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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102228/maternal-immune-activation-causes-behavioral-impairments-and-altered-cerebellar-cytokine-and-synaptic-protein-expression
#1
Gurudutt Pendyala, Shinnyi Chou, Yoosun Jung, Pierluca Coiro, Elizabeth Spartz, Ragunathan Padmashri, Ming Li, Anna Dunaevsky
Emerging epidemiology studies indicate that maternal immune activation (MIA) resulting from inflammatory stimuli such as viral or bacterial infections during pregnancy serves as a risk factor for multiple neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Although alterations in the cortex and hippocampus of MIA offspring have been described, less evidence exists on the impact on the cerebellum. Here, we report altered expression of cytokines and chemokines in the cerebellum of MIA offspring, including increase in the neuroinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and its receptor TNFR1...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088314/is-advanced-paternal-age-a-health-risk-for-the-offspring
#2
REVIEW
Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Stine Kjaer Urhoj
In this article we review the epidemiologic evidence for adverse health effects in offspring of fathers of advanced age. First the evidence regarding fetal survival is addressed, and afterward we review the evidence regarding morbidity in children with older fathers. The adverse conditions most consistently associated with increased paternal age are stillbirths, musculo-skeletal syndromes, cleft palate, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and retinoblastoma, and neurodevelopmental disorders in the autism spectrum and schizophrenia...
January 11, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068486/the-changing-epidemiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Kristen Lyall, Lisa Croen, Julie Daniels, M Daniele Fallin, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Brian K Lee, Bo Y Park, Nathaniel W Snyder, Diana Schendel, Heather E Volk, Gayle C Windham, Craig Newschaffer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Current prevalence is estimated to be at least 1.5% in developed countries, with recent increases primarily among those without comorbid intellectual disability. Genetic studies have identified a number of rare de novo mutations and gained footing in the areas of polygenic risk, epigenetics, and gene-by-environment interaction...
December 21, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027915/developmental-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-autism-putative-pathogenic-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Asad Ali, Xiaoying Cui, Darryl Eyles
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disease that presents in early life. Despite a considerable amount of studies, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying autism remain obscure. Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of autism. Vitamin D deficiency is emerging as a consistently reported risk factor in children. One reason for the prominence now being given to this risk factor is that it would appear to interact with several other epidemiological risk factors for autism. Vitamin D is an active neurosteroid and plays crucial neuroprotective roles in the developing brain...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984759/systematic-review-of-the-association-between-particulate-matter-exposure-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
REVIEW
María Morales-Suárez-Varela, Isabel Peraita-Costa, Agustín Llopis-González
Particulate matter (PM) as an environmental pollutant is suspected to be associated with autism spectrum disorders. The aim of the present study was to review the epidemiological literature currently available on the relation between PM exposure and diagnosis of ASD. The PubMed database was searched from November 2015 up to January 2016 by one of the authors. We included observational studies (cohort and case-control studies) published in English carried out in children within the last 10 years, measuring PM exposure and health outcomes related to ASD...
December 13, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984170/autism-genes-are-selectively-targeted-by-environmental-pollutants-including-pesticides-heavy-metals-bisphenol-a-phthalates-and-many-others-in-food-cosmetics-or-household-products
#6
REVIEW
C J Carter, R A Blizard
The increasing incidence of autism suggests a major environmental influence. Epidemiology has implicated many candidates and genetics many susceptibility genes. Gene/environment interactions in autism were analysed using 206 autism susceptibility genes (ASG's) from the Autworks database to interrogate ∼1 million chemical/gene interactions in the comparative toxicogenomics database. Any bias towards ASG's was statistically determined for each chemical. Many suspect compounds identified in epidemiology, including tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, pesticides, particulate matter, benzo(a)pyrene, heavy metals, valproate, acetaminophen, SSRI's, cocaine, bisphenol A, phthalates, polyhalogenated biphenyls, flame retardants, diesel constituents, terbutaline and oxytocin, inter alia showed a significant degree of bias towards ASG's, as did relevant endogenous agents (retinoids, sex steroids, thyroxine, melatonin, folate, dopamine, serotonin)...
