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Herpes simplex keratitis

Juan Carlos Serna-Ojeda, Denise Loya-Garcia, Alejandro Navas, Alejandro Lichtinger, Arturo Ramirez-Miranda, Enrique O Graue-Hernandez
PURPOSE: To analyze the characteristics and long-term outcomes of patients that underwent pediatric penetrating keratoplasty (PPK) for herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis. DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional, consecutive case series. METHODS: Observational report of outcomes and findings. Nine patients with history of HSV keratitis that underwent PPK and were followed in a single institution. Difference between the median preoperative and final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed and the outcomes are reported...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Swapnali Sabhapandit, Somasheila I Murthy, Praveen K Balne, Virender Singh Sangwan, V Sumanth, Ashok K Reddy
AIM: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and diagnostic criteria of Fuchs' uveitis (FU) and to determine whether it has an association with virus and toxoplasma in the aqueous humor during cataract surgery. SETTING AND DESIGN: This is a prospective, case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with FU (n = 25), anterior uveitis (n = 15), and no uveitis (normal) (n = 50) were included based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria for all three groups...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Xin Liu, Qi Zhou, Xinyu Huang, Zhenxing Liu, Yanlong Bi
The study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) using glycerol-cryopreserved corneal tissues (GCCTs) in patients with refractive herpes simplex keratitis (HSK). This article was a retrospective, noncomparative, and interventional case series. Patients with HSK underwent DALK using GCCTs at Shanghai Tongji Hospital from 2012 to 2015. The best spectacle corrected visual acuity, recurrent inflammation, graft status, postoperative central graft thickness, and pre/postoperative complications were detected...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Zachary M Parker, Tracy Jo Pasieka, George A Parker, David A Leib
: The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex type-1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure which is often fatal. While herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFNαβγR(-/-) mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Wenjia Xie, Yesheng Xu, Yu-Feng Yao
PURPOSE: To describe a case of Descemet's membrane detachment and schisis (Descemet's membrane separated into multiple layers) with confirmation by high-definition anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old woman presented with persistent corneal edema after phacoemulsification. She was diagnosed with herpes simplex keratitis and had been unsuccessfully treated for 60 days in her local hospital...
September 23, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Tomasz P Stryjewski, Nathan L Scott, Miriam B Barshak, Ellis H Tobin, Joshua J Mali, Lucy H Young, C Stephen Foster, Ivana K Kim, Marlene L Durand
PURPOSE: To report use of intravenous foscarnet or cidofovir for the treatment of refractory acute retinal necrosis (ARN). METHODS: Retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Four immunocompetent men aged 45-90 years presented with ARN from 2008-2014. One patient with two prior episodes of herpes simplex virus (HSV) ARN developed ARN after 6 years of antiviral prophylaxis. His condition worsened on acyclovir followed by intravenous foscarnet but responded to intravenous cidofovir (final VA in involved eye 20/20)...
September 6, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Kevin Rochford, Feng Chen, Yan Waguespack, Robert W Figliozzi, Madan K Kharel, Qiaojuan Zhang, Miguel Martin-Caraballo, S Victor Hsia
Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 (HSV-1) infections can cause serious complications such as keratitis and encephalitis. The goal of this study was to identify any changes in the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells that could potentially be used as an indicator of a response to stress. An additional objective was to study if any VOCs released from acute epithelial infection may influence subsequent neuronal infection to facilitate latency. To investigate these hypotheses, Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 and the emission of VOCs was analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (2D GC/MS)...
2016: PloS One
Denis Jusufbegovic, Shlomit Schaal
PURPOSE: To report reactivation of herpes simplex virus keratitis after the injection of dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) and to raise the awareness of this potentially vision threatening side effect. METHODS: A 90-year-old man presented with ocular pain and tearing in the left eye 3 weeks after receiving a dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) for the treatment of macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion. The patient had a history of herpes simplex virus keratitis that was quiescent for more than 30 years...
August 9, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Ana J Chucair-Elliott, Jeremy Jinkins, Meghan M Carr, Daniel J J Carr
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a leading cause of neurotrophic keratitis characterized by decreased corneal sensation because of damage to the corneal sensory fibers. We and others have reported regression of corneal nerves during acute HSV-1 infection. To determine whether denervation is caused directly by the virus or indirectly by the elicited immune response, mice were infected with HSV-1 and topically treated with dexamethasone (DEX) or control eye drops. Corneal sensitivity was measured using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer and nerve network structure via immunohistochemistry...
October 2016: American Journal of Pathology
E M Messmer
Histopathological evaluation of ocular tissues is important in differentiating between infectious and autoimmune disease. Inflammation, necrosis and keratolysis are common to most forms of keratitis. Histopathology can be of great help in identifying the causative organism, establishing a final diagnosis and/or managing the patient with herpes simplex virus keratitis, mycotic keratitis, acanthamoeba keratitis or microsporidia keratoconjunctivitis. Important pathogenetic knowledge with therapeutic relevance has been gained from histopathological studies in nummular keratitis after epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis...
July 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Swapnali Sabhapandit, Somasheila I Murthy, Prashant Garg, Veeresh Korwar, Geeta K Vemuganti, Savitri Sharma
PURPOSE: To describe the history, clinical features, and outcomes of a large case series of microsporidial stromal keratitis with emphasis on probable predictors of the etiology in this rare and unspecified form of keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cases seen between January, 2002, and December, 2013, diagnosed at LV Prasad Eye Institute as having microsporidial stromal keratitis based on clinical, microbiology, and histopathology examination. Outcomes of medical and surgical management with visual recovery were documented...
