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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526080/post-weaning-diarrhea-in-pigs-risk-factors-and-non-colistin-based-control-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, John Morris Fairbrother, Francis Beaudry, Ann Letellier
Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) is one of the most serious threats for the swine industry worldwide. It is commonly associated with the proliferation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the pig intestine. Colistin, a cationic antibiotic, is widely used in swine for the oral treatment of intestinal infections caused by E. coli, and particularly of PWD. However, despite the effectiveness of this antibiotic in the treatment of PWD, several studies have reported high rates of colistin resistant E. coli in swine...
May 19, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501408/understanding-the-gut-microbiome-of-dairy-calves-opportunities-to-improve-early-life-gut-health
#2
Nilusha Malmuthuge, Le Luo Guan
Early gut microbiota plays a vital role in the long-term health of the host. However, understanding of these microbiota is very limited in livestock species, especially in dairy calves. Neonatal calves are highly susceptible to enteric infections, one of the major causes of calf death, so approaches to improving gut health and overall calf health are needed. An increasing number of studies are exploring the microbial composition of the gut, the mucosal immune system, and early dietary interventions to improve the health of dairy calves, revealing possibilities for effectively reducing the susceptibility of calves to enteric infections while promoting growth...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491143/probiotic-engineering-towards-development-of-robust-probiotic-strains-with-enhanced-functional-properties-and-for-targeted-control-of-enteric-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Moloko Gloria Mathipa, Mapitsi Silvester Thantsha
There is a growing concern about the increase in human morbidity and mortality caused by foodborne pathogens. Antibiotics were and still are used as the first line of defense against these pathogens, but an increase in the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance has led to a need for alternative effective interventions. Probiotics are used as dietary supplements to promote gut health and for prevention or alleviation of enteric infections. They are currently used as generics, thus making them non-specific for different pathogens...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482065/use-of-bacillus-subtilis-pb6-as-a-potential-antibiotic-growth-promoter-replacement-in-improving-performance-of-broiler-birds
#4
Sathishkumar Jayaraman, Partha Pratim Das, Prakash Chandra Saini, Barun Roy, Paresh Nath Chatterjee
The intestinal gut health is one of the primary determinants of broiler growth and performance. Among the various enteric diseases, necrotic enteritis (NE) is an enterotoxemic disease caused by Clostridium perfringens, which can result in severe economic losses in poultry farming. Antibiotics like bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) and avilamycin (AVL) are commonly used antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in poultry feed to control necrotic enteritis in birds. Bacillus subtilis PB6 was reported to prevent necrotic enteritis and improve performance in birds...
May 6, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479217/physiological-and-psychological-effects-of-testosterone-during-severe-energy-deficit-and-recovery-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-for-optimizing-performance-for-soldiers-ops
#5
Stefan M Pasiakos, Claire E Berryman, J Philip Karl, Harris R Lieberman, Jeb S Orr, Lee M Margolis, John A Caldwell, Andrew J Young, Monty A Montano, William J Evans, Oshin Vartanian, Owen T Carmichael, Kishore M Gadde, Melissa Harris, Jennifer C Rood
BACKGROUND: The physiological consequences of severe energy deficit include hypogonadism and the loss of fat-free mass. Prolonged energy deficit also impacts physical performance, mood, attentiveness, and decision-making capabilities. This study will determine whether maintaining a eugonadal state during severe, sustained energy deficit attenuates physiological decrements and maintains mental performance. This study will also assess the effects of normalizing testosterone levels during severe energy deficit and recovery on gut health and appetite regulation...
May 4, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444343/lysolecithin-as-feed-additive-enhances-collagen-expression-and-villus-length-in-the-jejunum-of-broiler-chickens
#6
D L Brautigan, R Li, E Kubicka, S D Turner, J S Garcia, M L Weintraut, E A Wong
Adding lysolecithin to feed has reportedly improved the performance of broiler chickens. Lysolecithin is generated by phospholipase catalyzed hydrolysis of lecithin. The enzymatic reaction converts various phospholipids into the corresponding lysophospholipids, with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) one of the primary products. Here we compared supplementation with a commercial lysolecithin (Lysoforte®) with comparable levels of highly purified LPC for effects on broilers. Despite no differences in weight gain during the starter period, we discovered a significant increase in average villus length with lysolecithin and an increase in villus width with purified LPC...
