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autism and epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917314/pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-in-developing-rats-prenatally-exposed-to-valproic-acid
#1
Angel A Puig-Lagunes, Jorge Manzo, Luis Beltrán-Parrazal, Consuelo Morgado-Valle, Rebeca Toledo-Cárdenas, Maria-Leonor López-Meraz
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates epilepsy is more common in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (20-25%) than in the general population. The aim of this project was to analyze seizure susceptibility in developing rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA) as autism model. METHODS: Pregnant females were injected with VPA during the twelfth embryonic day. Seizures were induced in fourteen-days-old rat pups using two models of convulsions: pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899712/disparity-in-report-of-autism-related-behaviors-by-social-demographic-characteristics-findings-from-a-community-based-study-in-taiwan
#2
Peng-Chou Tsai, Rebecca A Harrington, For-Wey Lung, Li-Ching Lee
The Social Communication Questionnaire is one of the most commonly used screening tools for autism spectrum disorder. The Social Communication Questionnaire is a caregiver-reported questionnaire with 40 items based on questions from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. This study collected Social Communication Questionnaire data from a community-based, multi-stage case identification design epidemiologic study in one socioeconomically disadvantaged county in Taiwan. The Social Communication Questionnaire was distributed to 3034 school children, aged 6-8 years...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881525/rationale-and-protocol-for-using-a-smartphone-application-to-study-autism-spectrum-disorders-smartautism
#3
Olivier Bonnot, Dominique Bonneau, Aude Doudard, Philippe Duverger
INTRODUCTION: Longitudinal studies on the evolution of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms are limited and have primarily used repeated measurements performed several months apart. However, measurements of changes in everyday life should more closely reflect the 'real life' of the patient and his or her family. We propose to study the child's ASD symptoms and their effect on the quality of life, psychological status and anxiety of the child's parents over a 6-month period using SMARTAUTISM, a smartphone application...
November 22, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870016/dmcn-2016-highlights-cerebral-palsy-epidemiology-communication-in-autism-and-more
#4
Bernard Dan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842520/assessing-an-isizulu-questionnaire-with-educators-in-primary-schools-in-pietermaritzburg-to-establish-a-baseline-of-knowledge-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Natalie K Hutton, Carol Mitchell, Mary van der Riet
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a significant childhood disorder and has a growing prevalence rate across the world. It has been identified in children from a wide range of racial groups, ethnicities and socio-economic groups, making it a globally relevant disorder. However, a lack of research on ASD in Africa makes it difficult to determine the prevalence rate, presentation and level of knowledge regarding the disorder locally. Therefore, assessing knowledge of ASD amongst professionals is a useful starting point for research in countries where research on ASD is limited...
November 14, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825840/environmental-toxicology-sensitive-periods-of-development-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Djai B Heyer, Rhiannon M Meredith
Development of the mammalian central nervous system is a complex process whose disruption may have severe and long-lasting consequences upon brain structure and function, potentially resulting in a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). Many NDDs are known to be genetic in origin, with symptom onset and their underlying mechanisms now known to be regulated during time-dependent windows or 'critical periods' during normal brain development. However, it is increasingly evident that similar disturbances to the developing nervous system may be caused by exposure to non-genetic, environmental factors...
November 4, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812316/common-genetic-variants-found-in-hla-and-kir-immune-genes-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Anthony R Torres, Thayne L Sweeten, Randall C Johnson, Dennis Odell, Jonna B Westover, Patricia Bray-Ward, David C Ward, Christopher J Davies, Aaron J Thomas, Lisa A Croen, Michael Benson
The "common variant-common disease" hypothesis was proposed to explain diseases with strong inheritance. This model suggests that a genetic disease is the result of the combination of several common genetic variants. Common genetic variants are described as a 5% frequency differential between diseased vs. matched control populations. This theory was recently supported by an epidemiology paper stating that about 50% of genetic risk for autism resides in common variants. However, rare variants, rather than common variants, have been found in numerous genome wide genetic studies and many have concluded that the "common variant-common disease" hypothesis is incorrect...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770494/paternal-age-and-psychiatric-disorders-a-review
#8
Hilde de Kluiver, Jacobine E Buizer-Voskamp, Conor V Dolan, Dorret I Boomsma
We review the hypotheses concerning the association between the paternal age at childbearing and childhood psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum- and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder) and adult disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar-, obsessive-compulsive-, and major depressive disorder) based on epidemiological studies. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the paternal age effect. We discuss the four main-not mutually exclusive-hypotheses. These are the de novo mutation hypothesis, the hypothesis concerning epigenetic alterations, the selection into late fatherhood hypothesis, and the environmental resource hypothesis...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738376/paroxetine-the-antidepressant-from-hell-probably-not-but-caution-required
#9
Robert M Nevels, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Bryman E Williams
Paroxetine, also known by the trade names Aropax, Paxil, Pexeva, Seroxat, Sereupin and Brisdelle, was first marketed in the U.S. in 1992. Effective for major depression and various anxiety disorders, it quickly gained a sizable share of the antidepressant prescription market. By the late 1990s, paroxetine frequently was being associated with serious drug interactions and medication side effects. Most significantly, in a major Canadian epidemiological study examining the relationship between antidepressants and diseases, paroxetine was associated with a 620 percent increase in the rate of breast cancer in women who had taken it over a four-year period...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730473/cytokine-profile-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-children
#10
Vesna Bryn, Hans Christian Dalsbotten Aass, Ola H Skjeldal, Jørn Isaksen, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Heidi Ormstad
The pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is not completely understood, but there is evidence of associations with altered immune responses. The aim of this study was to determine the serum levels of various cytokines in children with ASD and in healthy controls, in order to determine their role in ASD and its diagnostic subgroups. Sixty-five ASD patients were enrolled from an epidemiological survey in Norway, of which 30 were diagnosed with childhood autism, 16 with Asperger syndrome, 12 with atypical autism, 1 with Rett syndrome, and 6 with another ASD diagnosis...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725421/impact-of-maternal-stress-in-pregnancy-on-brain-function-of-the-offspring
#11
Jun Udagawa, Kodai Hino
Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to prenatal stressors, including malnutrition, maternal immune activation (MIA), and adverse life events, is associated with increased risks of schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. The first trimester of pregnancy is particularly a vulnerable period. During this period, the self-renewal of neural stem cells and neurogenesis vigorously occur, and synaptic connections are partially formed in the telencephalon...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706122/a-systematic-review-of-the-association-between-allergic-asthma-and-autism
#12
Alessandro Tonacci, Lucia Billeci, Liliana Ruta, Gennaro Tartarisco, Giovanni Pioggia, Sebastiano Gangemi
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder represents a burdensome condition in early childhood, with a number of risk factors proposed to explain its pathogenesis, most of which without a reliable scientific basis. Allergic asthma is likely to be one of the possible comorbilities of autism. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: In this paper, the relationship between autism and allergic asthma was analyzed through a systematic literature review, conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines...