October 27, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983596/estrogenic-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-influencing-nrf1-regulated-gene-networks-in-the-development-of-complex-human-brain-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Mark Preciados, Changwon Yoo, Deodutta Roy
During the development of an individual from a single cell to prenatal stages to adolescence to adulthood and through the complete life span, humans are exposed to countless environmental and stochastic factors, including estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals. Brain cells and neural circuits are likely to be influenced by estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) because they strongly dependent on estrogens. In this review, we discuss both environmental, epidemiological, and experimental evidence on brain health with exposure to oral contraceptives, hormonal therapy, and EEDs such as bisphenol-A (BPA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalates, and metalloestrogens, such as, arsenic, cadmium, and manganese...
December 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917314/pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-in-developing-rats-prenatally-exposed-to-valproic-acid
#8
Angel A Puig-Lagunes, Jorge Manzo, Luis Beltrán-Parrazal, Consuelo Morgado-Valle, Rebeca Toledo-Cárdenas, Maria-Leonor López-Meraz
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates epilepsy is more common in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (20-25%) than in the general population. The aim of this project was to analyze seizure susceptibility in developing rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA) as autism model. METHODS: Pregnant females were injected with VPA during the twelfth embryonic day. Seizures were induced in fourteen-days-old rat pups using two models of convulsions: pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899712/disparity-in-report-of-autism-related-behaviors-by-social-demographic-characteristics-findings-from-a-community-based-study-in-taiwan
#9
Peng-Chou Tsai, Rebecca A Harrington, For-Wey Lung, Li-Ching Lee
The Social Communication Questionnaire is one of the most commonly used screening tools for autism spectrum disorder. The Social Communication Questionnaire is a caregiver-reported questionnaire with 40 items based on questions from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. This study collected Social Communication Questionnaire data from a community-based, multi-stage case identification design epidemiologic study in one socioeconomically disadvantaged county in Taiwan. The Social Communication Questionnaire was distributed to 3034 school children, aged 6-8 years...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881525/rationale-and-protocol-for-using-a-smartphone-application-to-study-autism-spectrum-disorders-smartautism
#10
Olivier Bonnot, Dominique Bonneau, Aude Doudard, Philippe Duverger
INTRODUCTION: Longitudinal studies on the evolution of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms are limited and have primarily used repeated measurements performed several months apart. However, measurements of changes in everyday life should more closely reflect the 'real life' of the patient and his or her family. We propose to study the child's ASD symptoms and their effect on the quality of life, psychological status and anxiety of the child's parents over a 6-month period using SMARTAUTISM, a smartphone application...
November 22, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870016/dmcn-2016-highlights-cerebral-palsy-epidemiology-communication-in-autism-and-more
#11
Bernard Dan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842520/assessing-an-isizulu-questionnaire-with-educators-in-primary-schools-in-pietermaritzburg-to-establish-a-baseline-of-knowledge-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Natalie K Hutton, Carol Mitchell, Mary van der Riet
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a significant childhood disorder and has a growing prevalence rate across the world. It has been identified in children from a wide range of racial groups, ethnicities and socio-economic groups, making it a globally relevant disorder. However, a lack of research on ASD in Africa makes it difficult to determine the prevalence rate, presentation and level of knowledge regarding the disorder locally. Therefore, assessing knowledge of ASD amongst professionals is a useful starting point for research in countries where research on ASD is limited...
November 14, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825840/environmental-toxicology-sensitive-periods-of-development-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Djai B Heyer, Rhiannon M Meredith
Development of the mammalian central nervous system is a complex process whose disruption may have severe and long-lasting consequences upon brain structure and function, potentially resulting in a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). Many NDDs are known to be genetic in origin, with symptom onset and their underlying mechanisms now known to be regulated during time-dependent windows or 'critical periods' during normal brain development. However, it is increasingly evident that similar disturbances to the developing nervous system may be caused by exposure to non-genetic, environmental factors...
