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Herpes simplex keratitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133630/non-contact-lens-related-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#1
REVIEW
Prashant Garg, Paavan Kalra, Joveeta Joseph
The purpose of the study is to describe epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) with special focus on the disease in nonusers of contact lenses (CLs). This study was a perspective based on authors' experience and review of published literature. AK accounts for 2% of microbiology-proven cases of keratitis. Trauma and exposure to contaminated water are the main predisposing factors for the disease. Association with CLs is seen only in small fraction of cases. Contrary to classical description experience in India suggests that out of proportion pain, ring infiltrate, and radial keratoneuritis are seen in less than a third of cases...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129651/dendritic-cells-in-the-cornea-during-herpes-simplex-viral-infection-and-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Min S Kwon, Nicole A Carnt, Naomi R Truong, Ushasree Pattamatta, Andrew J White, Chameen Samarawickrama, Anthony L Cunningham
Herpes simplex keratitis is commonly caused by Herpes simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1), which primarily infects eyelids, corneas or conjunctiva. HSV-1- through sophisticated interactions with dendritic cells (DCs), a type of antigen-presenting cell)-initiates pro-inflammatory responses in the cornea. Corneas were once thought to be an immune privileged region; however, with the recent discovery of DCs that reside in the cornea, this long held conjecture has been overturned. Therefore, evaluating the clinical, preclinical, and cell-based studies that investigate the roles of DCs in corneas infected with HSV is critical...
November 9, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050189/-clinical-features-and-treatments-of-retrocorneal-fungal-infection
#3
J Cheng, H L Zhai, J Y Wang, L X Xie
Objective: To evaluate the clinical features of retrocorneal fungal infection and the therapeutic effects. Methods: This was a retrospective, noncomparative study of nine patients with retrocorneal fungal infection and an intact corneal epithelium treated at Qingdao Eye Hospital. The history, clinical features, diagnostic methods, pathogens and therapeutic effects were analyzed. Results: Five patients had a history of trauma by plant, two had a non-plant injury, and two had unidentified reasons. The duration between the initial onset and the first visit to our hospital was 7...
October 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954259/roles-of-trim32-in-corneal-epithelial-cells-after-infection-with-herpes-simplex-virus
#4
Hao Cui, Ying Liu, Yifei Huang
BACKGROUND: Epithelial cells play important roles as a critical barrier in protecting the cornea from microbial pathogens infection. METHODS: In this study, we were aiming to investigate the role of E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32) in corneal epithelial cells in response to Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: We found the expression of TRIM32 was increased after infected with HSV-1 both in murine corneas and cultured human epithelial (HCE) cells...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943388/corneal-higher-order-aberrations-and-visual-improvement-following-corneal-transplantation-in-treating-herpes-simplex-keratitis
#5
Eisuke Shimizu, Takefumi Yamaguchi, Daisuke Tomida, Yukari Yagi-Yaguchi, Yoshiyuki Satake, Kazuo Tsubota, Jun Shimazaki
PURPOSE: To examine corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) and visual improvement following corneal transplantation in treating corneal scar caused by herpes simplex keratitis (HSK). DESIGN: Retrospective consecutive case series. METHODS: This study included a total of 52 eyes: 18 normal subjects, and 34 eyes of consecutive patients with corneal scar due to HSK who underwent penetrating keratoplasty (PKP, 17 eyes) or deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK, 17 eyes)...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942073/update-on-the-management-of-infectious-keratitis
#6
REVIEW
Ariana Austin, Tom Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
Infectious keratitis is a major global cause of visual impairment and blindness, often affecting marginalized populations. Proper diagnosis of the causative organism is critical, and although culture remains the prevailing diagnostic tool, newer techniques such as in vivo confocal microscopy are helpful for diagnosing fungus and Acanthamoeba. Next-generation sequencing holds the potential for early and accurate diagnosis even for organisms that are difficult to culture by conventional methods. Topical antibiotics remain the best treatment for bacterial keratitis, and a recent review found all commonly prescribed topical antibiotics to be equally effective...
November 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939476/recurrent-herpetic-keratitis-despite-antiviral-prophylaxis-a-virological-and-pharmacological-study
#7
Antoine Rousseau, David Boutolleau, Karine Titier, Tristan Bourcier, Christophe Chiquet, Michel Weber, Joseph Colin, Julie Gueudry, Mohamed M'Garrech, Bahram Bodaghi, Sonia Burrel, Henri Agut, Claire Deback, Marc Labetoulle
Recurrent herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is a leading infectious cause of blindness in industrialized countries. Antiviral prophylaxis (AVP) may fail to prevent recurrence of HSK due to viral resistance, inadequate dosing, or poor patient compliance. In this prospective multicenter study, we enrolled immunocompetent patients with recurrent HSK despite AVP. Ocular samples were tested by PCR for herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). HSV-1 drug resistance was assessed with a genotypic assay based on UL23 and UL30 gene sequencing...