October 5, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695849/measles-and-measles-vaccination-a-review
#13
Johan Christiaan Bester
Importance: Measles is a highly communicable viral infection with serious complications. There have been continued outbreaks of measles in countries in which measles is considered to be eliminated, such as the United States and the Netherlands, and measles remains endemic in some countries. Health care professionals play an important role in diagnosing and managing acute cases of measles, preventing spread during outbreaks, and vaccination uptake. Objective: To provide an overview of measles and vaccination for health care professionals...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692925/behavioral-difficulties-in-7-year-old-children-in-relation-to-developmental-exposure-to-perfluorinated-alkyl-substances
#14
Youssef Oulhote, Ulrike Steuerwald, Frodi Debes, Pal Weihe, Philippe Grandjean
BACKGROUND: Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are suspected endocrine disruptors that are highly persistent and neurotoxic in animals. Human epidemiological studies of exposure-related deviations of children's behaviors are sparse. We assessed the associations between prenatal, 5- and 7-year PFAS exposures and behavioral problem scores in 7-year Faroese children. METHODS: Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were measured in maternal serum and in serum from children at ages 5 and 7years (n=539, 508, and 491, respectively)...
September 29, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684946/maternal-obesity-and-neurodevelopmental-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-offspring
#15
Andrea G Edlow
There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring...
September 29, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663808/news-in-early-intervention-in-autism
#16
Marie-Maude Geoffray, Marion Thevenet, Nicolas Georgieff
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental trouble which prevents the child from socio-communicative interaction, and learning from his environment. Non-medical early intervention attempts to improve prognosis. We will review the main current hypothesis, intervention models and scientific supports about early intervention. METHODS: We conducted a search of the literature published on Medline between 2010 and 2015 related to intervention models provided to children with ASD aged less than 3 years...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623126/-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-bisphenol-a-is-serotonin-the-lacking-link-in-the-chain
#17
D Sarrouilhe, C Dejean
The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is believed to be multifactorial and to involve genetic and environmental components. Environmental chemical exposures are increasingly understood to be important in causing neurotoxicity in fetuses and newborns. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States suggest a substantial increase in ASD prevalence, only partly explicable by factors such as diagnostic substitution. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous xenoestrogen widely employed in a variety of consumer products including plastic and metal food and beverage containers, dental sealants and fillings, medical equipment and thermal receipts...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610351/hypothesis-on-supine-sleep-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-reduction-and-association-with-increasing-autism-incidence
#18
Nils J Bergman
AIM: To identify a hypothesis on: Supine sleep, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) reduction and association with increasing autism incidence. METHODS: Literature was searched for autism spectrum disorder incidence time trends, with correlation of change-points matching supine sleep campaigns. A mechanistic model expanding the hypothesis was constructed based on further review of epidemiological and other literature on autism. RESULTS: In five countries (Denmark, United Kingdom, Australia, Israel, United States) with published time trends of autism, change-points coinciding with supine sleep campaigns were identified...
August 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609410/childhood-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-exposure-to-nitrogen-dioxide-and-particulate-matter-air-pollution-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Marie-Claire Flores-Pajot, Marianna Ofner, Minh T Do, Eric Lavigne, Paul J Villeneuve
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Genetic and environmental factors have been recognized to play an important role in autism. The possibility that exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been an emerging area of research. Herein, we present a systematic review, and meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies that have investigated these associations. METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive search strategy to identify studies that investigated outdoor air pollution and autism in children...
August 25, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604989/the-social-responsiveness-scale-in-relation-to-dsm-iv-and-dsm5-asd-in-korean-children
#20
Keun-Ah Cheon, Jee-In Park, Yun-Joo Koh, Jungeun Song, Hyun-Joo Hong, Young-Kee Kim, Eun-Chung Lim, Hojang Kwon, Mina Ha, Myung-Ho Lim, Ki-Chung Paik, John N Constantino, Bennett Leventhal, Young Shin Kim
The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is an autism rating scales in widespread use, with over 20 official foreign language translations. It has proven highly feasible for quantitative ascertainment of autistic social impairment in public health settings, however, little is known about the validity of the reinforcement in Asia populations or in references to DSM5. The current study aims to evaluate psychometric properties and cross-cultural aspects of the SRS-Korean version (K-SRS).The study subjects were ascertained from three samples: a general sample from 3 regular education elementary schools (n=790), a clinical sample (n=154) of 6-12-year-olds from four psychiatric clinics, and an epidemiological sample of children with ASD, diagnosed using both DSM IV PDD, DSM5 ASD and SCD criteria (n=151)...
September 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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