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Drugs in Lactation

Adrian Smedowski, Marita Pietrucha-Dutczak, Ruchi Maniar, Michael Ajeleti, Iwona Matuszek, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik
Preclinical toxicity screening of the new retinal compounds is an absolute requirement in the pathway of further drug development. Since retinal neuron cultivation and in vivo studies are relatively expensive and time consuming, we aimed to create a fast and reproducible ex vivo system for retinal toxicity screening. For this purpose, we used rat retinal explant culture that was retrogradely labeled with the FluoroGold before the isolation. Explants were exposed to a toxic concentration of gentamicin and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a known neuroprotective agent...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Yingjun Deng, Xin Li, Jinxin Feng, Xiangliang Zhang
CML is a myeloproliferative disease which expresses an active tyrosine kinase, BCR/ABL. As a specific inhibitor of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, imatinib becomes the first choice for treatment of CML due to its high efficacy and low toxicity. However, the development of imatinib resistance limits the long-term treatment benefit. so, we aimed to investigate the roles of miR-202 in the regulation of imatinib sensitivity in CML cell lines and the possible mechanisms involved. We found miR-202 was downregulated in seven CML cell lines by qRT-PCR analysis...
March 20, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Shi-Yun Jin, Jun Huang, Hai-Juan Zhu, Hao Wu, Shi-Jin Xu, Michael G Irwin, Shu-Fang He, Ye Zhang
Remifentanil preconditioning (RPC) exerts protection in normal hearts, but has not been investigated in heart failure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of RPC in a chronic failing rat heart model and the mechanisms involving mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and Bcl-2 protein family. The doxorubicin induced failing rat hearts were subjected to 30min ischemia / 120min reperfusion (IR) with or without RPC by using Langendorff apparatus. RPC was induced by three cycles of 5min remifentanil / 5min drug-free perfusion before IR, with three different concentrations: 25, 50 and 100μg/l...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Garcia-Chagollan Mariel, Carranza-Torres Irma Edith, Carranza-Rosales Pilar, Guzmán-Delgado Nancy Elena, Ramírez-Montoya Humberto, Martínez-Silva María Guadalupe, Mariscal-Ramirez Ignacio, Barrón-Gallardo Carlos Alfredo, Pereira-Suárez Ana Laura, Aguilar-Lemarroy Adriana, Jave-Suárez Luis Felipe
BACKGROUND: Currently, one of the most used strategies for the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer is neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on the application of taxanes and anthracyclines. However, despite the high number of patients who develop a complete pathological clinical response, resistance and relapse following this therapy continue to be a clinical challenge. As a component of the innate immune system, the cytotoxic function of Natural Killer (NK) cells plays an important role in the elimination of tumor cells...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Laura Pogliani, Sara Baldelli, Dario Cattaneo, Paola Pileri, Emilio Clementi, Irene Cetin, M D Gianvincenzo Zuccotti
OBJECTIVE: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are commonly used for the treatment of pregnancy-related and postnatal depression. However, only a few studies have evaluated the passage of these drugs into human milk, often with conflicting results. Here, we sought to evaluate the passage of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors into human milk in the first days after delivery and their potential association with neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: The passage of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors into human milk was expressed both as percentage of milk-to-plasma ratio of drug concentrations and as the relative infant dose...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Yan Sun, Yong-Hao Huang, Feng-Ying Huang, Wen-Li Mei, Quan Liu, Cai-Chun Wang, Ying-Ying Lin, Canhua Huang, Yue-Nan Li, Hao-Fu Dai, Guang-Hong Tan
Rationale: Cardenolides have potential as anticancer drugs. 3'-epi-12β-hydroxyfroside (HyFS) is a new cardenolide structure isolated by our research group, but its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study investigates the relationship between its antitumor activities and autophagy in lung cancer cells. Methods: Cell growth and proliferation were detected by MTT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine (EDU) and colony formation assays. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry...
