as 50% resume alcohol use within 5 years. Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a new cell-membrane phospholipid biomarker to identify alcohol use in the past 28 days...
February 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195876/development-and-validation-of-a-prognostic-model-for-acute-on-chronic-hepatitis-b-liver-failure
#17
Fangyuan Gao, Le Sun, Xieqiong Ye, Yao Liu, Huimin Liu, Mingfan Geng, Xiaoshu Li, Xue Yang, Yuxin Li, Rui Wang, Jialiang Chen, Gang Wan, Yuyong Jiang, Xianbo Wang
AIM: The CANONIC study proposed the Chronic Liver Failure Consortium acute-on-chronic liver failure (CLIF-C ACLF) prognostic model at the European Association for the Study of the Liver-CLIF diagnosis. This study aimed to develop and validate a prognostic model for predicting the short-term mortality of hepatitis B virus (HBV) ACLF as defined by the Asia-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 381 HBV ACLF patients and a prospective cohort of 192 patients were included in this study...
February 13, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195343/galectin-9-diverse-roles-in-hepatic-immune-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#18
REVIEW
Lucy Golden-Mason, Hugo R Rosen
Glycan-binding proteins which include galectins are involved at all stages of immunity and inflammation, ranging from initiation through resolution. Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is highly expressed in the liver and has a wide variety of biological functions in innate and adaptive immunity that are instrumental in the maintenance of hepatic homeostasis. In the setting of viral hepatitis, increased expression of Gal-9 drives the expansion of regulatory T cells and contraction of effector T cells, thereby favoring viral persistence...
February 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195307/effect-of-obeticholic-acid-on-liver-regeneration-following-portal-vein-embolization-in-an-experimental-model
#19
P B Olthof, F Huisman, F G Schaap, K P van Lienden, R J Bennink, R F van Golen, M Heger, J Verheij, P L Jansen, S W Olde Damink, T M van Gulik
BACKGROUND: The bile salt-activated transcription factor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key mediator of proliferative bile salt signalling, which is assumed to play a role in the early phase of compensatory liver growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a potent FXR agonist (obeticholic acid, OCA) on liver growth following portal vein embolization (PVE). METHODS: Rabbits were allocated to receive daily oral gavage with OCA (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (control group) starting 7 days before PVE (n = 18 per group), and continued until 7 days after PVE...
February 13, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195083/progressive-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis-a-comprehensive-review-of-a-challenging-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Kavita Gaur, Puja Sakhuja
Cholestatic liver disease in children represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The requirement of a multidisciplinary approach, high levels of professional expertise, and the costs of genetic testing are a few of the reasons why such patients may suffer for want of an accurate diagnosis. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a hereditary cholestatic liver disease, afflicted children often progressing to liver failure. Despite its potential to cause significant morbidity, it has seldom been studied in India...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
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