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autism and epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771287/term-or-preterm-cesarean-section-delivery-does-not-lead-to-long-term-detrimental-consequences-in-mice
#1
Morgane Chiesa, Damien Guimond, Roman Tyzio, Alexandre Pons-Bennaceur, Natalia Lozovaya, Nail Burnashev, Diana C Ferrari, Yehezkel Ben-Ari
Epidemiological studies have provided contradictory data on the deleterious sequels of cesarean section (C-section) delivery and their links with developmental brain disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorders. To gain better insight on these issues, we have now compared physiological, morphological, and behavioral parameters in vaginal, term, and preterm C-section delivered mice. We report that C-section delivery does not lead to long-term behavioral alterations though preterm C-section delivery modifies communicative behaviors in pups...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732167/bugs-in-the-program-can-pregnancy-drugs-and-smoking-disturb-molecular-reprogramming-of-the-fetal-germline-increasing-heritable-risk-for-autism-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#2
Jill Escher
In a seeming paradox, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has surged, while at the same time research has pointed to the strong heritability of this neurodevelopmental pathology. Here an autism research philanthropist suggests a biological phenomenon of exogenously induced 'gamete disruption' that could reconcile these seemingly contradictory observations. Mining information from her own family history and that of her fellow autism parents, while also engaging with the scientific community, she proposes that a subset of the autisms may be rooted in a variety of molecular glitches in parental gametes induced by certain acute exposures during the parents' own fetal or neonatal development...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728258/ambient-ozone-exposure-and-mental-health-a-systematic-review-of-epidemiological-studies
#3
REVIEW
Tianyu Zhao, Iana Markevych, Marcel Romanos, Dennis Nowak, Joachim Heinrich
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have suggested adverse effects of air pollution on mental health. Given the potentially negative impacts of ozone exposure on the immune and nervous system driven from animal experiments, ozone might also affect mental health. However, no systematic synthesis of the relevant literature has been conducted yet. This paper reviews the studies that assessed the link between ozone exposure and mental health thus far. METHODS: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA)...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694960/kynurenine-pathway-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-children
#4
Vesna Bryn, Robert Verkerk, Ola H Skjeldal, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Heidi Ormstad
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that altered immune responses play a role in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), together with dysfunction of the serotonergic and glutamatergic systems. Since the kynurenine (KYN) pathway that degrades tryptophan (TRP) is activated in various neuroinflammatory states, we aimed to determine whether this pathway is activated in ASD. METHODS: Sixty-five pediatric ASD patients (including 52 boys) were enrolled from an epidemiological survey covering 2 counties in Norway; 30 (46...
April 25, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678176/prenatal-and-early-life-diesel-exhaust-exposure-causes-autism-like-behavioral-changes-in-mice
#5
Yu-Chi Chang, Toby B Cole, Lucio G Costa
BACKGROUND: Escalating prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in recent decades has triggered increasing efforts in understanding roles played by environmental risk factors as a way to address this widespread public health concern. Several epidemiological studies show associations between developmental exposure to traffic-related air pollution and increased ASD risk. In rodent models, a limited number of studies have shown that developmental exposure to ambient ultrafine particulates or diesel exhaust (DE) can result in behavioral phenotypes consistent with mild ASD...
April 20, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655594/no-effect-of-prenatal-vitamin-d-deficiency-on-autism-relevant-behaviours-in-multiple-inbred-strains-of-mice
#6
M Langguth, M Fassin, S Alexander, K M Turner, T H J Burne
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders commonly characterised by verbal and non-verbal communication deficits, impaired social interaction and repetitive, stereotypic behaviours. The aetiology of ASD is most likely a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Epidemiological evidence suggests that prenatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased incidence of ASD. The overall aim of this study was to investigate prenatal vitamin D deficiency on ASD-related behavioural phenotypes in multiple inbred strains of mice...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573218/understanding-environmental-contributions-to-autism-causal-concepts-and-the-state-of-science
#7
REVIEW
Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Rebecca J Schmidt, Paula Krakowiak
The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science...
