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autism and epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916794/association-among-obesity-overweight-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Zhen Zheng, Li Zhang, Shiping Li, Fengyan Zhao, Yan Wang, Lan Huang, Jinglan Huang, Rong Zou, Yi Qu, Dezhi Mu
Obesity, overweight and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain serious public health problems. Although lots of studies have recently explored the association among obesity, overweight and ASD, the findings are inconsistent. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to examine the association among obesity, overweight and ASD. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were used for literature searches to identify eligible studies published in English before November 15, 2016. Relevant studies estimating the association among obesity, overweight and ASD were included...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915839/risk-of-mortality-among-children-adolescents-and-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-or-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-their-first-degree-relatives-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#2
Ferrán Catalá-López, Brian Hutton, Matthew J Page, Manuel Ridao, Jane A Driver, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Jaume Forés-Martos, Diego Macías Saint-Gerons, Eduard Vieta, Alfonso Valencia, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorders that may persist into adulthood. ASD and ADHD tend to run in families and may have a significant negative impact on the health and longevity of those with the disorder and their relatives. The aim of this study will be to analyze the risk of mortality among children, adolescents, and adults with ASD or ADHD and their first-degree relatives. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies...
September 15, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902840/maternal-gut-bacteria-promote-neurodevelopmental-abnormalities-in-mouse-offspring
#3
Sangdoo Kim, Hyunju Kim, Yeong Shin Yim, Soyoung Ha, Koji Atarashi, Tze Guan Tan, Randy S Longman, Kenya Honda, Dan R Littman, Gloria B Choi, Jun R Huh
Maternal immune activation (MIA) contributes to behavioural abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in both primate and rodent offspring. In humans, epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of fetuses to maternal inflammation increases the likelihood of developing autism spectrum disorder. In pregnant mice, interleukin-17a (IL-17a) produced by T helper 17 (TH17) cells (CD4(+) T helper effector cells involved in multiple inflammatory conditions) induces behavioural and cortical abnormalities in the offspring exposed to MIA...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890420/perinatal-inflammation-and-adult-psychopathology-from-preclinical-models-to-humans
#4
REVIEW
Amaicha Mara Depino
Perinatal environment plays a crucial role in brain development and determines its function through life. Epidemiological studies and clinical reports link perinatal exposure to infection and/or immune activation to various psychiatric disorders. In addition, accumulating evidence from animal models shows that perinatal inflammation can affect various behaviors relevant to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, anxiety and depression. Remarkably, the effects on behavior and brain function do not always depend on the type of inflammatory stimulus or the perinatal age targeted, so diverse inflammatory events can have similar consequences on the brain...
September 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883881/zinc-and-copper-metabolism-and-risk-of-autism-a-reply-to-sayehmiri-et-al
#5
Keith Fluegge Ba
OBJECTIVE: Sayehmiri et al. recently conducted a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between zinc and copper metabolism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recent reports have elucidated a full behavioral profile of mice exposed to prenatal zinc deficiency and documented a phenotype similar to that found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). These studies suggest that significant alterations in Zn metabolism may be an important nutritional component in the development of ASD. MATERIALS & METHODS: The idea that prenatal zinc deficiency may be to blame is cursorily challenged...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826398/autism-spectrum-disorders-asd-in-south-asia-a-systematic-review
#6
Mohammad Didar Hossain, Helal Uddin Ahmed, M M Jalal Uddin, Waziul Alam Chowdhury, Mohd S Iqbal, Razin Iqbal Kabir, Imran Ahmed Chowdhury, Afzal Aftab, Pran Gopal Datta, Golam Rabbani, Saima Wazed Hossain, Malabika Sarker
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders. The prevalence of ASD in many South Asian countries is still unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review available epidemiological studies of ASD in this region to identify gaps in our current knowledge. METHODS: We searched, collected and evaluated articles published between January 1962 and July 2016 which reported the prevalence of ASD in eight South Asian countries...
August 1, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799289/prenatal-exposure-to-fever-is-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-boston-birth-cohort
#7
Martha Brucato, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Mengying Li, Deanna Caruso, Xiumei Hong, Jamie Kaczaniuk, Elizabeth A Stuart, M Daniele Fallin, Xiaobin Wang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous, with evidence for genetic and environmental contributions to disease risk. Research has focused on the prenatal period as a time where environmental exposures are likely to influence risk for ASD. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA), caused by infections and fever, and ASD. However, due to differences in study design and exposure measurements no consistent patterns have emerged revealing specific times or type of MIA exposure that are most important to ASD risk...
