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Drugs in Lactation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728159/oxamate-enhances-the-anti-inflammatory-and-insulin-sensitizing-effects-of-metformin-in-diabetic-mice
#1
Mu-Chao Wu, Wei-Ran Ye, Yi-Jia Zheng, Shan-Shan Zhang
Metformin (MET) is the first-line drug for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, MET increases blood lactate levels in patients with T2DM. Lactate possesses proinflammatory properties and causes insulin resistance (IR). Oxamate (OXA), a lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor, can decrease tissue lactate production and blood lactate levels. This study was conducted to examine the effects of the combination of OXA and MET on inflammation, and IR in diabetic db/db mice. Supplementation of OXA to MET led to lowered tissue lactate production and serum lactate levels compared to MET alone, accompanied with further decreased tissue and blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with better insulin sensitivity, beta-cell mass, and glycemic control in diabetic db/db mice...
July 21, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726961/functional-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-car-for-targeting-dopamine-delivery-into-the-brain-of-parkinsonian-mice
#2
Qing Guo, Huihui You, Xu Yang, Bencheng Lin, Zhihong Zhu, Zhisong Lu, Xiaoxiao Li, Yun Zhao, Lin Mao, Shiping Shen, Haoyan Cheng, Jiting Zhang, Lingfu Deng, Jianhua Fan, Zhuge Xi, Rui Li, Chang Ming Li
Current treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are limited, partly due to the difficulties posed by the blood brain barrier (BBB) when delivering drugs to the brain. Herein, we explore the feasibility and efficacy of functional single-walled carbon nanotubes 'CAR' (SWCNT-PEGs-Lf) which carry and target-deliver dopamine (DA) to the brain in PD mice for treatment. SWCNTs can penetrate the cell-membrane remarkably, with the characteristics including high drug-loading and pH-dependent therapeutic unloading capacities...
July 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722424/metabolic-study-of-cancer-cells-using-a-ph-sensitive-hydrogel-nanofiber-light-addressable-potentiometric-sensor
#3
Parmiss Mojir Shaibani, Hashem Etayash, Selvaraj Naicker, Kamaljit Kaur, Thomas Thundat
We report a simple, fast, and cost-effective approach that measures cancer cell metabolism and their response to anticancer drugs in real time. Using a Light Addressable Potentiometric Sensor integrated with pH sensitive hydrogel nanofibers (NF-LAPS), we detect localized changes in pH of the media as cancer cells consume glucose and release lactate. NF-LAPS shows a sensitivity response of 74 mV/pH for cancer cells. Cancer cells (MDA MB231) showed a response of ∼0.4 unit change in pH compared to virtually no change observed for normal cells (MCF10A)...
January 27, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719513/dihydrofolate-reductase-genetic-polymorphisms-affect-methotrexate-dose-requirements-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-on-maintenance-therapy
#4
Guillermo Gervasini, Silvia G de Murillo, Mercedes Jiménez, María D de la Maya, Jose M Vagace
We have aimed to determine the effect of polymorphisms in regulatory regions of the DHFR gene in relation to methotrexate (MTX) dose adjustments and drug-induced toxicity in children on maintenance therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In total, 41 children diagnosed with ALL were screened for 3 tag-single nucleotide polymorphisms in the DHFR promoter (C-1610G, C-680G/T, A-317G) and an intronic 19-bp insertion/deletion. Genotypes were analyzed in relation to dose requirements and toxicity. The percentage of MTX dose administered (with respect to protocol-recommended values) was affected by DHFR polymorphisms...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718839/dose-dependent-prebiotic-effect-of-lactulose-in-a-computer-controlled-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-large-intestine
#5
Melanie K Bothe, Annet J H Maathuis, Susann Bellmann, Jos M B M van der Vossen, Dirk Berressem, Annalena Koehler, Susann Schwejda-Guettes, Barbara Gaigg, Angelika Kuchinka-Koch, John F Stover
Lactulose, a disaccharide of galactose and fructose, used as a laxative or ammonia-lowering drug and as a functional food ingredient, enhances growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus at clinically relevant dosages. The prebiotic effect of subclinical dosages of Lactulose, however, remains to be elucidated. This study analyses changes in the microbiota and their metabolites after a 5 days Lactulose treatment using the TIM-2 system, a computer-controlled model of the proximal large intestine representing a complex, high density, metabolically active, anaerobic microbiota of human origin...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717109/utility-of-human-hepatocyte-spheroids-without-feeder-cells-for-evaluation-of-hepatotoxicity
