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Robin spiller

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915009/exploring-gastrointestinal-variables-affecting-drug-and-formulation-behavior-methodologies-challenges-and-opportunities
#1
REVIEW
Bart Hens, Maura Corsetti, Robin Spiller, Luca Marciani, Tim Vanuytsel, Jan Tack, Arjang Talattof, Gordon L Amidon, Mirko Koziolek, Werner Weitschies, Clive G Wilson, Roelof J Bennink, Joachim Brouwers, Patrick Augustijns
Various gastrointestinal (GI) factors affect drug and formulation behavior after oral administration, including GI transfer, motility, pH and GI fluid volume and composition. An in-depth understanding of these physiological and anatomical variables is critical for a continued progress in oral drug development. In this review, different methodologies (invasive versus non-invasive) to explore the impact of physiological variables on formulation behavior in the human GI tract are presented, revealing their strengths and limitations...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746233/colon-hypersensitivity-to-distension-rather-than-excessive-gas-production-produces-carbohydrate-related-symptoms-in-individuals-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
Giles Major, Sue Pritchard, Kathryn Murray, Jan Paul Alappadan, Caroline Hoad, Luca Marciani, Penny Gowland, Robin Spiller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Poorly digested, fermentable carbohydrates may induce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) via unclear mechanisms. We performed a randomized trial with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis to investigate correlations between symptoms and changes in small- and large-bowel contents after oral challenge. METHODS: We performed a 3-period, cross-over study of 29 adult patients with IBS (based on Rome III criteria, with symptoms of abdominal pain or discomfort for at least 2 days/wk) and reported bloating...
October 14, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667579/ibs-and-ibd-separate-entities-or-on-a-spectrum
#3
REVIEW
Robin Spiller, Giles Major
The acute phase of IBD with inflamed gut and often ulcerated mucosa is clearly different from the apparently normal mucosa characteristic of IBS. However, more detailed assessment has detected immune activation, increased gut permeability, increased mucosal serotonin availability, abnormalities of enteric nerve structure and function, and dysbiosis in gut microbiota in IBS - all features seen in IBD. Furthermore, as treatments for inflammation in IBD have become more effective it is now apparent that ∼1 in 3 patients with IBD in remission from inflammation still have persistent abnormalities of sensation, motility and gut microbiota, which might cause IBS-like symptoms...
September 26, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622357/diverticular-disease-and-ibs-overlapping-or-misunderstanding
#4
Robin Spiller
Although over half of patients over 65 years old will have diverticulosis, only a minority experience symptoms. These are often similar to those of irritable bowel syndrome with pain and disordered bowel habit, but differ in having an onset in the sixth to seventh decade. The underlying mechanisms include visceral hypersensitivity which maybe postinflammatory, but may also be due to altered central pain processing. Somatization is a useful clue to a predominantly central pathology, while its absence points to local causes including altered enteric nerves and mucosal immune activation...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558181/co-infection-and-emergence-of-rifamycin-resistance-during-a-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#5
Emma C Stevenson, Giles A Major, Robin C Spiller, Sarah A Kuehne, Nigel P Minton
Clostridium difficile (Peptoclostridium difficile) is a common health care associated infection with a disproportionately high incidence in elderly patients. Disease symptoms range from mild diarrhoea through to life threatening pseudomembranous colitis. Around 20% of patients may suffer recurrent disease which often requires re-hospitalisation of patients.C. difficile was isolated from stool samples from a patient with two recurrent C. difficile infections. PCR-ribotyping, whole genome sequencing and phenotypic assays were used to characterise these isolates...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403301/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-cncm-i-3856-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-improvement-in-abdominal-pain-and-bloating-in-those-with-predominant-constipation
#6
Robin Spiller, Fanny Pélerin, Amélie Cayzeele Decherf, Corinne Maudet, Béatrice Housez, Murielle Cazaubiel, Peter Jüsten
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and/or discomfort. Probiotics have been reported to benefit IBS symptoms but the level of benefit remains quite unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess the benefit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae I-3856 on IBS symptoms. METHODS: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial has been performed in 379 subjects with diagnosed IBS...
June 2016: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159638/irritable-bowel-syndrome
#7
Paul Enck, Qasim Aziz, Giovanni Barbara, Adam D Farmer, Shin Fukudo, Emeran A Mayer, Beate Niesler, Eamonn M M Quigley, Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović, Michael Schemann, Juliane Schwille-Kiuntke, Magnus Simren, Stephan Zipfel, Robin C Spiller
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with a high population prevalence. The disorder can be debilitating in some patients, whereas others may have mild or moderate symptoms. The most important single risk factors are female sex, younger age and preceding gastrointestinal infections. Clinical symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain or discomfort, stool irregularities and bloating, as well as other somatic, visceral and psychiatric comorbidities. Currently, the diagnosis of IBS is based on symptoms and the exclusion of other organic diseases, and therapy includes drug treatment of the predominant symptoms, nutrition and psychotherapy...
