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Kaori Sadakane, Takamichi Ichinose, Masataka Nishikawa, Hirohisa Takano, Takayuki Shibamoto
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have implicated Asian sand dust (ASD) in the increased prevalence of respiratory disorders, including asthma. It has been observed that fungal elements such as β-glucan can be adsorbed onto ASD. In the present study, the exacerbating effect of the combined exposure to zymosan A (ZymA) containing yeast β-glucan and heat-inactivated ASD on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine lung eosinophilia was investigated. METHODS: BALB/c mice were repeatedly instilled intratracheally with one of eight immunogenic formulations consisting of various combinations of (1) ZymA, (2) ASD that was briefly heated to remove organic substances (H-ASD), and (3) OVA in normal saline, or each of the above alone...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Ni Lin, Tiantian Liu, Lin Lin, Sheng Lin, Qingce Zang, Jiuming He, Zeper Abliz, Chao Li, Aiping Wang, Hongtao Jin
The standard of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) existed in dextrose injection as an inevitable by-product during high-temperature setrilization has been included in pharmacopoeias considering its hazardous effects on human health. We found that the concentrations of 5-HMF in some traditional Chinese medicine injections (TCMIs) far exceeded its limit in dextrose injection. Besides, we detected 5, 5'-Oxydimethylenebis (2-furfural) (OMBF) in those TCMIs containing high concentrations of 5-HMF. We investigated the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of 5-HMF and OMBF at three dose levels using the reporter antigen popliteal lymph node assay (RA-PLNA), which allows the straightforward examination and mechanistic study of immunotoxicity of low molecular weight compounds...
October 17, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Çiğdem Yılmaz, Aycan Apak, Erkan Özcengiz, Gülay Özcengiz
Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis. Although availability of effective pertussis vaccines seems to decrease the incidence of the disease, B. pertussis circulation in population has not been eliminated. Thus, finding new protein candidates with high immune protective capacities is necessary to enhance the efficacy of current acellular pertussis (Pa) vaccines. In this study, iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) gene (sodB) was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and recombinant FeSOD protein was purified...
October 20, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Juan M Vásquez-Jiménez, Mary Lopez-Perez, Andrés F Vallejo, Andrés B Amado-Garavito, Nora Céspedes, Angélica Castellanos, Karen Molina, Johanna Trejos, José Oñate, Judith E Epstein, Thomas L Richie, Sócrates Herrera
BACKGROUND: Immunizing human volunteers by mosquito bite with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (RAS) results in high-level protection against infection. Only two volunteers have been similarly immunized with P. vivax (Pv) RAS, and both were protected. A phase 2 controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety and protective efficacy of PvRAS immunization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A randomized, single-blinded trial was conducted...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Paulina J Paszkiewicz, Simon P Fräßle, Shivani Srivastava, Daniel Sommermeyer, Michael Hudecek, Ingo Drexler, Michel Sadelain, Lingfeng Liu, Michael C Jensen, Stanley R Riddell, Dirk H Busch
The adoptive transfer of T cells that have been genetically modified to express a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is effective for treating human B cell malignancies. However, the persistence of functional CD19 CAR T cells causes sustained depletion of endogenous CD19+ B cells and hypogammaglobulinemia. Thus, there is a need for a mechanism to ablate transferred T cells after tumor eradication is complete to allow recovery of normal B cells. Previously, we developed a truncated version of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt) that is coexpressed with the CAR on the T cell surface...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Imran Rashid, Nathalie Moiré, Bruno Héraut, Isabelle Dimier-Poisson, Marie-Noëlle Mévélec
Infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes serious public health problems and is of great economic importance worldwide. No vaccine is currently available, so the design of efficient vaccine strategies is still a topical question. In this study, we evaluated the immunoprophylactic potential of a T. gondii virulence factor, the rhoptry kinase ROP18, in a mouse model of chronic toxoplasmosis: first using a recombinant protein produced in Schneider insect cells adjuvanted with poly I:C emulsified in Montanide SV71 by a parenteral route or adjuvanted with cholera toxin by the nasal route and second using a DNA plasmid encoding ROP18 adjuvanted with GM-CSF ± IL-12 DNA...
