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chlorhexidine allergy

Michael N Pemberton
Chlorhexidine is an effective antiseptic which is widely used in dentistry. Over recent years, it has also been used in other healthcare products as well as in cosmetics. Anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine has been increasingly reported throughout the world, including two incidents in the UK where chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash had been used to wash tooth sockets following recent tooth extraction. Chlorhexidine is under-recognized as a cause of anaphylaxis and dentists should be aware of its potential for serious adverse effects...
April 2016: Dental Update
Michael Hermann Bardorf, Bernd Jäger, Eric Boeckmans, Axel Kramer, Ojan Assadian
BACKGROUND: Medical examination gloves and surgical gloves protect the wearer directly and the patient indirectly from the risk of contamination. Because of concerns related to latex allergy, an increasing trend toward the use of synthetic gloves made of materials other than latex is observable. However, currently it is unknown if the physical properties of different materials may influence bacterial passage in case of a glove puncture. METHODS: We examined 9 different medical examination gloves from various manufacturers made of nitrile (n = 4), latex (n = 3), or neoprene (n = 2)...
July 4, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Juan H Macias, Mildred F Alvarez, Virginia Arreguin, Juan M Muñoz, Alejandro E Macias, Jose A Alvarez
BACKGROUND: We do not know whether differences exist between the residual effect of 2% chlorhexidine in 70% isopropyl alcohol when compared with 1% triclosan in 70% isopropyl alcohol. METHODS: Using an analytic, longitudinal, controlled, and comparative experimental trial, with blinded measurements, we recruited healthy, adult volunteers from the University of Guanajuato who completed a stabilization phase of skin microbiota and had no history of skin allergies...
June 30, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Paul Michel Mertes, Gerald W Volcheck, Lene H Garvey, Tonomori Takazawa, Peter R Platt, Anne B Guttormsen, Charles Tacquard
Anaphylactic reactions may be either of immune (allergy, usually IgE-mediated, sometimes IgG-mediated) or non-immune origin. The incidence of anaphylactic reactions during anaesthesia varies between countries ranging from 1/1250 to 1/18,600 per procedure. In France, the estimated incidence of allergic reactions is 100.6 [76.2-125.3]/million procedure with a high female predominance (male: 55.4 [42.0-69.0], female: 154.9 [117.2-193.1]). The proportion of IgE-mediated allergic reactions seems to be relatively similar between countries, ranging from 50 to 60%...
September 2016: La Presse Médicale
David Spoerl, Peter Jandus, Thomas Harr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
M S Opstrup, L K Poulsen, H J Malling, B M Jensen, L H Garvey
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine is an effective disinfectant, which may cause severe allergic reactions. Plasma level of specific IgE to chlorhexidine (ImmunoCAP(®) ) has high estimated sensitivity and specificity when measured within 6 months of allergic reaction, but knowledge of the dynamics over longer time periods is lacking and it is unknown whether levels fall below <0.35 kUA/L in patients with previously elevated levels. It is also unclear whether re-exposure influences levels of specific IgE...
August 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Morten S Opstrup, Jeanne D Johansen, Claus Zachariae, Lene H Garvey
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine is a widely used disinfectant in the healthcare setting and in cosmetic products. A high prevalence of chlorhexidine contact allergy was reported in Denmark in the 1980s (2.0-5.4% of patients patch tested). It is unknown whether the prevalence is still high, which products cause the contact allergy, and whether accidental re-exposure occurs in some patients. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of chlorhexidine contact allergy in a tertiary dermatology clinic in Denmark; to investigate whether patch testing with both chlorhexidine diacetate and chlorhexidine digluconate is necessary; to investigate how many patients have combined immediate-type allergy and contact allergy; and to identify which products cause chlorhexidine contact allergy, and whether patients are accidentally re-exposed...
January 2016: Contact Dermatitis
Lizanne Dalgleish, Hardeep Jhattu, Judith Streak Gomersall
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that the incidence of hospital acquired multi resistant organisms are increasing worldwide. Intensive care patients are particularly prone to hospital-acquired infections. In an effort to combat increasing nosocomial infections rates within the intensive care/high dependency unit setting, Canberra Hospital has implemented a daily 2% chlorhexidine gluconate bath wash in combination as part of a best practice policy to reduce hospital acquired multi resistant organism rates of colonization...
2015: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Gary Sharp, Sarah Green, Michael Rose
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine (CHL) has antiseptic and disinfectant properties used to prevent hospital-acquired infections. CHL-induced anaphylaxis is poorly reported in surgical literature despite government warnings and growing recognition. The aim of this review is to increase awareness of CHL-induced anaphylaxis in the surgical population. METHODS: Literature review of Embase, Medline, PubMed and the Cochrane library using 'anaphylaxis (and) chlorhexidine' search terms...