September 20, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903153/colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-expressing-cells-infiltrating-the-cornea-control-corneal-nerve-degeneration-in-response-to-hsv-1-infection
#8
Ana J Chucair-Elliott, Hem R Gurung, Meghan M Carr, Daniel J J Carr
Purpose: Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a leading cause of neurotrophic keratitis, characterized by decreased or absent corneal sensation due to damage to the sensory corneal innervation. We previously reported the elicited immune response to infection contributes to the mechanism of corneal nerve regression/damage during acute HSV-1 infection. Our aim is to further establish the involvement of infiltrated macrophages in the mechanism of nerve loss upon infection. Methods: Macrophage Fas-Induced Apoptosis (MAFIA) transgenic C57BL/6 mice were systemically treated with AP20187 dimerizer or vehicle (VEH), and their corneas, lymph nodes, and blood were assessed for CD45+CD11b+GFP+ cell depletion by flow cytometry (FC)...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892949/corneal-collagen-cross-linking-for-treatment-of-bacterial-and-herpetic-keratitis
#9
Mohammad Reza Khalili, Hamid Reza Jahadi, Mashaallah Karimi, Masoud Yasemi
INTRODUCTION: Optimal management of infective keratitis is a formidable challenge and subject of ongoing studies. Recently, Collagen Cross-Linking (CXL) of the cornea has been considered to be a new effective therapeutic approach for resistant infectious keratitis. AIM: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CXL with Ultraviolet-A (UV-A) and riboflavin for treatment of the refractory bacterial and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) keratitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective interventional study, eight patients with diagnosis of infectious keratitis who were referred to Khalili Hospital eye emergency room, between 2014 and 2015 were included in the study...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852187/in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-of-posner-schlossman-syndrome-comparison-with-herpes-simplex-keratitis-hla-b27-anterior-uveitis-and-acute-attack-of-primary-angle-closure
#10
Ying Hong, Miao Wang, Lingling Wu
To investigate in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) findings in patients with Posner-Schlossman Syndrome (PSS), we compared the IVCM findings from the eyes of patients with: PSS (44 eyes); herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) (45 eyes); HLA-B27 anterior uveitis (B27AU) (45 eyes); and with acute attack of primary angle closure (aPAC) (43 eyes). The central Langerhans cells (LCs) grade at the level of corneal basal epithelial cells of the PSS group (2.33 ± 0.55) was similar to that of the HSK group (2.63 ± 0...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827297/herpes-simplex-transmission-to-chest-and-face-through-autoinoculation-in-an-infant
#11
Jeroen J van Vonderen, Kim Stol, Emmeline P Buddingh, Danielle Cm van der Kaay
A 4-month-old female infant presented with a vesicular lesion on her left hand present since 1 day. A few days prior to presentation, she had a similar lesion on the lower lip. Two days after presentation, she returned with new lesions on her thorax and upper eyelid. PCR of the vesicle was positive for herpes simplex virus type 1. The transmission to her chest and face probably resulted from autoinoculation, caused by rubbing of the hand on other parts of the body. Transmission of herpes simplex through skin-to-skin contact is a common route of infection in people engaging in contact sports...
August 21, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700252/modified-allogenic-simple-limbal-epithelial-transplantation-followed-by-keratoplasty-as-treatment-for-total-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency
#12
Alfonso Vasquez-Perez, Mayank A Nanavaty
PURPOSE: To describe a modified allogenic simple limbal epithelial transplant (SLET) technique with large donor tissue explants followed by keratoplasty. METHODS: A 69-year-old with conjunctival melanoma on her left eye developed total limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) after multiple cycles of topical mitomycin. She also had herpes stromal keratitis while on treatment with mitomycin. She underwent modified allogenic SLET with large donor limbal tissue explants glued on the cornea directly and the amniotic membrane placed over the limbal explants...
July 12, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666730/risk-factors-for-secondary-glaucoma-in-herpetic-anterior-uveitis
#13
Lisette Hoeksema, Nomdo M Jansonius, Leonoor I Los
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and secondary glaucoma in herpetic anterior uveitis (AU), owing to either herpes simplex or varicella zoster virus, by using the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) criteria, and to identify risk factors for the development of glaucoma. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. METHODS: Patients with herpetic AU presenting themselves between 2001 and 2013 at the ophthalmology department of the University Medical Center Groningen were included...