#6
Takuo Ogihara, Hiroshi Arakawa, Tomoko Jomura, Yoko Idota, Satoshi Koyama, Kentaro Yano, Hajime Kojima
We investigated the utility of three-dimensionally cultured hepatocytes (spheroids) without feeder cells (Sph(f-)) for the prediction of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in humans. Sph(f-) and spheroids cultured on feeder cells (Sph(f+)) were exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs flutamide, diclofenac, isoniazid and chlorpromazine at various concentrations for 14 days, and albumin secretion and cumulative leakages of toxicity marker enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP), were measured...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715120/characterization-of-a-multiple-particle-delivery-complex-and-determination-of-cellular-photodamage-in-skin-fibroblast-and-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#7
Ivan Mfouo-Tynga, Nicolette Nadene Houreld, Heidi Abrahamse
Zinc metallized Phthalocyanine (ZnPcSmix ), a potent photosensitizer (PS), is conjugated to gold dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles (AuDENPs) in order to improve the efficacy of Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using MCF-7 breast cancer cells and WS1 fibroblast cells as a control. Both ZnPcSmix and AuDENPs are mixed in a nitrogen atmosphere for 48 h and characterization analysis conducted using ultra violet visible (UV-vis) spectrometry for spectral properties, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for morphological features and zeta potential measurement for surface stability and size distribution of the compound obtained or of the multiple particles delivery complex (MPDC)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714610/use-of-psychotropic-medications-in-breastfeeding-women
#8
REVIEW
Nirit Kronenfeld, Maya Berlin, Dotan Shaniv, Matitiahu Berkovitch
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding women who are prescribed with psychotropic medications on a regular basis are often concerned, regarding the possible implications of such treatment on the breastfed infant. A mother's well-being has a direct influence on the well-being of the baby. However, the notorious reputation of psychotropic medications may lead to suboptimal prescribing by the physician and poor adherence by the mother. METHODS: A PubMed search (from 1976 through February 2017) was conducted for commonly used psychotropic drug classes, as well as individual medications commonly prescribed in these classes, along with the MeSH terms "breastfeeding"/"lactation"...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714513/in-vivo-evaluation-of-tumour-acidosis-for-assessing-the-early-metabolic-response-and-onset-of-resistance-to-dichloroacetate-by-using-magnetic-resonance-ph-imaging
#9
Annasofia Anemone, Lorena Consolino, Laura Conti, Francesca Reineri, Federica Cavallo, Silvio Aime, Dario Livio Longo
Dichloroacetate (DCA) can reverse the glycolytic phenotype that is responsible of increased lactate production and extracellular pH acidification in cancer cells. Magnetic resonance imaging-chemical exchange saturation transfer (MRI-CEST) pH mapping is a novel non-invasive imaging approach that can measure in vivo extracellular tumour pH. We examined whether MRI-CEST pH mapping can monitor in vivo changes in tumour acidosis for assessing treatment response to DCA. Cell viability and extracellular pH were assessed in TS/A breast cancer cells treated with 1-10 mM DCA for 24 h in normoxia or hypoxia (1% O2) conditions...
August 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714420/evaluation-of-temporal-changes-in-urine-based-metabolomic-and-kidney-injury-markers-to-detect-compound-induced-acute-kidney-tubular-toxicity-in-beagle-dogs
#10
M P Wagoner, Y Yang, J E McDuffie, M Klapczynski, W Buck, L Cheatham, D Eisinger, F Sace, K M Lynch, M Sonee, J-Y Ma, Y Chen, K Marshall, M Damour, L Stephen, Y P Dragan, J Fikes, S Snook, L B Kinter
Urinary protein biomarkers and metabolomic markers have been leveraged to detect acute drug induced kidney injury (DIKI) in rats; however, the utility of these indicators to enable early detection of DIKI in canine models has not been well documented. Therefore, we evaluated temporal changes in biomarkers and metabolites in urine from male and female beagle dogs. Gentamicin-induced kidney lesions in male dogs were characterized by moderate to severe tubular epithelial cell degeneration/necrosis, epithelial cell regeneration and dilation; and a unique urine-based metabolomic fingerprint...
