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Herpes simplex keratitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902849/oral-antivirals-for-preventing-recurrent-herpes-simplex-keratitis-in-people-with-corneal-grafts
#1
REVIEW
Uday K Bhatt, M N Abdul Karim, Jeremy I Prydal, Senthil V Maharajan, Usama Fares
BACKGROUND: Ocular herpes is a viral infection of the eye caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), a double-stranded DNA virus. Corneal scarring caused by herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is the leading infectious cause of penetrating corneal graft in high-income countries. Acyclovir is an antiviral drug known to have a protective effect against recurrences in herpetic eye disease. While there are some studies which have evaluated the effects of intervention with oral antiviral in preventing such recurrences in people with corneal grafts, a systematic review of all comparative clinical trials has not been previously undertaken...
November 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867111/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-punica-granatum-l-pomegranate-rind-extracts-applied-topically-to-ex-vivo-skin
#2
David M J Houston, Joachim Bugert, Stephen P Denyer, Charles M Heard
Coadministered pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and zinc (II) produces a potent virucidal activity against Herpes simplex virus (HSV); however, HSV infections are also associated with localised inflammation and pain. Here, the objective was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity and relative depth penetration of PRE, total pomegranate tannins (TPT) and zinc (II) in skin, ex vivo. PRE, TPT and ZnSO4 were dosed onto freshly excised ex vivo porcine skin mounted in Franz diffusion cells and analysed for COX-2, as a marker for modulation of the arachidonic acid inflammation pathway, by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863844/persistent-impairment-of-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-herpes-simplex-keratitis
#3
Clotilde Reynaud, Antoine Rousseau, Godefroy Kaswin, Mohamed M'garrech, Emmanuel Barreau, Marc Labetoulle
PURPOSE: To evaluate the quality of life (QoL) in patients with quiescent herpes simplex keratitis compared with control patients without ocular herpes. DESIGN: Prospective, case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three patients with a unilateral and relapsing herpes simplex keratitis (HSK group) that was quiescent during evaluation (no acute episode in the past 3 months) and 66 patients with no history of HSK (control group). Both groups were age and gender matched...
November 15, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849421/management-of-neonatal-herpes-simplex-infection-a-rare-case-of-blepharoconjunctivitis-and-concurrent-epithelial-and-stromal-keratitis
#4
Rita J C Matos, Joana M S Pires, Dionísio Cortesão
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832414/herpetiform-keratitis-and-palmoplantar-hyperkeratosis-warning-signs-for-richner-hanhart-syndrome
#5
Diogo C Soares, Mariana N Stroparo, Yu C Lian, Cristina Y Takakura, Sabrina Wolf, Regina Betz, Chong A Kim
Richner-Hanhart syndrome (RHS, tyrosinemia type II) is a rare, autosomal recessive inborn error of tyrosine metabolism caused by tyrosine aminotransferase deficiency. It is characterized by photophobia due to keratitis, painful palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, variable mental retardation, and elevated serum tyrosine levels. Patients are often misdiagnosed with herpes simplex keratitis. We report on a a boy from Brazil who presented with bilateral keratitis secondary to RHS, which had earlier been misdiagnosed as herpes simplex keratitis...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830086/active-pedicle-epithelial-flap-transposition-combined-with-amniotic-membrane-transplantation-for-treatment-of-nonhealing-corneal-ulcers
#6
Ting Zhang, Yuexin Wang, Yanni Jia, Dongle Liu, Suxia Li, Weiyun Shi, Hua Gao
Introduction. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of active pedicle epithelial flap transposition combined with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in treating nonhealing corneal ulcers. Material and Methods. Eleven patients (11 eyes) with nonhealing corneal ulcer who underwent the combined surgery were included. Postoperatively, ulcer healing time was detected by corneal fluorescein staining. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, surgical complications, and recurrence were recorded. Corneal status was inspected by the laser scanning confocal microscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT)...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746299/long-term-outcomes-of-pediatric-penetrating-keratoplasty-for-herpes-simplex-virus-keratitis
#7
Juan Carlos Serna-Ojeda, Denise Loya-Garcia, Alejandro Navas, Alejandro Lichtinger, Arturo Ramirez-Miranda, Enrique O Graue-Hernandez
PURPOSE: To analyze the characteristics and long-term outcomes of patients that underwent pediatric penetrating keratoplasty (PPK) for herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis. DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional, consecutive case series. METHODS: Observational report of outcomes and findings for 9 patients with history of HSV keratitis that underwent PPK and were followed in a single institution. Difference between the median preoperative and final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed and the outcomes are reported...