March 23, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540271/peripheral-iron-levels-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-vs-controls-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Ping-Tao Tseng, Yu-Shian Cheng, Yen-Wen Chen, Brendon Stubbs, Paul Whiteley, Andre F Carvalho, Dian-Jeng Li, Tien-Yu Chen, Wei-Cheng Yang, Chia-Hung Tang, Che-Sheng Chu, Wei-Chieh Yang, Hsin-Yi Liang, Ching-Kuan Wu, Cheng-Fang Yen, Pao-Yen Lin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, and nutritional deficiency may play a role in the development of ASD. A relationship between ASD and iron levels/iron deficiency (ID) has been reported; however, the results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to examine the relationship between ASD and ID following the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, ProQuest, ClinicalTrials...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408533/the-placental-immune-response-is-dysregulated-developmentally-vitamin-d-deficient-rats-relevance-to-autism
#9
Asad Ali, Xiaoying Cui, Suzanne Alexander, Darryl Eyles
Emerging evidence suggests that maternal or developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a risk factor for Autism Spectrum Disorders. A well-established association has also been found between gestational infection and increased incidence of autism. Placenta mediates the maternal immune response in respect to the foetus. The placenta is also a major source of vitamin D and locally produced vitamin D is an essential regulator of immune function during pregnancy. Here we investigate the effects of DVD-deficiency on baseline placental immune status and in response to the well-known viral and bacterial immune activating agents polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398935/vaccination-as-a-cause-of-autism-myths-and-controversies
#10
Michael Davidson
Despite significant progress in the study of the epidemiology and genetics of autism, the etiology and patho-physiology of this condition is far from being elucidated and no curative treatment currently exists. Although solid scientific research continues, in an attempt to find explanations and solutions, a number of nonscientific and pure myths about autism have emerged. Myths that vaccines or mercury are associated with autism have been amplified by misguided scientists; frustrated, but effective parent groups; and politicians...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334526/airborne-particulate-matter-human-exposure-health-effects
#11
Jonathan E Thompson
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is estimated to cause millions of premature deaths annually. This work conveys known routes of exposure to PM and resultant health effects. METHODS: Review of available literature. RESULTS: Estimates for daily PM exposure are provided. Known mechanisms by which insoluble particles are transported and removed from the body are discussed. Biological effects of PM, including immune response, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity are reported...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325848/a-genetic-investigation-of-sex-bias-in-the-prevalence-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
Joanna Martin, Raymond K Walters, Ditte Demontis, Manuel Mattheisen, S Hong Lee, Elise Robinson, Isabell Brikell, Laura Ghirardi, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Nicholas Eriksson, Thomas Werge, Preben Bo Mortensen, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, David M Hougaard, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Naomi R Wray, Barbara Franke, Stephen V Faraone, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar, Anders D Børglum, Benjamin M Neale
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows substantial heritability and is two to seven times more common in male individuals than in female individuals. We examined two putative genetic mechanisms underlying this sex bias: sex-specific heterogeneity and higher burden of risk in female cases. METHODS: We analyzed genome-wide autosomal common variants from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and iPSYCH Project (n = 20,183 cases, n = 35,191 controls) and Swedish population register data (n = 77,905 cases, n = 1,874,637 population controls)...
December 2, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314180/what-s-new-in-atopic-eczema-an-analysis-of-systematic-reviews-published-in-2015-part-1-epidemiology-and-methodology
#13
REVIEW
E Davies, N K Rogers, A Lloyd-Lavery, D J C Grindlay, K S Thomas
This review forms part of a series of annual updates that summarize the evidence base for atopic eczema (AE), providing a succinct guide for clinicians and patients. It provides a summary of key findings from 15 systematic reviews that were published during 2015, and focuses on the epidemiology and methodology issues of AE. For systematic reviews on the prevention and treatment of AE, see Part 2 of this update. The worldwide prevalence of AE during childhood has been calculated to be 7.89% (95% CI 7.88-7.89), based on studies of 1 430 329 children from 102 countries...
January 4, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305196/periconceptional-folate-deficiency-leads-to-autism-like-traits-in-wistar-rat-offspring
#14
Stéphanie Degroote, Darel Hunting, Larissa Takser
BACKGROUND: Folates in their role as key one carbon donors, are essential for two major pathways: the synthesis of DNA and RNA precursors and DNA methylation. A growing body of evidence from epidemiological studies indicates a possible association between nutritional and functional deficiency in folates and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, there are no available behavioral animal studies on periconceptional one‑carbon donor deficiency during gestation and the autistic phenotype...