July 13, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713793/phenotypic-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-isolates-causing-clinical-mastitis-in-dairy-animals
#11
Carlotta Ceniti, Domenico Britti, Adriano Michele Luigi Santoro, Rosanna Musarella, Lucia Ciambrone, Francesco Casalinuovo, Nicola Costanzo
Mastitis is the most frequent and costly disease of lactating animals and is associated with a significant reduction in milk yield, increased cost and culling. Early and specific antibiotic based treatment reduces the severity of the disease. Over the years the extensive use of antimicrobials has led to increase antimicrobial resistance. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of microorganisms responsible for mastitis and their antimicrobial resistance pattern. A total of 282 milk samples were collected from different animal species (sheep, cows and goats) with clinical mastitis...
April 13, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712878/antidepressants-are-cytotoxic-to-rat-primary-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-cells-at-high-therapeutic-concentrations
#12
Ekramy Elmorsy, Ayat Al-Ghafari, Fahd M Almutairi, Amal Misbah Aggour, Wayne G Carter
Antidepressants are commonly employed for the treatment of major depressive disorders and other psychiatric conditions. We investigated the relatively acute cytotoxic effects of three commonly prescribed antidepressants: fluoxetine, sertraline, and clomipramine on rat primary blood brain barrier endothelial cells over a concentration range of 0.1-100μM. At therapeutic concentrations (0.1μM) no significant cytotoxicity was observed after 4, 24, or 48h. At high therapeutic to overdose concentrations (1-100μM), antidepressants reduced cell viability in proportion to their concentration and exposure duration...
July 14, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711923/acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-require-6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase-for-cell-growth-and-nadph-dependent-metabolic-reprogramming
#13
Haymanti Bhanot, Ellen L Weisberg, Mamatha M Reddy, Atsushi Nonami, Donna Neuberg, Richard M Stone, Klaus Podar, Ravi Salgia, James D Griffin, Martin Sattler
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells are highly dependent on glycolytic pathways to generate metabolic energy and support cell growth, hinting at specific, targetable vulnerabilities as potential novel targets for drug development. Elevated levels of NADPH, a central metabolic factor involved in redox reactions, are common in myeloid leukemia cells, but the significance or biochemical basis underlying this increase is unknown. Using a small molecule analog that efficiently inhibits NADPH-producing enzymes, we found that AML cells require NADPH homeostasis for cell growth...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709443/severity-of-acute-gastrointestinal-injury-grade-is-a-predictor-of-all-cause-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-a-multicenter-prospective-observational-study
#14
Bangchuan Hu, Renhua Sun, Aiping Wu, Yin Ni, Jingquan Liu, Feng Guo, Lijun Ying, Guoping Ge, Aijun Ding, Yunchao Shi, Changwen Liu, Lei Xu, Ronglin Jiang, Jun Lu, Ronghai Lin, Yannan Zhu, Weidong Wu, Bo Xie
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine proposed a definition for acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) based on current medical evidence and expert opinion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using the current AGI grading system and to investigate the association between AGI severity grades with clinical outcome in critically ill patients. METHODS: Adult patients at 14 general intensive care units (ICUs) with an expected ICU stay ≥24 h were prospectively studied...
July 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709079/breastfeeding-initiation-duration-and-exclusivity-in-mothers-with-epilepsy-from-south-west-china
#15
Nanya Hao, Han Jiang, Mengqian Wu, Tianying Pan, Bo Yan, Jie Liu, Jie Mu, Wenyu Liu, Jinmei Li, Terence J O'Brien, Zhibin Chen, Frank Vajda, Dong Zhou
PURPOSES: 1) To study the breastfeeding initiation, duration and exclusivity rates, and common reasons for early weaning in Chinese mothers with epilepsy (MWE); 2) To identify potential perinatal breastfeeding correlations with selected sociodemographic and clinical factors. METHODS: A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 281 MWE attending hospitals in South-west China from February 2014 to July 2015. Data about breastfeeding behaviors, sociodemographic, obstetric, and epileptic variables were collected...