October 18, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Rahul Motiram Kakalij, B Dinesh Kumar, Prakash Vamanrao Diwan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the nephroprotective potential of resveratrol and piperine at same dose on cationic bovine serum albumin (cBSA) induced immune complex glomerulonephritis (ICGN) in BALB/c mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female BALB/c mice were divided into five groups. Group I served as normal control (complete Freund's adjuvant + Saline). Two weeks later, Groups II, III, IV, and V were administered cBSA (13 mg/kg) via the caudal vein 3 times/week every alternative day for 6 weeks to induce ICGN...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Patricia Rubio Reyes, Natalie A Parlane, D Neil Wedlock, Bernd H A Rehm
Traditional approaches to vaccine development have failed to identify better vaccines to replace or supplement BCG for the control of tuberculosis (TB). Subunit vaccines offer a safer and more reproducible alternative for the prevention of diseases. In this study, the immunogenicity of bacterially derived polyester beads displaying three different Rv antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated. Polyester beads displaying the antigens Rv1626, Rv2032, Rv1789, respectively, were produced in an endotoxin-free Escherichia coli strain...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Jasmyn S Abrams, Savannah E Howe, Nathalie Becerra, Punit Kohli, Vjollca Konjufca
In this work we report a protocol for synthesizing nano-size ovalbumin-functionalized polydiacetylene (PDA) liposomes (LP-Ova). We show that LP-Ova administered per-orally (p.o.) and subcutaneously (s.c.), without the use of adjuvants, induces high serum IgG1 titers. As reported previously using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs), p.o.-primed mice developed high titers of IgG2c and intestinal IgA following s.c. boosting immunization with LP-Ova. In contrast, mice that received a single s.c. immunization with LP-Ova did not develop serum IgG2c or intestinal IgA antibodies...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Christian Spoerry, Pontus Hessle, Melanie J Lewis, Lois Paton, Jenny M Woof, Ulrich von Pawel-Rammingen
Recently we have discovered an IgG degrading enzyme of the endemic pig pathogen S. suis designated IgdE that is highly specific for porcine IgG. This protease is the founding member of a novel cysteine protease family assigned C113 in the MEROPS peptidase database. Bioinformatical analyses revealed putative members of the IgdE protease family in eight other Streptococcus species. The genes of the putative IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. porcinus, S. pseudoporcinus and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus were cloned for production of recombinant protein into expression vectors...
2016: PloS One
Leonardo A Gómez, Francisco I Alvarez, Pablo A Fernández, Manuel R Flores, Raúl E Molina, Roberto F Coloma, Angel A Oñate
Immunogenicity induced by recombinant plasmids based on the BAB1_0267 and BAB1_0270 open reading frames (ORFs) of Brucella abortus 2308 was evaluated. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that the BAB1_0267 and BAB1_0270 ORFs encode a protein with a SH3 domain and a Zn-dependent metalloproteinase, respectively. Both ORFs have important effects on intracellular survival and replication of B. abortus 2308, mediated via professional and non-professional phagocytic cells. Our results show that immunization with the recombinant plasmid based on the BAB1_0267 ORF significantly increases the production of IgG1, levels of IFN-γ and the lymphoproliferative response of splenocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Freek Cox, Ted Kwaks, Boerries Brandenburg, Martin H Koldijk, Vincent Klaren, Bastiaan Smal, Hans J W M Korse, Eric Geelen, Lisanne Tettero, David Zuijdgeest, Esther J M Stoop, Eirikur Saeland, Ronald Vogels, Robert H E Friesen, Wouter Koudstaal, Jaap Goudsmit
Interactions with receptors for the Fc region of IgG (FcγRs) have been shown to contribute to the in vivo protection against influenza A viruses provided by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that bind to the viral hemagglutinin (HA) stem. In particular, Fc-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to contribute to protection by stem-binding bnAbs. Fc-mediated effector functions appear not to contribute to protection provided by strain-specific HA head-binding antibodies...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Xuanyi Meng, Xin Li, Jinyan Gao, Hongbing Chen
Bovine α-lactalbumin (ALA) is a known food allergen present in milk to induce anaphylaxis. A previous study demonstrated that irradiated ALA (iALA) decreased the IgE-binding properties and weakened the degranulation capacity of basophils in vitro. The present study aimed to further assess the potential allergenicity of iALA in vivo in a BALB/c mouse model. The mice (n = 10/group) were intragastrically sensitized and orally challenged with either iALA or ALA using cholera toxin as adjuvant. In contrast to the ALA group, the iALA group did not show anaphylactic shock symptoms...
October 13, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Luise Appeltshauser, Andreas Weishaupt, Claudia Sommer, Kathrin Doppler
Inflammatory neuropathies associated with auto-antibodies against paranodal proteins like contactin-1 are reported to respond poorly to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). A reason might be that IVIG interacts with the complement pathway and these auto-antibodies often belong to the IgG4 subclass that does not activate complement. However, some patients do show a response to IVIG, especially at the beginning of the disease. This corresponds with the finding of coexisting IgG subclasses IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3...