November 4, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812316/common-genetic-variants-found-in-hla-and-kir-immune-genes-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Anthony R Torres, Thayne L Sweeten, Randall C Johnson, Dennis Odell, Jonna B Westover, Patricia Bray-Ward, David C Ward, Christopher J Davies, Aaron J Thomas, Lisa A Croen, Michael Benson
The "common variant-common disease" hypothesis was proposed to explain diseases with strong inheritance. This model suggests that a genetic disease is the result of the combination of several common genetic variants. Common genetic variants are described as a 5% frequency differential between diseased vs. matched control populations. This theory was recently supported by an epidemiology paper stating that about 50% of genetic risk for autism resides in common variants. However, rare variants, rather than common variants, have been found in numerous genome wide genetic studies and many have concluded that the "common variant-common disease" hypothesis is incorrect...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770494/paternal-age-and-psychiatric-disorders-a-review
#15
Hilde de Kluiver, Jacobine E Buizer-Voskamp, Conor V Dolan, Dorret I Boomsma
We review the hypotheses concerning the association between the paternal age at childbearing and childhood psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum- and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder) and adult disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar-, obsessive-compulsive-, and major depressive disorder) based on epidemiological studies. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the paternal age effect. We discuss the four main-not mutually exclusive-hypotheses. These are the de novo mutation hypothesis, the hypothesis concerning epigenetic alterations, the selection into late fatherhood hypothesis, and the environmental resource hypothesis...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738376/paroxetine-the-antidepressant-from-hell-probably-not-but-caution-required
#16
REVIEW
Robert M Nevels, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Bryman E Williams
Paroxetine, also known by the trade names Aropax, Paxil, Pexeva, Seroxat, Sereupin and Brisdelle, was first marketed in the U.S. in 1992. Effective for major depression and various anxiety disorders, it quickly gained a sizable share of the antidepressant prescription market. By the late 1990s, paroxetine frequently was being associated with serious drug interactions and medication side effects. Most significantly, in a major Canadian epidemiological study examining the relationship between antidepressants and diseases, paroxetine was associated with a 620 percent increase in the rate of breast cancer in women who had taken it over a four-year period...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730473/cytokine-profile-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-children
#17
Vesna Bryn, Hans Christian Dalsbotten Aass, Ola H Skjeldal, Jørn Isaksen, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Heidi Ormstad
The pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is not completely understood, but there is evidence of associations with altered immune responses. The aim of this study was to determine the serum levels of various cytokines in children with ASD and in healthy controls, in order to determine their role in ASD and its diagnostic subgroups. Sixty-five ASD patients were enrolled from an epidemiological survey in Norway, of which 30 were diagnosed with childhood autism, 16 with Asperger syndrome, 12 with atypical autism, 1 with Rett syndrome, and 6 with another ASD diagnosis...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725421/impact-of-maternal-stress-in-pregnancy-on-brain-function-of-the-offspring
#18
Jun Udagawa, Kodai Hino
Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to prenatal stressors, including malnutrition, maternal immune activation (MIA), and adverse life events, is associated with increased risks of schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. The first trimester of pregnancy is particularly a vulnerable period. During this period, the self-renewal of neural stem cells and neurogenesis vigorously occur, and synaptic connections are partially formed in the telencephalon...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706122/a-systematic-review-of-the-association-between-allergic-asthma-and-autism
#19
Alessandro Tonacci, Lucia Billeci, Liliana Ruta, Gennaro Tartarisco, Giovanni Pioggia, Sebastiano Gangemi
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder represents a burdensome condition in early childhood, with a number of risk factors proposed to explain its pathogenesis, most of which without a reliable scientific basis. Allergic asthma is likely to be one of the possible comorbilities of autism. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: In this paper, the relationship between autism and allergic asthma was analyzed through a systematic literature review, conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines...
October 5, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695849/measles-and-measles-vaccination-a-review
#20
Johan Christiaan Bester
Importance: Measles is a highly communicable viral infection with serious complications. There have been continued outbreaks of measles in countries in which measles is considered to be eliminated, such as the United States and the Netherlands, and measles remains endemic in some countries. Health care professionals play an important role in diagnosing and managing acute cases of measles, preventing spread during outbreaks, and vaccination uptake. Objective: To provide an overview of measles and vaccination for health care professionals...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
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