2018: Theranostics
Xue Liu, Yanxiang Wang, Peng Yun, Xin Shen, Feng Su, Yangsheng Chen, Suming Li, Danqing Song
Polylactide-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) block copolymers were synthesized by ring opening polymerization of l-lactide using a monomethoxy PEG (mPEG) as macroinitiator and zinc lactate as catalyst. The resulting diblock copolymers were characterized by1 H NMR and GPC. Polymeric micelles were prepared by self-assembly of copolymers in distilled water using co-solvent evaporation or membrane hydration methods. The resulting micelles are worm-like in shape as shown by TEM measurements. A hydrophobic anticancer drug, cycloprotoberberine derivative A35, was successfully loaded in PLA-PEG filomicelles with high encapsulation efficiency (above 88%)...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Terah R Webb, Milton Wyman, Julie A Smith, Yukie Ueyama, William W Muir
OBJECTIVE To establish a study cutoff for evidence of glaucoma on the basis of IOP measurements from a large population of healthy dogs and to assess the effects of IV propofol administration on IOPs in premedicated and nonpremedicated dogs with and without glaucoma defined by this method. DESIGN Prospective, descriptive study. ANIMALS 234 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES IOPs measured in 113 healthy dogs (226 eyes) were used to calculate an IOP value indicative of glaucoma. The IOPs were measured in an additional 121 dogs (237 eyes) undergoing ophthalmic surgery...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Xiao-Meng Zhang, Zhi-Jian Lin, Fan Li, Bing Zhang, Xiao-Xin Guo, Le Yang
Based on the relation of efficacy and toxicity, this study mined the dosage rules and characteristics of Aconitum herbs in oral prescriptions from 48 traditional ancient books from Eastern Han dynasty to Qing dynasty, to provide the basis for strengthening the clinical risk pharmacovigilance. In the 48 traditional ancient books, 4 521 prescriptions with clear daily oral dosage were included to establish a database. SPSS 20.0 software was used for statistics and analysis of the daily dosage characteristics with different kinds of herbs, indications, dose forms, processing, use in special population, and other aspects...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Inês Amaral, Cláudia Silva, Ana Correia-Branco, Fátima Martel
This work aimed to investigate the effect of metformin on cellular glucose uptake and metabolism by breast cancer cells, as a mechanism contributing to its anticancer properties. Estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive (MCF-7) and triple-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines were used as in vitro models of breast cancer. Short-term (26 min) exposure of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells to metformin inhibited uptake of3 H-deoxy-D-glucose (3 H-DG). In contrast, long-term (24 h) exposure to metformin (5 μM-1 mM) concentration-dependently increased3 H-DG uptake in both cell lines...
March 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Irving Zucker
Breastfeeding women are excluded from clinical trials of psychoactive drugs because of ethical concerns. Animal testing, which often is predictive of adverse effects in humans, represents the only avenue available for assessing drug safety for human offspring exposed to drugs during lactation. I determined whether behavioral outcomes for children exposed during breastfeeding to antidepressants, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, anti-seizure medications, analgesics, sedatives, and marijuana can be predicted by rodent studies of offspring exposed to drugs during lactation...
March 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Swetha Sangomla, Mohd Aslam Saifi, Amit Khurana, Chandraiah Godugu
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs but its use has been limited due to constraints of cardiotoxic side effects. The precise mechanism underlying cardiotoxicity is not yet fully understood but oxidative stress has been found to be a primary mechanism behind this. In addition, DOX induced cardiotoxicity also shows involvement of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Since oxidative stress plays major role in DOX induced cardiotoxicity, different antioxidants have been tried to prevent cardiotoxicity of DOX...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Nora Freyer, Selina Greuel, Fanny Knöspel, Florian Gerstmann, Lisa Storch, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Jennifer Foster Harris, Rashi Iyer, Frank Schubert, Katrin Zeilinger
The accurate prediction of hepatotoxicity demands validated human in vitro models that can close the gap between preclinical animal studies and clinical trials. In this study we investigated the response of primary human liver cells to toxic drug exposure in a perfused microscale 3D liver bioreactor. The cellularized bioreactors were treated with 5, 10, or 30 mM acetaminophen (APAP) used as a reference substance. Lactate production significantly decreased upon treatment with 30 mM APAP ( p < 0.05) and ammonia release significantly increased in bioreactors treated with 10 or 30 mM APAP ( p < 0...
March 15, 2018: Bioengineering
Frédéric J Baud, Mohamad K Haidar, Romain Jouffroy, Jean-Herlé Raphalen, Lionel Lamhaut, Pierre Carli
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the magnitude of lactic acidosis in response to cyanide poisoning compared with the secondary response caused by cardiovascular shock. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control observational study. SETTING: University Hospital of Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris. SUBJECTS: Patients admitted for suspicion of cyanide poisoning or drug overdose. Medical charts provided by Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris of patients between January 1988 and December 2015...