July 27, 2016: Cornea
Emi Kashizuka, Takefumi Yamaguchi, Yukari Yaguchi, Yoshiyuki Satake, Jun Shimazaki
PURPOSE: To evaluate corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in eyes with corneal scars due to herpes simplex keratitis (HSK). METHODS: Forty-four eyes of 41 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with corneal scars due to HSK and 18 control eyes were included. HOAs of the anterior and posterior surfaces and the total cornea were analyzed using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Corneal opacity grades were assigned on the basis of slit-lamp examinations...
June 29, 2016: Cornea
Ferdy R van Diemen, Elisabeth M Kruse, Marjolein J G Hooykaas, Carlijn E Bruggeling, Anita C Schürch, Petra M van Ham, Saskia M Imhof, Monique Nijhuis, Emmanuel J H J Wiertz, Robert Jan Lebbink
Herpesviruses infect the majority of the human population and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 causes cold sores and herpes simplex keratitis, whereas HSV-2 is responsible for genital herpes. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common viral cause of congenital defects and is responsible for serious disease in immuno-compromised individuals. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a broad range of malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin's disease, and post-transplant lymphomas...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Jocelyne Piret, Guy Boivin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aciclovir (ACV) is the first-line drug for the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. Long-term administration of ACV for the treatment of severe infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to the development of drug resistance. Furthermore, the emergence of isolates resistant to ACV is increasingly recognized in immunocompetent individuals with herpetic keratitis. This review describes the mechanisms involved in drug resistance for HSV and VZV, the laboratory diagnosis and management of patients with infections refractory to ACV therapy...
June 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Jun-Xin Ma, Lin-Nong Wang, Ru-Xia Zhou, Yang Yu, Tong-Xin Du
AIM: To design, optimize and validate a rapid, internally controlled real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the diagnosis of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis. METHODS: Tears alone or together with corneal epithelium scrapings from 30 patients (30 eyes) suspected of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis were tested for HSV DNA by RT-PCR. The samples were collected during the first visit and then on the subsequent 7, 14, 28, 42, and 56d...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Michael Tsatsos, Cheryl MacGregor, Ioannis Athanasiadis, Marilita M Moschos, Parwez Hossain, David Anderson
Ophthalmic herpes simplex viral keratitis (HSVK) is responsible for a range of ocular manifestations from superficial epithelial disease to stromal keratitis and endotheliitis. The Herpetic Eye Disease Study (HEDS) has guided the management of herpetic eye disease for almost twenty years, but newer medications such as valacyclovir are now available and are considered to have better bioavailability than acyclovir. In this review, we examine the existing evidence on the pathogenesis of different HSVK disease modalities and the role of oral and topically administered antiviral drugs in the treatment of herpes simplex viral keratitis...
June 8, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Syed Muniruzzaman, Megan McIntosh, Ahamed Hossain, Ken Izumori, Partha S Bhattacharjee
PURPOSE: To determine the therapeutic efficacy of a novel rare sugar, l-psicose, for the treatment of HSV-1 induced herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) in a mouse eye model. METHODS: One rare sugar l-psicose was assayed for HSV-1 inhibition of in vitro virus adsorption. The IC50 and IC90 values of l-psicose were determined using plaque reduction assay (PRA) in CV-1 cell. Female Balb/c mice were corneally infected with HSV-1, strain KOS-GFP; A topical eye drop treatment of l-psicose was started 24 h after infection and continued four times daily for ten consecutive days...
June 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
E Schaftenaar, R P H Peters, G S Baarsma, C Meenken, N S Khosa, S Getu, J A McIntyre, A D M E Osterhaus, G M G M Verjans
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the clinical and corneal microbial profile of infectious keratitis in a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence setting in rural South Africa. Data in this cross-sectional study were collected from patients presenting with symptoms of infectious keratitis (n = 46) at the ophthalmology outpatient department of three hospitals in rural South Africa. Corneal swabs were tested for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV) and adenovirus DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for bacteria and fungi by culture...
September 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Surabhi Dutt, Manisha Acharya, Abha Gour, Neelam Sapra, Lokesh Chauhan, Umang Mathur
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of systemic and topical antiviral therapy in the treatment of active herpes simplex virus (HSV) necrotizing stromal keratitis (NSK). DESIGN: Prospective interventional case series. METHODOLOGY: Patients with a diagnosis of HSV NSK based on history and clinical findings were enrolled in the study. A standard protocol was used for microbiologic investigations. Ten weeks regime of systemic acyclovir and 2 weeks of topical acyclovir was given...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Henrik Paavilainen, Jenni Lehtinen, Alesia Romanovskaya, Michaela Nygårdas, Dennis H Bamford, Minna M Poranen, Veijo Hukkanen
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common human pathogen causing severe diseases such as encephalitis, keratitis, and neonatal herpes. There is no vaccine against HSV and the current antiviral chemotherapy fails to treat certain forms of the disease. Here we evaluated the antiviral activity of enzymatically-created small interfering (si)RNA pools against various pathogenic HSV strains as potential candidates for antiviral therapies. Pools of siRNA targeting 0.5-0.8 kbp of essential HSV genes UL54, UL29 or UL27 were enzymatically synthesized...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
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