April 24, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443068/evaluation-of-the-probiotic-strain-bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-infantis-cect-7210-capacities-to-improve-health-status-and-fight-digestive-pathogens-in-a-piglet-model
#7
Emili Barba-Vidal, Lorena Castillejos, Paola López-Colom, Montserrat Rivero Urgell, José A Moreno Muñoz, Susana M Martín-Orúe
Probiotics have been demonstrated to be useful to enhance gut health and prevent gastrointestinal infections. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the potential of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 (B. infantis IM1) to prevent and fight intestinal disease by using a Salmonella Typhimurium (Trial 1) or an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (Trial 2) oral challenge in a weaning piglet model. Seventy-two piglets were used in each trial. After an adaptation period, animals were orally challenged...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403547/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-with-a-probiotic-enterococcus-faecium-dsm-7134-on-growth-performance-nutrient-digestibility-and-gut-health-status-in-weaning-pigs
#8
R X Lan, I H Kim
BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been suggested as desirable antibiotic alternatives to pigs by improving gut health and growth performance. However, limited studies of the effectiveness of E. faecium in weaning pigs, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of E. faecium DSM 7134 supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant parameters, volatile fatty acids concentration, intestinal histomorphology, and diarrhea score in weaning pig. RESULTS: E...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402523/role-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-colonic-inflammation-carcinogenesis-and-mucosal-protection-and-healing
#9
Christina M van der Beek, Cornelis H C Dejong, Freddy J Troost, Ad A M Masclee, Kaatje Lenaerts
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate, produced by microbial fermentation of undigested food substances are believed to play a beneficial role in human gut health. Short-chain fatty acids influence colonic health through various mechanisms. In vitro and ex vivo studies show that SCFAs have anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects, play an important role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in colonocytes, and protect colonocytes from external harm. Animal studies have found substantial positive effects of SCFAs or dietary fiber on colonic disease, but convincing evidence in humans is lacking...
April 10, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383398/effect-of-probiotics-on-digestibility-and-immunity-in-infants-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lingli Xiao, Guodong Ding, Yifang Ding, Chaoming Deng, Xiaolei Ze, Liang Chen, Yao Zhang, Lihua Song, Hongli Yan, Fang Liu, Xiaoming Ben
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of a fetus in utero is sterile but it becomes colonized with environmental microorganisms shortly after birth. Since the gut microbiota undergoes substantial changes in early life, healthy gut microflora is essential to an infant's gut health and immune system and probably also has an effect on overall health status in later life. Probiotics, defined as viable microbial preparations that have a beneficial effect on the health of the host, represent a rapidly expanding field. Although randomized controlled trials using probiotics in infants have shown promising results in the prevention and treatment of common diseases such as diarrhea and allergy, little is known about whether probiotics could offer benefits to healthy infants...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361745/short-term-impact-of-a-classical-ketogenic-diet-on-gut-microbiota-in-glut1-deficiency-syndrome-a-3-month-prospective-observational-study
#11
Anna Tagliabue, Cinzia Ferraris, Francesca Uggeri, Claudia Trentani, Simona Bertoli, Valentina de Giorgis, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Marina Elli
BACKGROUND&AIMS: The classical ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, very low-carbohydrate normocaloric diet used for drug-resistant epilepsy and Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome (GLUT1 DS). In animal models, high fat diet induces large alterations in microbiota producing deleterious effects on gut health. We carried out a pilot study on patients treated with KD comparing their microbiota composition before and after three months on the diet. METHODS: Six patients affected by GLUT1 DS were asked to collect fecal samples before and after three months on the diet...
February 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344399/extraction-of-chitosan-and-its-oligomers-from-shrimp-shell-waste-their-characterization-and-antimicrobial-effect
#12
Tarun Kumar Varun, Swaraj Senani, Natasha Jayapal, Jayaram Chikkerur, Sohini Roy, Vijay Bhasker Tekulapally, Mayank Gautam, Narender Kumar
AIM: The present study was performed to utilize the shrimp shell waste for chitin and chitosan production, characterization by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) technique and to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of chitosan oligomers produced by depolymerization of chitosan by nitrous acid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chitosan was extracted from the shrimp shell waste by the chemical method and characterized by FT-IR. Chitooligomers were produced by depolymerising chitosan using nitrous acid, and the chitooligomers were tested for antimicrobial effect against four gut pathogenic organisms, i...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286649/protein-hydrolysates-in-animal-nutrition-industrial-production-bioactive-peptides-and-functional-significance
#13
REVIEW
Yongqing Hou, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Genhu Wang, Guoyao Wu