March 14, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Natthakan Thongon, Chiara Zucal, Vito Giuseppe D'Agostino, Toma Tebaldi, Silvia Ravera, Federica Zamporlini, Francesco Piacente, Ruxanda Moschoi, Nadia Raffaelli, Alessandro Quattrone, Alessio Nencioni, Jean-Francois Peyron, Alessandro Provenzani
Background: Inhibitors of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in NAD+ biosynthesis from nicotinamide, exhibit anticancer effects in preclinical models. However, continuous exposure to NAMPT inhibitors, such as FK866, can induce acquired resistance. Methods: We developed FK866-resistant CCRF-CEM (T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia) and MDA MB231 (breast cancer) models, and by exploiting an integrated approach based on genetic, biochemical, and genome wide analyses, we annotated the drug resistance mechanisms...
2018: Cancer & Metabolism
Anna Cavigelli-Brunner, Maja I Hug, Hitendu Dave, Oskar Baenziger, Christoph Buerki, Dominique Bettex, Vincenzo Cannizzaro, Christian Balmer
OBJECTIVES: Dobutamine and milrinone are commonly used after open-heart surgery to prevent or treat low cardiac output syndrome. We sought to compare efficacy and safety of these drugs in pediatric patients. DESIGN: Prospective, single-center, double-blinded, randomized clinical pilot study. SETTING: Tertiary-care university children's hospital postoperative pediatric cardiac ICU. PATIENTS: After written consent, 50 consecutive patients (age, 0...
March 13, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Angela L Chiew, Daniel F B Wright, Nicola M Dobos, Kylie McArdle, Ahmed A Mostafa, Annemarie Newth, Michael S Roberts, Geoffrey K Isbister
Massive metformin overdose can cause metabolic acidosis with hyperlactatemia. A 55-year-old female presented 5h post multi-drug overdose, including 132 g extended-release metformin. Continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) and noradrenaline were commenced due to metabolic acidosis (pH 7.0, lactate 17 mmol/L) and shock. Despite 3 hours of CVVHDF, her acidosis worsened (pH 6.83, lactate 24 mmol/L). Intermittent haemodialysis(IHD) improved acidosis (pH 7.13, lactate 26 mmol/l), but again worsened (pH 6...
March 13, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Nafiseh Sadat Mahmoodi, Seyyed Ahmad Reza Okhovat, Seyyed Hamid Reza Abtahi, Amirhossein Moslehi
Background: Nasal corticosteroids are the main drug class for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, and their long-term continuous use can be problematic. The current study aimed to compare the use of Nasaleze and mometasone nasal spray in patients with allergic rhinitis. Materials and Methods: In this study, 64 patients were studied in two groups of 32 patients. Nasaleze was used for the first group and mometasone for the second group for 4 weeks. The severity of sneezing, runny nose, tearing, nasal congestion, itchy eyes, and scratchy throat were evaluated at the onset of the study, and also 14 and 28 days after treatment in the form of a single-blind study...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Sveva Grande, Alessandra Palma, Lucia Ricci-Vitiani, Anna Maria Luciani, Mariachiara Buccarelli, Mauro Biffoni, Agnese Molinari, Annarica Calcabrini, Emanuela D'Amore, Laura Guidoni, Roberto Pallini, Vincenza Viti, Antonella Rosi
Clustering of patient-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) through unsupervised analysis of metabolites detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) evidenced three subgroups, namely clusters 1a and 1b, with high intergroup similarity and neural fingerprints, and cluster 2, with a metabolism typical of commercial tumor lines. In addition, subclones generated by the same GSC line showed different metabolic phenotypes. Aerobic glycolysis prevailed in cluster 2 cells as demonstrated by higher lactate production compared to cluster 1 cells...
2018: Stem Cells International
Xuejin Zhang, Chi Yong Kim, Tori Worthen, William H Witola
Cryptosporidium is a highly prevalent protozoan parasite that is the second leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality due to diarrhea in developing countries, and causes a serious diarrheal syndrome in calves, lambs and goat kids worldwide. Development of fully effective drugs against Cryptosporidium has mainly been hindered by the lack of genetic tools for functional characterization and validation of potential molecular drug targets in the parasite. Herein, we report the development of a morpholino-based in vivo approach for Cryptosporidium parvum gene knockdown to facilitate determination of the physiological roles of the parasite's genes in a murine model...
March 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
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