January 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688274/clinical-spectrum-diagnostic-criteria-and-polymerase-chain-reaction-of-aqueous-humor-in-viral-and-toxoplasma-detection-in-fuchs-uveitis-syndrome
#8
Swapnali Sabhapandit, Somasheila I Murthy, Praveen K Balne, Virender Singh Sangwan, V Sumanth, Ashok K Reddy
AIM: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and diagnostic criteria of Fuchs' uveitis (FU) and to determine whether it has an association with virus and toxoplasma in the aqueous humor during cataract surgery. SETTING AND DESIGN: This is a prospective, case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with FU (n = 25), anterior uveitis (n = 15), and no uveitis (normal) (n = 50) were included based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria for all three groups...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684823/clinical-evaluation-of-deep-anterior-lamellar-keratoplasty-using-glycerol-cryopreserved-corneal-tissues-for-refractory-herpetic-stromal-keratitis-an-observational-study
#9
Xin Liu, Qi Zhou, Xinyu Huang, Zhenxing Liu, Yanlong Bi
The study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) using glycerol-cryopreserved corneal tissues (GCCTs) in patients with refractive herpes simplex keratitis (HSK). This article was a retrospective, noncomparative, and interventional case series. Patients with HSK underwent DALK using GCCTs at Shanghai Tongji Hospital from 2012 to 2015. The best spectacle corrected visual acuity, recurrent inflammation, graft status, postoperative central graft thickness, and pre/postoperative complications were detected...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681121/immune-and-nonimmune-compartment-specific-interferon-responses-are-critical-determinants-of-herpes-simplex-virus-induced-generalized-infections-and-acute-liver-failure
#10
Zachary M Parker, Tracy Jo Pasieka, George A Parker, David A Leib
: The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure, which is often fatal. Although herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668636/descemet-s-membrane-detachment-with-schisis-induced-by-phacoemulsification
#11
Wenjia Xie, Yesheng Xu, Yu-Feng Yao
PURPOSE: To describe a case of Descemet's membrane detachment and schisis (Descemet's membrane separated into multiple layers) with confirmation by high-definition anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old woman presented with persistent corneal edema after phacoemulsification. She was diagnosed with herpes simplex keratitis and had been unsuccessfully treated for 60 days in her local hospital...
December 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598973/treatment-of-refractory-acute-retinal-necrosis-with-intravenous-foscarnet-or-cidofovir
#12
Tomasz P Stryjewski, Nathan L Scott, Miriam B Barshak, Ellis H Tobin, Joshua J Mali, Lucy H Young, C Stephen Foster, Ivana K Kim, Marlene L Durand
PURPOSE: To report use of intravenous foscarnet or cidofovir for the treatment of refractory acute retinal necrosis (ARN). METHODS: Retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Four immunocompetent men aged 45-90 years presented with ARN from 2008-2014. One patient with two prior episodes of herpes simplex virus (HSV) ARN developed ARN after 6 years of antiviral prophylaxis. His condition worsened on acyclovir followed by intravenous foscarnet but responded to intravenous cidofovir (final VA in involved eye 20/20)...
September 6, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537375/volatile-organic-compound-gamma-butyrolactone-released-upon-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-acute-infection-modulated-membrane-potential-and-repressed-viral-infection-in-human-neuron-like-cells
#13
Kevin Rochford, Feng Chen, Yan Waguespack, Robert W Figliozzi, Madan K Kharel, Qiaojuan Zhang, Miguel Martin-Caraballo, S Victor Hsia
Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 (HSV-1) infections can cause serious complications such as keratitis and encephalitis. The goal of this study was to identify any changes in the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells that could potentially be used as an indicator of a response to stress. An additional objective was to study if any VOCs released from acute epithelial infection may influence subsequent neuronal infection to facilitate latency. To investigate these hypotheses, Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 and the emission of VOCs was analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (2D GC/MS)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508424/quiescent-herpes-simplex-keratitis-reactivation-after-intravitreal-injection-of-dexamethasone-implant
#14
Denis Jusufbegovic, Shlomit Schaal
PURPOSE: To report reactivation of herpes simplex virus keratitis after the injection of dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) and to raise the awareness of this potentially vision threatening side effect. METHODS: A 90-year-old man presented with ocular pain and tearing in the left eye 3 weeks after receiving a dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) for the treatment of macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion. The patient had a history of herpes simplex virus keratitis that was quiescent for more than 30 years...