September 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637763/analysis-of-herpes-simplex-virus-reactivation-in-explant-reveals-a-method-dependent-difference-in-measured-timing-of-reactivation
#14
Jessica R Doll, Nancy M Sawtell
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is widespread in the human population. Following orofacial infection, HSV establishes latency in innervating sensory neurons, primarily located in the trigeminal ganglia. A central feature of HSV pathogenesis is the ability to periodically reactivate in those neurons and be transported back to the body surface. Both transmission and disease, such as keratitis, encephalitis, and neurodegeneration, have been linked to reactivation. Despite invaluable insights obtained from model systems, interactions between viral and host functions that regulate reactivation are still incompletely understood...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591279/detection-of-herpes-simplex-1-and-2-and-varicella-zoster-virus-by-quantitative-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-corneas-from-patients-with-bacterial-keratitis
#15
Heloisa Nascimento, Aripuanã Watanabe, Ana Carolina Cabreira Vieira, Andrea Pelegrini, Maria Cecília Yu, Paulo José Martins Bispo, Celso Francisco Hernandes Granato, Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima
Objective: Bacterial keratitis occurs worldwide, and despite recent developments, it remains a potentially blinding condition. This study assesses the presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and -2) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in corneal scrapings from patients with bacterial keratitis. Methods: A total of 65 patients with clinical diagnoses of infectious corneal ulcers prospectively underwent clinical eye examinations...
March 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584076/frontline-science-aspirin-triggered-resolvin-d1-controls-herpes-simplex-virus-induced-corneal-immunopathology
#16
Naveen K Rajasagi, Siddheshvar Bhela, Siva Karthik Varanasi, Barry T Rouse
Stromal keratitis (SK) is a chronic immunopathological lesion of the eye, caused by HSV-1 infection, and a common cause of vision impairment in humans. The inflammatory lesions in the cornea are primarily caused by neutrophils with the active participation of CD4(+) T cells. Therefore, the targeting of these immune cell types and their products represents a potentially valuable form of therapy to reduce the severity of disease. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and its epimer aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1) are lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and were shown to promote resolution in several inflammatory disease models...
November 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559714/practice-patterns-for-herpes-simplex-keratitis-a-survey-of-ophthalmologists-in-gulf-coast-countries
#17
Mashael A Alkhayyal, Donald U Stone
PURPOSE: Herpes simplex is a common cause of visual disability, and there are published evidence-based guidelines for therapy. This survey aims to determine the preferred practice patterns of ophthalmologists in Gulf Coast Countries regarding herpetic eye disease, as well as identify areas of controversy or barriers to acceptance of evidence-based protocols. METHODS: Anonymous web-based survey of ophthalmologists in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman...
April 2017: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520594/amplivue-is-a-practical-and-timely-test-for-the-detection-of-hsv-from-keratitis-specimens
#18
Regis P Kowalski, Lisa M Karenchak, Deepinder K Dhaliwal, Alex Mammen
OBJECTIVE: The laboratory diagnostic detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from eye samples must be practical, timely, and definitive for appropriate therapy. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or cell culture can be definitive, HSV results can be delayed. Enzyme Linked Virus Inducible System (ELVIS) is a test that can provide results within 24 to 48 hr. We evaluated "AmpliVue HSV 1+2 Assay" as a molecular colorimetric test that can detect HSV (1 or 2) DNA within 1 hr. METHODS: Cornea/conjunctival samples were tested retrospectively with AmpliVue against 53 true-positive and 20 true-negative specimens collected in chlamydial transport medium...
May 16, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513490/coexistence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-in-microsporidial-stromal-keratitis-associated-with-granulomatous-inflammation
#19
Ruchi Mittal, Praveen K Balne, Srikant Sahu, Sujata Das, Savitri Sharma
BACKGROUND: Microsporidial stromal keratitis poses several diagnostic challenges. Patients may present with corneal ulceration, marked stromal thinning, or even as a quite corneal scar. The presentation of microsporidial stromal keratitis commonly mimics viral keratitis. Microbiology scrapings are usually helpful; however, scraping and culture-negative cases pose a significant diagnostic dilemma. Histopathological examination is diagnostic but shows varying degree of inflammation, predominantly composed of polymorphonuclear leukocytes...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495905/long-term-outcomes-of-the-boston-type-i-keratoprosthesis-in-eyes-with-previous-herpes-simplex-virus-keratitis
#20
Melinda Fry, Carolina Aravena, Fei Yu, Jaffer Kattan, Anthony J Aldave
PURPOSE: To report the long-term outcomes of the Boston type I keratoprosthesis (Kpro) in eyes with prior herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective review of all Kpro procedures performed by a single surgeon from 1 May 2004 to 1 January 2015. RESULTS: 13 of 173 Kpro procedures were performed in 11 eyes with prior HSV keratitis. There was not a significant difference in the percentage of eyes with and without prior HSV keratitis with preoperative (9% vs 8%, p=1...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
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