October 13, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Xu'ai Lin, Guohui Xiao, Dongjiao Luo, Liangliang Kong, Xu Chen, Dexter Sun, Jie Yan
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important reemerging zoonosis, with more than half a million cases reported annually, and is caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. Development of a universal vaccine is one of the major strategic goals to overcome the disease burden of leptospirosis. In this study, a chimeric multi-epitope protein-based vaccine was designed and tested for its potency to induce a specific immune response and provide protection against L. interrogans infection. RESULTS: The protein, containing four repeats of six T- and B-cell combined epitopes from the leptospiral outer membrane proteins, OmpL1, LipL32 and LipL21, was expressed and purified...
October 14, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Diane G Edmondson, Sabitha Prabhakaran, Steven J Norris, Amy J Ullmann, Joe Piesman, Marc Dolan, Christian Probst, Christiane Radzimski, Winfried Stöcker, Lars Komorowski
Lyme borreliosis is caused by tick-transmitted spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a 23 kDa outer surface lipoprotein expressed during spirochete transmission from the tick to the vertebrate host. In a previous study, we found that immunization with a recombinant disulfide-bridged dimeric form of OspC (D-OspC) stimulates increased antibody responses relative to immunization with commonly employed monomeric OspC...
October 12, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
M Moore, S Gill, T Asmis, S Berry, R Burkes, K Zbuk, T Alcindor, A Jeyakumar, T Chan, S Rao, J Spratlin, P A Tang, J Rothenstein, E Chan, J Bendell, F Kudrik, J Kauh, S Tang, L Gao, S R P Kambhampati, F Nasroulah, L Yang, N Ramdas, P Binder, E Strevel
BACKGROUND: Icrucumab and ramucirumab are recombinant human IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that bind VEGF receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR-1 and -2), respectively. This randomized phase II study evaluated the antitumor activity and safety of icrucumab and ramucirumab each in combination with mFOLFOX-6 in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer after disease progression on first-line therapy with a fluoropyrimidine and irinotecan. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive mFOLFOX-6 alone (mFOLFOX-6) or in combination with ramucirumab 8 mg/kg IV (RAM+mFOLFOX-6) or icrucumab 15 mg/kg IV (ICR+mFOLFOX-6) every 2 weeks...
October 11, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Morten N Andersen, Sinan N H Al-Karradi, Tue W Kragstrup, Marianne Hokland
Nonspecific binding of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to Fc-receptors on leukocytes is an important cause of background fluorescence in flow cytometry, and failing to block such nonspecific binding can lead to erroneous results. A major part of previous studies on blocking reagents for flow cytometry have been done in mice, and published results are not completely in agreement. In humans, Fc-receptors are found on most leukocytes, with highest abundance on monocytes/macrophages. Therefore, in the present study our aim was to thoroughly investigate the efficiency of different commonly used blocking reagents regarding inhibition of nonspecific binding of mouse mAbs to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs)...
October 12, 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Ting Zhang, Hongyang Liu, Xue Chen, Zhirong Wang, Shuo Wang, Chunfeng Qu, Jingzhi Zhang, Xuemei Xu
Numerous types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been identified, and the global burden of diseases associated with HPV infection is remarkable, especially in developing regions. Thus a low-cost broad-spectrum prophylactic vaccine is urgently needed. The N-terminal amino acid 17-36 of HPV 16 L2 protein is confirmed to be a major cross-neutralizing epitope (RG-1 epitope). Monomeric proteins containing RG-1 epitopes and scaffold proteins, such as bacterial thioredoxin or modified IgG1 Fc fragment and L2 epitope fusion protein, induced cross-neutralizing antibodies, arousing the possibility of the development of low-cost monomeric vaccine in bacterial expression system...
October 8, 2016: Vaccine
Mamoru Tanaka, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Yoshinobu Yoshimoto, Hana Kozai, Takeaki Okamoto
We examined the inhibitory effects of HAQ (His-Ala-Gln) peptide on type-1 allergy in vitro and in vivo. HAQ peptide inhibited β-hexosaminidase release and intracellular Ca(2+) levels of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. Oral administration of a HAQ peptide-added diet (1 mg/mouse/administration) to C3H/HeJ mice for 14 days led to significant suppression of allergic symptoms, but did not reduce allergen-specific IgE or IgG1.
October 12, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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