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autism and epidemiology

Robert M Nevels, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Bryman E Williams
Paroxetine, also known by the trade names Aropax, Paxil, Pexeva, Seroxat, Sereupin and Brisdelle, was first marketed in the U.S. in 1992. Effective for major depression and various anxiety disorders, it quickly gained a sizable share of the antidepressant prescription market. By the late 1990s, paroxetine frequently was being associated with serious drug interactions and medication side effects. Most significantly, in a major Canadian epidemiological study examining the relationship between antidepressants and diseases, paroxetine was associated with a 620 percent increase in the rate of breast cancer in women who had taken it over a four-year period...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Vesna Bryn, Hans Christian Dalsbotten Aass, Ola H Skjeldal, Jørn Isaksen, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Heidi Ormstad
The pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is not completely understood, but there is evidence of associations with altered immune responses. The aim of this study was to determine the serum levels of various cytokines in children with ASD and in healthy controls, in order to determine their role in ASD and its diagnostic subgroups. Sixty-five ASD patients were enrolled from an epidemiological survey in Norway, of which 30 were diagnosed with childhood autism, 16 with Asperger syndrome, 12 with atypical autism, 1 with Rett syndrome, and 6 with another ASD diagnosis...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Jun Udagawa, Kodai Hino
Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to prenatal stressors, including malnutrition, maternal immune activation (MIA), and adverse life events, is associated with increased risks of schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. The first trimester of pregnancy is particularly a vulnerable period. During this period, the self-renewal of neural stem cells and neurogenesis vigorously occur, and synaptic connections are partially formed in the telencephalon...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Alessandro Tonacci, Lucia Billeci, Liliana Ruta, Gennaro Tartarisco, Giovanni Pioggia, Sebastiano Gangemi
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder represents a burdensome condition in early childhood, with a number of risk factors proposed to explain its pathogenesis, most of which without a reliable scientific basis. Allergic asthma is likely to be one of the possible comorbilities of autism. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: In this paper, the relationship between autism and allergic asthma was analyzed through a systematic literature review, conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines...
October 5, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Johan Christiaan Bester
Importance: Measles is a highly communicable viral infection with serious complications. There have been continued outbreaks of measles in countries in which measles is considered to be eliminated, such as the United States and the Netherlands, and measles remains endemic in some countries. Health care professionals play an important role in diagnosing and managing acute cases of measles, preventing spread during outbreaks, and vaccination uptake. Objective: To provide an overview of measles and vaccination for health care professionals...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Youssef Oulhote, Ulrike Steuerwald, Frodi Debes, Pal Weihe, Philippe Grandjean
BACKGROUND: Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are suspected endocrine disruptors that are highly persistent and neurotoxic in animals. Human epidemiological studies of exposure-related deviations of children's behaviors are sparse. We assessed the associations between prenatal, 5- and 7-year PFAS exposures and behavioral problem scores in 7-year Faroese children. METHODS: Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were measured in maternal serum and in serum from children at ages 5 and 7years (n=539, 508, and 491, respectively)...
September 29, 2016: Environment International
Andrea G Edlow
There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring...
September 29, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Marie-Maude Geoffray, Marion Thevenet, Nicolas Georgieff
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental trouble which prevents the child from socio-communicative interaction, and learning from his environment. Non-medical early intervention attempts to improve prognosis. We will review the main current hypothesis, intervention models and scientific supports about early intervention. METHODS: We conducted a search of the literature published on Medline between 2010 and 2015 related to intervention models provided to children with ASD aged less than 3 years...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
D Sarrouilhe, C Dejean
The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is believed to be multifactorial and to involve genetic and environmental components. Environmental chemical exposures are increasingly understood to be important in causing neurotoxicity in fetuses and newborns. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States suggest a substantial increase in ASD prevalence, only partly explicable by factors such as diagnostic substitution. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous xenoestrogen widely employed in a variety of consumer products including plastic and metal food and beverage containers, dental sealants and fillings, medical equipment and thermal receipts...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Nils J Bergman
AIM: To identify a hypothesis on: Supine sleep, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) reduction and association with increasing autism incidence. METHODS: Literature was searched for autism spectrum disorder incidence time trends, with correlation of change-points matching supine sleep campaigns. A mechanistic model expanding the hypothesis was constructed based on further review of epidemiological and other literature on autism. RESULTS: In five countries (Denmark, United Kingdom, Australia, Israel, United States) with published time trends of autism, change-points coinciding with supine sleep campaigns were identified...
August 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Marie-Claire Flores-Pajot, Marianna Ofner, Minh T Do, Eric Lavigne, Paul J Villeneuve
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Genetic and environmental factors have been recognized to play an important role in autism. The possibility that exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been an emerging area of research. Herein, we present a systematic review, and meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies that have investigated these associations. METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive search strategy to identify studies that investigated outdoor air pollution and autism in children...