2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158477/irritable-bowel-syndrome-new-insights-into-symptom-mechanisms-and-advances-in-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Robin Spiller
Despite being one of the most common conditions leading to gastroenterological referral, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is poorly understood. However, recent years have seen major advances. These include new understanding of the role of both inflammation and altered microbiota as well as the impact of dietary intolerances as illuminated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has thrown new light on IBS. This article will review new data on how excessive bile acid secretion mediates diarrhea and evidence from post infectious IBS which has shown how gut inflammation can alter gut microbiota and function...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144627/bowel-disorders
#9
Fermín Mearin, Brian E Lacy, Lin Chang, William D Chey, Anthony J Lembo, Magnus Simren, Robin Spiller
Functional bowel disorders are highly prevalent disorders found worldwide. These disorders have the potential to affect all members of society, regardless of age, gender, race, creed, color or socioeconomic status. Improving our understanding of functional bowel disorders (FBD) is critical as they impose a negative economic impact to the global health care system in addition to reducing quality of life. Research in the basic and clinical sciences during the past decade has produced new information on the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of FBDs...
February 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099247/corticotropin-releasing-factor-increases-ascending-colon-volume-after-a-fructose-test-meal-in-healthy-humans-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Kathryn A Murray, Ching Lam, Sumra Rehman, Luca Marciani, Carolyn Costigan, Caroline L Hoad, Melanie R Lingaya, Rawinder Banwait, Stephen J Bawden, Penny A Gowland, Robin C Spiller
BACKGROUND: Poorly absorbed fermentable carbohydrates can provoke irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms by escaping absorption in the small bowel and being rapidly fermented in the colon in some susceptible subjects. IBS patients often are anxious and stressed, and stress accelerates small bowel transit, which may exacerbate malabsorption. OBJECTIVE: In this study we investigated the effect of an intravenous injection of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on fructose malabsorption and the resulting volume of water in the small bowel...
May 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921242/centromere-localization-and-function-of-mis18-requires-yippee-like-domain-mediated-oligomerization
#11
Lakxmi Subramanian, Bethan Medina-Pritchard, Rachael Barton, Frances Spiller, Raghavendran Kulasegaran-Shylini, Guoda Radaviciute, Robin C Allshire, A Arockia Jeyaprakash
Mis18 is a key regulator responsible for the centromere localization of the CENP-A chaperone Scm3 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and HJURP in humans, which establishes CENP-A chromatin that defines centromeres. The molecular and structural determinants of Mis18 centromere targeting remain elusive. Here, by combining structural, biochemical, and yeast genetic studies, we show that the oligomerization of S. pombe Mis18, mediated via its conserved N-terminal Yippee-like domain, is crucial for its centromere localization and function...
April 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26854496/colonic-diverticular-disease-medical-treatments-for-acute-diverticulitis
#12
David Humes, Robin C Spiller
INTRODUCTION: Diverticula (mucosal outpouchings through the wall of the colon) are rare before the age of 40 years, after which prevalence increases steadily and reaches over 25% by 60 years. However, only 10% to 25% of affected people will develop symptoms such as lower abdominal pain. Recurrent symptoms are common, and 5% of people with diverticula eventually develop complications such as perforation, obstruction, haemorrhage, fistulae, or abscesses. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of medical treatments for acute diverticulitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview)...
February 4, 2016: Clinical Evidence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26710987/constipation-and-the-microbiome-lumen-versus-mucosa
#13
EDITORIAL
Eamonn M M Quigley, Robin C Spiller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26600972/magnetic-resonance-imaging-biomarkers-of-gastrointestinal-motor-function-and-fluid-distribution
#14
REVIEW
Asseel Khalaf, Caroline L Hoad, Robin C Spiller, Penny A Gowland, Gordon W Moran, Luca Marciani
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well established technique that has revolutionized diagnostic radiology. Until recently, the impact that MRI has had in the assessment of gastrointestinal motor function and bowel fluid distribution in health and in disease has been more limited, despite the novel insights that MRI can provide along the entire gastrointestinal tract. MRI biomarkers include intestinal motility indices, small bowel water content and whole gut transit time. The present review discusses new developments and applications of MRI in the upper gastrointestinal tract, the small bowel and the colon reported in the literature in the last 5 years...
November 15, 2015: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26522233/effect-of-bread-gluten-content-on-gastrointestinal-function-a-crossover-mri-study-on-healthy-humans
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Marina Coletta, Fred K Gates, Luca Marciani, Henna Shiwani, Giles Major, Caroline L Hoad, Gemma Chaddock, Penny A Gowland, Robin C Spiller
Gluten is a crucial functional component of bread, but the effect of increasing gluten content on gastrointestinal (GI) function remains uncertain. Our aim was to investigate the effect of increasing gluten content on GI function and symptoms in healthy participants using the unique capabilities of MRI. A total of twelve healthy participants completed this randomised, mechanistic, open-label, three-way crossover study. On days 1 and 2 they consumed either gluten-free bread (GFB), or normal gluten content bread (NGCB) or added gluten content bread (AGCB)...