June 30, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707739/angiotensin-ii-preconditioning-is-associated-with-increased-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-pkc%C3%AE-ratio-and-prosurvival-kinases-in-mitochondria
#16
Rebeca E Nuñez, Sabzali Javadov, Nelson Escobales
Angiotensin II preconditioning (APC) has been shown to reproduce the cardioprotective effects of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), however, molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of APC remain unknown. In this study, Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were subjected to IPC, APC or both (IPC/APC) followed by ischaemia-reperfusion (IR), to determine translocation of PKCε, PKCδ, Akt, Erk1/2, JNK, p38 MAPK and GSK-3β to mitochondria as an indicator of activation of the protein kinases. In agreement with previous observations, IPC, APC and IPC/APC increased the recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), reduced infarct size (IS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, compared to controls...
July 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702329/metformin-causes-a-futile-intestinal-hepatic-cycle-which-increases-energy-expenditure-and-slows-down-development-of-a-type-2-diabetes-like-state
#17
Philipp Schommers, Anna Thurau, Insa Bultmann-Mellin, Maria Guschlbauer, Andreas R Klatt, Jan Rozman, Martin Klingenspor, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Jens Alber, Dirk Gründemann, Anja Sterner-Kock, Rudolf J Wiesner
OBJECTIVE: Metformin, the first line drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes, suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis and reduces body weight in patients, the latter by an unknown mechanism. METHODS: Mice on a high fat diet were continuously fed metformin in a therapeutically relevant dose, mimicking a retarded formulation. RESULTS: Feeding metformin in pharmacologically relevant doses to mice on a high fat diet normalized HbA1c levels and ameliorated glucose tolerance, as expected, but also considerably slowed down weight gain...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692495/the-clinical-significance-of-technetium-99m-methylene-diphosphonate-bone-scintigraphy-findings-in-patients-with-rhabdomyolysis
#18
Jeong Won Lee, Eun-Young Lee, Sae-Yong Hong, Ik Dong Yoo, Sang Mi Lee
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the relationship between bone scintigraphy finding and clinical factors and assessed the prognostic value of bone scintigraphy finding in patients with rhabdomyolysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 143 patients with rhabdomyolysis who had undergone bone scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy was classified into three groups: no or equivocal soft tissue uptake, a localized uptake, and a diffuse uptake. The relationship of bone scintigraphy findings with clinical factors was evaluated...
July 7, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689624/neonatal-effects-after-vasopressor-during-spinal-anesthesia-for-cesarean-section-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
K Uerpairojkit, R Anusorntanawat, A Sirisabya, M Chaichalothorn, S Charuluxananan
BACKGROUND: Placental transfer of ephedrine causes fetal effects when compared with phenylephrine. This study compared their drug effects on neonatal parameters after cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Three-hundred-and-fifty-four women undergoing elective cesarean delivery who needed intravenous vasopressor following spinal anesthesia were randomized into two groups. Group E received boluses of ephedrine 6mg, and Group P phenylephrine 100µg, titrated to maintain systolic blood pressure near baseline values...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688954/rifampicin-induced-injury-in-hepg2-cells-is-alleviated-by-tudca-via-increasing-bile-acid-transporters-expression-and-enhancing-the-nrf2-mediated-adaptive-response
#20
Weiping Zhang, Lihong Chen, Hui Feng, Wei Wang, Yi Cai, Fen Qi, Xiaofang Tao, Jun Liu, Yujun Shen, Xiaofei Ren, Xi Chen, Jianming Xu, Yuxian Shen
Bile acid transporters and the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf-2)-mediated adaptive response play important roles in the development of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). However, little is known about the contribution of the adaptive response to rifampicin (RFP)-induced cell injury. In this study, we found RFP decreased the survival rate of HepG2 cells and increased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), γ-glutamyl-transferase (γ-GT), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), indirect bilirubin (IBIL), total bile acid (TBA) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the cell culture supernatants in both a concentration- and a time-dependent manner...
July 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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