March 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262498/-advances-on-the-research-of-the-environmental-risk-factors-of-children-autism
#15
D N Huang, Y T Jin
Autism spectrum disorder is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by social interaction and communication impairments, accompanied by repetitive behaviors. Little is known about the causes and contributing factors for autism. It is difficult to prevent and cure, and has become a globe public health problem. With the development in the prevalence of autism, the idea how the environmental factors cause the autism, gains all attentions. Summarizing latest epidemiological studies and experimental evidence, this review is focused on the effect of environmental factors, including air pollutant, heavy metal and pesticides, and discussed the relation between environmental risk factors and autism...
December 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174949/impaired-repair-of-dna-damage-is-associated-with-autistic-like-traits-in-rats-prenatally-exposed-to-valproic-acid
#16
Michela Servadio, Antonia Manduca, Francesca Melancia, Loris Leboffe, Sara Schiavi, Patrizia Campolongo, Maura Palmery, Paolo Ascenzi, Alessandra di Masi, Viviana Trezza
Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic and mood stabilizer valproic acid (VPA) is an environmental risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), although recent epidemiological studies show that the public awareness of this association is still limited. Based on the clinical findings, prenatal VPA exposure in rodents is a widely used preclinical model of ASD. However, there is limited information about the precise biochemical mechanisms underlying the link between ASD and VPA. Here, we tested the effects of increasing doses of VPA on behavioral features resembling core and secondary symptoms of ASD in rats...
January 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157090/a-critical-review-of-developmental-exposure-to-particulate-matter-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Tiffani A Fordyce, Megan J Leonhard, Ellen T Chang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (ADD/ADHD) are key focuses of current health research due to their increasing prevalence. The objective of this systematic literature search and critical review was to evaluate whether the human epidemiologic data indicate a pattern of association between ASD or ADD/ADHD and developmental exposure to particulate matter (PM), with a focus on exposures encountered before the age of three. A MEDLINE and EMBASE search was conducted; following preliminary and full-text screening, 14 relevant articles were identified for review...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137973/exposure-to-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-and-child-behavior-current-findings-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Ann M Vuong, Kimberly Yolton, Kim N Dietrich, Joseph M Braun, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are recognized neurotoxicants, but the extent to which PBDEs influence various domains of behavior in children is not fully understood. As such, we reviewed epidemiologic studies published to date to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on PBDEs' potential role in behavioral development. We identified 19 epidemiologic studies reporting on associations of prenatal and childhood concentrations of PBDEs with behaviors assessed in children from 1 to 12years, including executive function, attention, externalizing and internalizing behaviors, adaptive skills, and social behaviors/Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)...
December 7, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125540/is-high-folic-acid-intake-a-risk-factor-for-autism-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Darrell Wiens, M Catherine DeSoto
Folate is required for metabolic processes and neural development. Insuring its adequate levels for pregnant women through supplementation of grain-based foods with synthetic folic acid (FA) in order to prevent neural tube defects has been an ongoing public health initiative. However, because women are advised to take multivitamins containing FA before and throughout pregnancy, the supplementation together with natural dietary folates has led to a demographic with high and rising serum levels of unmetabolized FA...
November 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121345/early-postnatal-exposure-to-airborne-fine-particulate-matter-induces-autism-like-phenotypes-in-male-rats
#20
Kang Li, Li Li, Bo Cui, Zhihui Gai, Qiuyue Li, Shumei Wang, Jun Yan, Bencheng Lin, Lei Tian, Huanliang Liu, Xiaohua Liu, Zhuge Xi
Epidemiological studies have revealed that ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure is closely associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is a relative paucity of laboratory data to support this epidemic finding. In order to assess the relationship between PM2.5 exposure and ASD, neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen and exposed to PM2.5 (2 or 20 mg/kg body weight, once a day) by intranasal instillation from postnatal day 8 to 22. It was found that when exposed to PM2.5 in the early neonatal period for two weeks, both groups of the exposure rats manifested typical behavioral features of autism, including communication deficits, poor social interaction, and novelty avoidance...
March 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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