January 14, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25926408/fat-emulsion-intragastric-stability-and-droplet-size-modulate-gastrointestinal-responses-and-subsequent-food-intake-in-young-adults
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mahamoud O Hussein, Caroline L Hoad, Jeff Wright, Gulzar Singh, Mary C Stephenson, Eleanor F Cox, Elisa Placidi, Susan E Pritchard, Carolyn Costigan, Henelyta Ribeiro, Elisabetta Ciampi, Asish Nandi, Nick Hedges, Paul Sanderson, Harry P F Peters, Pip Rayment, Robin C Spiller, Penny A Gowland, Luca Marciani
BACKGROUND: Intragastric creaming and droplet size of fat emulsions may affect intragastric behavior and gastrointestinal and satiety responses. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypotheses that gastrointestinal physiologic responses and satiety will be increased by an increase in intragastric stability and by a decrease in fat droplet size of a fat emulsion. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized crossover study in 11 healthy persons [8 men and 3 women, aged 24 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 24...
June 2015: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25765462/a-mechanistic-multicentre-parallel-group-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial-of-mesalazine-for-the-treatment-of-ibs-with-diarrhoea-ibs-d
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ching Lam, Wei Tan, Matthew Leighton, Margaret Hastings, Melanie Lingaya, Yirga Falcone, Xiaoying Zhou, Luting Xu, Peter Whorwell, Andrew F Walls, Abed Zaitoun, Alan Montgomery, Robin Spiller
INTRODUCTION: Immune activation has been reported in the mucosa of IBS patients with diarrhoea (IBS-D), and some small studies have suggested that mesalazine may reduce symptoms. We performed a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial of 2 g mesalazine twice daily versus placebo for 3 months in patients with Rome III criteria IBS-D. Primary outcome was daily average stool frequency during weeks 11-12; secondary outcomes were abdominal pain, stool consistency, urgency and satisfactory relief of IBS symptoms...
January 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25646323/aerated-drinks-increase-gastric-volume-and-reduce-appetite-as-assessed-by-mri-a-randomized-balanced-crossover-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kathryn Murray, Elisa Placidi, Ewoud A H Schuring, Caroline L Hoad, Wieneke Koppenol, Luben N Arnaudov, Wendy A M Blom, Susan E Pritchard, Simeon D Stoyanov, Penny A Gowland, Robin C Spiller, Harry P F Peters, Luca Marciani
BACKGROUND: Compared with nonaerated, isocaloric controls, aerated foods can reduce appetite throughout an entire dieting day. Increased gastric volumes and delayed emptying are possible but unexplored mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that aerated drinks (foams) of differing gastric stability would increase gastric distension and reduce appetite compared with a control drink. DESIGN: In a randomized, balanced, crossover trial, 18 healthy male participants consumed the following 3 skimmed-milk-based test products (all 110 kcal): 2 drinks aerated to foams by whipping (to 490 mL), one drink that was stable in the stomach [stable foam (SF)], and one drink that was less stable in the stomach [less-stable foam (LSF)], and a nonaerated drink [liquid control (LC); 140 mL]...
February 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25623659/intestinal-microbiota-and-diet-in-ibs-causes-consequences-or-epiphenomena
#19
REVIEW
Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović, Daisy M Jonkers, Anne Salonen, Kurt Hanevik, Jeroen Raes, Jonna Jalanka, Willem M de Vos, Chaysavanh Manichanh, Natasa Golic, Paul Enck, Elena Philippou, Fuad A Iraqi, Gerard Clarke, Robin C Spiller, John Penders
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a heterogeneous functional disorder with a multifactorial etiology that involves the interplay of both host and environmental factors. Among environmental factors relevant for IBS etiology, the diet stands out given that the majority of IBS patients report their symptoms to be triggered by meals or specific foods. The diet provides substrates for microbial fermentation, and, as the composition of the intestinal microbiota is disturbed in IBS patients, the link between diet, microbiota composition, and microbial fermentation products might have an essential role in IBS etiology...
February 2015: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25527456/effects-of-bowel-cleansing-on-the-intestinal-microbiota
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jonna Jalanka, Anne Salonen, Jarkko Salojärvi, Jarmo Ritari, Outi Immonen, Luca Marciani, Penny Gowland, Caroline Hoad, Klara Garsed, Ching Lam, Airi Palva, Robin C Spiller, Willem M de Vos
OBJECTIVE: An adequate bowel cleansing is essential for a successful colonoscopy. Although purgative consumption is safe for the patient, there is little consensus on how the intestinal microbiota is affected by the procedure, especially regarding the potential long-term consequences. DESIGN: 23 healthy subjects were randomised into two study groups consuming a bowel preparation (Moviprep), either in two separate doses of 1 L or as a single 2-L dose. Participants donated faecal samples at the baseline, after bowel cleansing, 14 and 28 days after the treatment...
October 2015: Gut
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