August 9, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497323/il-6-contributes-to-corneal-nerve-degeneration-after-herpes-simplex-virus-type-i-infection
#15
Ana J Chucair-Elliott, Jeremy Jinkins, Meghan M Carr, Daniel J J Carr
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a leading cause of neurotrophic keratitis characterized by decreased corneal sensation because of damage to the corneal sensory fibers. We and others have reported regression of corneal nerves during acute HSV-1 infection. To determine whether denervation is caused directly by the virus or indirectly by the elicited immune response, mice were infected with HSV-1 and topically treated with dexamethasone (DEX) or control eye drops. Corneal sensitivity was measured using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer and nerve network structure via immunohistochemistry...
October 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468096/-keratitis-infectious-or-autoimmune
#16
E M Messmer
Histopathological evaluation of ocular tissues is important in differentiating between infectious and autoimmune disease. Inflammation, necrosis and keratolysis are common to most forms of keratitis. Histopathology can be of great help in identifying the causative organism, establishing a final diagnosis and/or managing the patient with herpes simplex virus keratitis, mycotic keratitis, acanthamoeba keratitis or microsporidia keratoconjunctivitis. Important pathogenetic knowledge with therapeutic relevance has been gained from histopathological studies in nummular keratitis after epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis...
July 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467044/microsporidial-stromal-keratitis-clinical-features-unique-diagnostic-criteria-and-treatment-outcomes-in-a-large-case-series
#17
Swapnali Sabhapandit, Somasheila I Murthy, Prashant Garg, Veeresh Korwar, Geeta K Vemuganti, Savitri Sharma
PURPOSE: To describe the history, clinical features, and outcomes of a large case series of microsporidial stromal keratitis with emphasis on probable predictors of the etiology in this rare and unspecified form of keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cases seen between January, 2002, and December, 2013, diagnosed at LV Prasad Eye Institute as having microsporidial stromal keratitis based on clinical, microbiology, and histopathology examination. Outcomes of medical and surgical management with visual recovery were documented...
July 27, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362879/corneal-higher-order-aberrations-in-herpes-simplex-keratitis
#18
Emi Kashizuka, Takefumi Yamaguchi, Yukari Yaguchi, Yoshiyuki Satake, Jun Shimazaki
PURPOSE: To evaluate corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in eyes with corneal scars due to herpes simplex keratitis (HSK). METHODS: Forty-four eyes of 41 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with corneal scars due to HSK and 18 control eyes were included. HOAs of the anterior and posterior surfaces and the total cornea were analyzed using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Corneal opacity grades were assigned on the basis of slit-lamp examinations...
June 29, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362483/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-of-herpesviruses-limits-productive-and-latent-infections
#19
Ferdy R van Diemen, Elisabeth M Kruse, Marjolein J G Hooykaas, Carlijn E Bruggeling, Anita C Schürch, Petra M van Ham, Saskia M Imhof, Monique Nijhuis, Emmanuel J H J Wiertz, Robert Jan Lebbink
Herpesviruses infect the majority of the human population and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 causes cold sores and herpes simplex keratitis, whereas HSV-2 is responsible for genital herpes. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common viral cause of congenital defects and is responsible for serious disease in immuno-compromised individuals. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a broad range of malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin's disease, and post-transplant lymphomas...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306564/antiviral-resistance-in-herpes-simplex-virus-and-varicella-zoster-virus-infections-diagnosis-and-management
#20
Jocelyne Piret, Guy Boivin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aciclovir (ACV) is the first-line drug for the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. Long-term administration of ACV for the treatment of severe infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to the development of drug resistance. Furthermore, the emergence of isolates resistant to ACV is increasingly recognized in immunocompetent individuals with herpetic keratitis. This review describes the mechanisms involved in drug resistance for HSV and VZV, the laboratory diagnosis and management of patients with infections refractory to ACV therapy...
June 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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