August 25, 2016: Environmental Research
Keun-Ah Cheon, Jee-In Park, Yun-Joo Koh, Jungeun Song, Hyun-Joo Hong, Young-Kee Kim, Eun-Chung Lim, Hojang Kwon, Mina Ha, Myung-Ho Lim, Ki-Chung Paik, John N Constantino, Bennett Leventhal, Young Shin Kim
The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is an autism rating scales in widespread use, with over 20 official foreign language translations. It has proven highly feasible for quantitative ascertainment of autistic social impairment in public health settings, however, little is known about the validity of the reinforcement in Asia populations or in references to DSM5. The current study aims to evaluate psychometric properties and cross-cultural aspects of the SRS-Korean version (K-SRS).The study subjects were ascertained from three samples: a general sample from 3 regular education elementary schools (n=790), a clinical sample (n=154) of 6-12-year-olds from four psychiatric clinics, and an epidemiological sample of children with ASD, diagnosed using both DSM IV PDD, DSM5 ASD and SCD criteria (n=151)...
September 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Jessica Millar, David K Bilkey, Ryan D Ward
Epidemiological studies have provided convincing evidence for a role of maternal immune activation in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. In recent years, several research groups have capitalised on this discovery and developed animal models such as the maternal immune activation (MIA) model that emulates many phenotypes characteristic of disorders such as schizophrenia. In the present series of experiments we used the MIA model to examine motivation, a core component of the negative symptomatology in schizophrenia...
September 1, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Brenda Finucane, Scott M Myers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychiatry is steadily moving toward a new conceptualization of brain disorders that blurs long-held diagnostic distinctions among neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, including autism. Genomic discoveries are driving these changing perceptions, yet there has so far been minimal impact on traditional genetic counseling practices that continue to view autism through the lens of a dichotomous, all-or-none risk model. RECENT FINDINGS: High rates of comorbidity exist across autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, intellectual disability, and other brain-based disorders...
2016: Current Genetic Medicine Reports
Gary Napier, Duncan Lee, Chris Robertson, Andrew Lawson, Kevin G Pollock
An article published in 1998 by Andrew Wakefield in The Lancet (volume 351, pages 637-641) led to concerns surrounding the safety of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, by associating it with an increased risk of autism. The paper was later retracted after multiple epidemiological studies failed to find any association, but a substantial decrease in UK vaccination rates was observed in the years following publication. This paper proposes a novel spatio-temporal Bayesian hierarchical model with accompanying software (the R package CARBayesST) to simultaneously address three key epidemiological questions about vaccination rates: (i) what impact did the controversy have on the overall temporal trend in vaccination rates in Scotland; (ii) did the magnitude of the spatial inequality in measles susceptibility in Scotland increase due to the measles, mumps and rubella vaccination scare; and (iii) are there any covariate effects, such as deprivation, that impacted on measles susceptibility in Scotland...
August 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Keith Fluegge
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders are increasing in prevalence worldwide. Previous work suggests that exposure to the environmental air pollutant and greenhouse gas - nitrous oxide (N2O) - may be an etiological factor in neurodevelopmental disorders through the targeting of several neural correlates. METHODOLOGY: While a number of recent systematic reviews have addressed the role of general anesthesia in the surgical setting and neurodevelopmental outcomes, a narrative mini-review was conducted to first define and characterize the relevant variables (i...
August 18, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Espen Ajo Arnevik, Sissel Berge Helverschou
OBJECTIVE: Patients with co-occurring autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD) require special attention from clinical services. Screening for this co-occurrence is not generally an integral part of routine clinical assessments, and failure to identify and understand this group of patients may contribute to a worsening of their symptoms and/or an increase in drug abuse. Thus, there is a need to review the evidence base on patients with co-occurring ASD and SUD in order to enhance clinical practice and future research...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Myka L Estes, A Kimberley McAllister
Epidemiological evidence implicates maternal infection as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Animal models corroborate this link and demonstrate that maternal immune activation (MIA) alone is sufficient to impart lifelong neuropathology and altered behaviors in offspring. This Review describes common principles revealed by these models, highlighting recent findings that strengthen their relevance for schizophrenia and autism and are starting to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of MIA on offspring...
August 19, 2016: Science
George Mihai Bădescu, Mădălina Fîlfan, Raluca Elena Sandu, Roxana Surugiu, Ovidiu Ciobanu, Aurel Popa-Wagner
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism represent a significant economic burden, which justify vigorous research to uncover its genetics and developmental clinics for a diagnostic workup. The urgency of addressing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidities is seen in the chilling fact that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders, substance use disorders and obesity each increase the risk for mortality. However, data about comorbidity is mainly descriptive, with mechanistic studies limited to genetic epidemiological studies that document shared genetic risk factors among these conditions...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Lucia Billeci, Sara Calderoni, Eugenia Conti, Camilla Gesi, Claudia Carmassi, Liliana Dell'Osso, Giovanni Cioni, Filippo Muratori, Andrea Guzzetta
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a set of neurodevelopmental disorders with an early-onset and a strong genetic component in their pathogenesis. According to genetic and epidemiological data, ASD relatives present personality traits similar to, but not as severe as the defining features of ASD, which have been indicated as the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP). BAP features seem to be more prevalent in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD than in the general population. Characterizing brain profiles of relatives of autistic probands may help to understand ASD endophenotype...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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