August 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765079/developmental-neurotoxicity-and-autism-a-potential-link-between-indoor-neuroactive-pollutants-and-the-curious-birth-order-risk-factor
#8
REVIEW
Wesley A Gray, Vincent A Billock
Epidemiological and demographic studies find an increased risk of autism among first-borns. Toxicological studies show that some semi-volatile substances found in infant products produce adverse effects in neural and endocrine systems of animals, including behavioral and developmental effects. Several factors elevate the exposure of human infants to these chemicals. The highest exposures found in infants are comparable to the exposures that induce neural toxicity in animals. A review of these literatures suggests a linking hypothesis that could bridge the epidemiological and toxicological lines of evidence: an infant's exposure to neuroactive compounds emitted by infant products is increased by product newness and abundance; exposure is likely maximized for first-born children in families that can afford new products...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733900/the-putative-role-of-environmental-mercury-in-the-pathogenesis-and-pathophysiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-subtypes
#9
REVIEW
G Morris, B K Puri, R E Frye, M Maes
Exposure to organic forms of mercury has the theoretical capacity to generate a range of immune abnormalities coupled with chronic nitro-oxidative stress seen in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The paper discusses possible mechanisms explaining the neurotoxic effects of mercury and possible associations between mercury exposure and ASD subtypes. Environmental mercury is neurotoxic at doses well below the current reference levels considered to be safe, with evidence of neurotoxicity in children exposed to environmental sources including fish consumption and ethylmercury-containing vaccines...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709821/the-mandarin-version-of-the-kiddie-schedule-for-affective-disorders-and-schizophrenia-epidemiological-version-for-dsm-5-a-psychometric-study
#10
Yi-Lung Chen, Lih-Jong Shen, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Changes of diagnostic coverage and criteria for psychiatric disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) published in 2013 cause a need for updating the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological version (K-SADS-E). This study examined the preliminary psychometric properties, including inter-rater reliability, and convergent and divergent validity of the modified K-SADS-E for DSM-5...
July 11, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700580/infant-viewing-of-social-scenes-is-under-genetic-control-and-is-atypical-in-autism
#11
John N Constantino, Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Claire Weichselbaum, Natasha Marrus, Alyzeh Haider, Anne L Glowinski, Scott Gillespie, Cheryl Klaiman, Ami Klin, Warren Jones
Long before infants reach, crawl or walk, they explore the world by looking: they look to learn and to engage, giving preferential attention to social stimuli, including faces, face-like stimuli and biological motion. This capacity-social visual engagement-shapes typical infant development from birth and is pathognomonically impaired in children affected by autism. Here we show that variation in viewing of social scenes, including levels of preferential attention and the timing, direction and targeting of individual eye movements, is strongly influenced by genetic factors, with effects directly traceable to the active seeking of social information...
July 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699102/-the-concept-of-schizoidia-in-psychiatry-from-schizoidia-to-schizotypy-and-cluster%C3%A2-a-personality-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Hans-Peter Kapfhammer
From a perspective of conceptual evolution schizoidia was initially considered to describe features both of the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients and of the personalities of non-psychotic family members (Bleuler, Kahlbaum, Kraepelin). On a psychopatholocial level a close link to the complex basic symptom of autism was stressed. From the very beginnings of modern psychiatry schizoidia was discussed within a conceptual frame of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Kretschmer, Hoch, Polatin). Approaches to operationalize these conceptual works laid the basis for the cluster A personalities in DSM-III...
July 11, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685996/are-autistic-traits-associated-with-suicidality-a-test-of-the-interpersonal-psychological-theory-of-suicide-in-a-non-clinical-young-adult-sample
#13
M K Pelton, S A Cassidy
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has recently been associated with increased risk of suicidality. However, no studies have explored how autistic traits may interact with current models of suicidal behavior in a non-clinical population. The current study therefore explored how self-reported autistic traits interact with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in predicting suicidal behavior, in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). 163 young adults (aged 18-30 years) completed an online survey including measures of thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness (Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire), self-reported autistic traits (Autism Spectrum Quotient), current depression (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), and lifetime suicidality (Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised)...