April 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
André Koch, Uwe Wollina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Allergo Journal International
Krzysztof Rutkowski, Annette Wagner
The rate of chlorhexidine (CHX) allergy is increasing. Anaphylaxis is common but mild reactions often go unnoticed. Diagnosis is easy to miss, but presentation can be severe and can occur at any time during a procedure. Hospitals must have management plan for patients who are allergic to CHX.
September 2015: European Urology
Claude Abdallah
Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic agent, commonly used, in many different preparations, and for multiple purposes. Despite its superior antimicrobial properties, chlorhexidine is a potentially allergenic substance. The following is a review of the current evidence-based knowledge of allergic reactions to chlorhexidine associated with surgical and interventional procedures.
April 2015: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Katy Mara Odedra, Sophie Farooque
Chlorhexidine is a highly effective antiseptic and disinfectant. In the past 20 years there has been a substantial increase in the number of chlorhexidine containing products used in healthcare. Anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine was first reported in 1984 and was almost always seen in men. However, in the last 4 years we have observed a surge in confirmed cases of anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine, with increasing numbers of female patients recently diagnosed. Yet, awareness of chlorhexidine as a cause of anaphylaxis is low because it is not a drug but a 'hidden' allergen, for example as a coating on medical devices such as central lines and urinary catheters...
December 2014: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Morten S Opstrup, Jeanne D Johansen, Rossana Bossi, Michael D Lundov, Lene H Garvey
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine may cause type I and type IV allergy. Some chlorhexidine-allergic individuals have been exposed in the healthcare setting as patients or healthcare workers, but for others the source of sensitization is unknown. Chlorhexidine may be used as a preservative or an antimicrobial agent in cosmetic products at a concentration up to 0.3%, as set by the European Cosmetics Directive (now Regulations). OBJECTIVES: To identify cosmetic product types containing chlorhexidine, and to measure the concentration of chlorhexidine in selected products...
January 2015: Contact Dermatitis
M T Krishna, M York, T Chin, G Gnanakumaran, J Heslegrave, C Derbridge, A Huissoon, L Diwakar, E Eren, R J Crossman, N Khan, A P Williams
This is the first multi-centre retrospective survey from the United Kingdom to evaluate the aetiology and diagnostic performance of tryptase in anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia (GA). Data were collected retrospectively (2005-12) from 161 patients [mean ± standard deviation (s.d.), 50 ± 15 years] referred to four regional UK centres. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were constructed to assess the utility of tryptase measurements in the diagnosis of immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated anaphylaxis and the performance of percentage change from baseline [percentage change (PC)] and absolute tryptase (AT) quantitation...
November 2014: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
K Brockow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2014: Allergy
M S Opstrup, H-J Malling, M Krøigaard, H Mosbech, P S Skov, L K Poulsen, L H Garvey
BACKGROUND: Perioperative allergic reactions to chlorhexidine are often severe and easily overlooked. Although rare, the prevalence remains unknown. Correct diagnosis is crucial, but no validated provocation model exists, and other diagnostic tests have never been evaluated. The aims were to estimate (i) the prevalence of chlorhexidine allergy in perioperative allergy and (ii) the specificity and sensitivity for diagnostic tests for chlorhexidine allergy. METHODS: We included all patients investigated for suspected perioperative allergic reactions in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre during 2004-2012...
October 2014: Allergy
Usman Mushtaq, Aaron Tan, Ju Ann Tan, William B Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2014: Medical Journal of Australia
Jean-Marie Lachapelle
Over recent years, interest in the use of antiseptics has been reinforced as these molecules are not concerned by the problem of bacterial resistance. Whereas the in vitro efficacy of antiseptics has been well-studied, much less is known regarding their irritant and allergenic properties. This review provides an update on the comparative irritant and allergenic properties of commonly-used antiseptics in medicine nowadays. All antiseptics have irritant properties, especially when they are misused. Povidone-iodine has an excellent profile in terms of allergenicity...
January 2014: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Jason Chow, Jonathan Ng, Alvin Pun
Preoperative cleansing of a patient's skin with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) in alcohol is superior to cleansing with povidone-iodine for preventing surgical site infection (SSI) after clean-contaminated surgery (Darouilche et al 2010). However, 2% CHG in 70% alcohol, tinted pink, is colourless when applied to limbs for surgery and complete coverage cannot be assured. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of food colouring added to CHG in preoperative skin preparation. Two hundred and eight subjects were randomly selected from a population of healthy young adults and were given a questionnaire...
November 2013: Journal of Perioperative Practice
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