Recent years have witnessed growing interest in the role of peptides in animal nutrition. Chemical, enzymatic, or microbial hydrolysis of proteins in animal by-products or plant-source feedstuffs before feeding is an attractive means of generating high-quality small or large peptides that have both nutritional and physiological or regulatory functions in livestock, poultry and fish. These peptides may also be formed from ingested proteins in the gastrointestinal tract, but the types of resultant peptides can vary greatly with the physiological conditions of the animals and the composition of the diets...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276612/a-gut-reaction-the-combined-influence-of-exercise-and-diet-on-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-rats
#14
Romeo Batacan, Andrew Fenning, Vincent J Dalbo, Aaron T Scanlan, Mitch J Duncan, Robert J Moore, Dragana Stanley
AIMS: Intestinal microbiota modulates the development of clinical conditions, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Many of these conditions are influenced by nutritional and exercise behaviours. This study aimed to investigate the ability of exercise to re-shape the intestinal microbiota and the influence of the diet on the process. METHODS AND RESULTS: A rat model was used to examine the intestinal microbiota responses to four activity conditions, including: high intensity interval training, light intensity training, sedentary and normal control, each containing two nutritional conditions: high-fat high-fructose diet (HF) and standard chow (SC) diet...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245885/olive-oil-bioactive-compounds-increase-body-weight-and-improve-gut-health-and-integrity-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#15
Enric Gisbert, Karl B Andree, José C Quintela, Josep A Calduch-Giner, Ignacio R Ipharraguerre, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
An olive oil bioactive extract (OBE) rich in bioactive compounds like polyphenols, triterpenic acids, long-chain fatty alcohols, unsaturated hydrocarbons, tocopherols and sterols was tested (0, 0·08, 0·17, 0·42 and 0·73 % OBE) in diets fed to sea bream (Sparus aurata) (initial weight: 5·4 (sd 1·2) g) during a 90-d trial (four replicates). Fish fed diets containing 0·17 and 0·42 % OBE were 5 % heavier (61·1 (sd 1·6) and 60·3 (sd 1·1) g, respectively) than those of the control group (57·0 (sd 0·7) g), although feed conversion ratio and specific feed intake did not vary...
March 1, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240164/effects-of-dietary-mycotoxins-on-gut-microbiome
#16
Kexin Du, C Wang, Ping Liu, Yuan Li, Xi Ma
The harmful effects of mycotoxins on intestinal health have received worldwide attention. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, and include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids. Insuring the absence or low levels of mycotoxins is critical for food and feed safety. Currently, the studies in this field have illuminated the adverse effects of mycotoxins on gut health including intestinal integrity and the gut-associated immune system...
February 22, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240162/effects-of-dietary-non-fiber-carbohydrates-on-composition-and-function-of-gut-microbiome-in-monogastrics-a-review
#17
Hailong Jiang, Dongsheng Che, Guixin Qin, Xiangjie Kong, Mohammed Hamdy Farouk
Non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) have a crucial function on the gut health of monogastrics. This paper aims to review the relevant published materials on the influence of NFC's on the gut's microbial population and composition in monogastrics, and points out the areas of the required research. Total bacteria count and Lactobacillus sp. were decreased with an increase in composition of dietary NFC intake, as well as accompanied by a decrease in the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels. Consequently, some metabolites were affected by the accumulation of the bile acids, including molecules which control different gene expression levels, as regulators involved in glucose (FXR and TGR5) and fat metabolism (cholesterol)...
February 23, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240160/dietary-additive-probiotics-modulation-of-the-intestinal-microbiota
#18
Shenglan Hu, Li Wang, Zongyong Jiang
The importance of the intestinal microbiota of animals is widely acknowledged because of its vital role in the health of animals. There are complex communities of microbiota, which colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal microbiota are conductive to animal health and the development of the host immune system. Probiotics are commonly used dietary additives where they provide the host with many beneficial functions, such as modulating intestinal homeostasis and promoting gut health. These beneficial effects of probiotics may accrue from the inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth of beneficial flora in the gastrointestinal tract...
February 23, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239979/beyond-sodium-phosphate-and-potassium-potential-dietary-interventions-in-kidney-disease
#19
EDITORIAL
Jaimon T Kelly, Megan Rossi, David W Johnson, Katrina L Campbell
People with kidney disease are advised to restrict individual nutrients, such as sodium, potassium, and phosphate, in line with current best practice guidelines. However, there is limited evidence to support the efficacy of single nutrient strategies, and compliance remains a challenge for clinicians to overcome. Many factors contribute to poor compliance with dietary prescriptions, including conflicting priorities for single nutrient restriction, the arduous self-monitoring required, and the health-related knock-on effects resulting from targeting these nutrients in isolation...
May 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215168/contributions-of-the-interaction-between-dietary-protein-and-gut-microbiota-to-intestinal-health
#20
Ning Ma, Yanan Tian, Yi Wu, Xi Ma
There is growing recognition that composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota can be modulated by the dietary proteins which in turn impact health. The amino acid composition and digestibility of proteins, which are influenced by its source and amount of intake, play a pivotal role in determining the microbiota. Reciprocally, it appears that the gut microbiota is also able to affect protein metabolism which give rise to the view that function between the microbiota and protein can proceed in both directions...
February 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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