July 7, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656175/epidemiological-and-serological-investigation-into-the-role-of-gestational-maternal-influenza-virus-infection-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#14
Milada Mahic, Xiaoyu Che, Ezra Susser, Bruce Levin, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Per Magnus, Camilla Stoltenberg, Lokendrasingh Chauhan, Thomas Briese, Michaeline Bresnahan, Pål Surén, Mady Hornig, Siri Mjaaland, W Ian Lipkin
The literature concerning gestational maternal influenza virus infection and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is inconclusive. To address this uncertainty, we obtained information from questionnaires and samples from the Autism Birth Cohort, a prospective birth cohort comprising mothers, fathers, and offspring recruited in Norway in 1999 to 2008. Through questionnaires, referrals, and linkages to the Norwegian National Patient Registry, we identified 338 mothers of children with ASD and 348 frequency-matched controls for whom plasma samples that had been collected midpregnancy and after delivery were available for influenza virus serology via luciferase immunoprecipitation and hemagglutinin inhibition assays for influenza virus strains circulating during the study period...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655626/differential-effects-of-perinatal-exposure-to-antidepressants-on-learning-and-memory-acoustic-startle-anxiety-and-open-field-activity-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#15
Jenna L N Sprowles, Jillian R Hufgard, Arnold Gutierrez, Rebecca A Bailey, Sarah A Jablonski, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
Most antidepressants inhibit monoamine reuptake. Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) act on the 5-HT transporter (SERT) whereas norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs) act on the norepinephrine and dopamine transporters. Epidemiological reports link SSRI use during pregnancy to an increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We previously showed that perinatal exposure to the SSRI citalopram (CIT) results in rodent offspring that exhibit a number of behaviors consistent with an ASD-like phenotype...
October 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641213/measurement-properties-of-screening-and-diagnostic-tools-for-autism-spectrum-adults-of-mean-normal-intelligence-a-systematic-review
#16
A Baghdadli, F Russet, L Mottron
BACKGROUND: The autism spectrum (AS) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental variant associated with lifelong challenges. Despite the relevant importance of identifying AS in adults for epidemiological, public health, and quality of life issues, the measurement properties of the tools currently used to screen and diagnose adults without intellectual disabilities (ID) have not been assessed. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review addresses the accuracy, reliability, and validity of the reported AS screening and diagnostic tools used in adults without ID...
May 17, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620294/gestational-exposure-to-air-pollution-alters-cortical-volume-microglial-morphology-and-microglia-neuron-interactions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#17
Jessica L Bolton, Steven Marinero, Tania Hassanzadeh, Divya Natesan, Dominic Le, Christine Belliveau, S N Mason, Richard L Auten, Staci D Bilbo
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, important for normal neural development in addition to host defense in response to inflammatory stimuli. Air pollution is one of the most pervasive and harmful environmental toxicants in the modern world, and several large scale epidemiological studies have recently linked prenatal air pollution exposure with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a primary toxic component of air pollution, and markedly activate microglia in vitro and in vivo in adult rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608249/retinoic-acid-related-orphan-receptor-alpha-rora-variants-are-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Arezou Sayad, Rezvan Noroozi, Mir Davood Omrani, Mohammad Taheri, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with various epidemiologic, genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors being associated with it. The observed sex bias in ASD towards male has prompted investigators to propose sex-dependent mechanisms for ASD. Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-alpha (RORA) is a new autism candidate gene that has been shown to be differentially regulated by male and female hormones. Previous studies have shown deregulation of its expression in the prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum of ASD patients...
June 12, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595786/increased-risk-for-an-atypical-autism-diagnosis-following-thimerosal-containing-vaccine-exposure-in-the-united-states-a-prospective-longitudinal-case-control-study-in-the-vaccine-safety-datalink
#19
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Mark R Geier
BACKGROUND: Thimerosal is an organic-mercury (Hg)-containing compound (49.55% Hg by weight) historically added to many multi-dose vials of vaccine as a preservative and still added to some vaccines today. Concerns about the toxic effects from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the risk of an atypical autism diagnosis were evaluated in this study. METHODS: A hypothesis-testing, prospective longitudinal, case-control study assessed exposure to Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB) among cases diagnosed with atypical autism (n=164) and controls (n=15,216)...
July 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593620/-a-comparative-study-of-the-structural-stigmatisation-of-adhd-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-flemish-newspapers
#20
D Baeyens, A Moniquet, M Danckaerts, S van der Oord
Children and adults with adhd and autism spectrum disorder (asd) often find themselves being stigmatised. There is ample evidence of public stigma, but much less is known about negative coverage in the media, a phenomenon that can be regarded as a form of structural stigma.<br/> AIM: To explore the different types of structural stigma that characterise the coverage of adhd and asd in Flemish newspapers.<br/> METHOD: We used the online databases of seven Flemish newspapers in order to select articles on adhd (n=772) and asd (n=1940) published between 2010 and 2014...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
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