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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344399/extraction-of-chitosan-and-its-oligomers-from-shrimp-shell-waste-their-characterization-and-antimicrobial-effect
#1
Tarun Kumar Varun, Swaraj Senani, Natasha Jayapal, Jayaram Chikkerur, Sohini Roy, Vijay Bhasker Tekulapally, Mayank Gautam, Narender Kumar
AIM: The present study was performed to utilize the shrimp shell waste for chitin and chitosan production, characterization by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) technique and to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of chitosan oligomers produced by depolymerization of chitosan by nitrous acid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chitosan was extracted from the shrimp shell waste by the chemical method and characterized by FT-IR. Chitooligomers were produced by depolymerising chitosan using nitrous acid, and the chitooligomers were tested for antimicrobial effect against four gut pathogenic organisms, i...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286649/protein-hydrolysates-in-animal-nutrition-industrial-production-bioactive-peptides-and-functional-significance
#2
REVIEW
Yongqing Hou, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Genhu Wang, Guoyao Wu
Recent years have witnessed growing interest in the role of peptides in animal nutrition. Chemical, enzymatic, or microbial hydrolysis of proteins in animal by-products or plant-source feedstuffs before feeding is an attractive means of generating high-quality small or large peptides that have both nutritional and physiological or regulatory functions in livestock, poultry and fish. These peptides may also be formed from ingested proteins in the gastrointestinal tract, but the types of resultant peptides can vary greatly with the physiological conditions of the animals and the composition of the diets...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276612/a-gut-reaction-the-combined-influence-of-exercise-and-diet-on-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-rats
#3
Romeo Batacan, Andrew Fenning, Vincent J Dalbo, Aaron T Scanlan, Mitch J Duncan, Robert J Moore, Dragana Stanley
AIMS: Intestinal microbiota modulates the development of clinical conditions, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Many of these conditions are influenced by nutritional and exercise behaviours. This study aimed to investigate the ability of exercise to re-shape the intestinal microbiota and the influence of the diet on the process. METHODS AND RESULTS: A rat model was used to examine the intestinal microbiota responses to four activity conditions, including: high intensity interval training, light intensity training, sedentary and normal control, each containing two nutritional conditions: high-fat high-fructose diet (HF) and standard chow (SC) diet...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245885/olive-oil-bioactive-compounds-increase-body-weight-and-improve-gut-health-and-integrity-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#4
Enric Gisbert, Karl B Andree, José C Quintela, Josep A Calduch-Giner, Ignacio R Ipharraguerre, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
An olive oil bioactive extract (OBE) rich in bioactive compounds like polyphenols, triterpenic acids, long-chain fatty alcohols, unsaturated hydrocarbons, tocopherols and sterols was tested (0, 0·08, 0·17, 0·42 and 0·73 % OBE) in diets fed to sea bream (Sparus aurata) (initial weight: 5·4 (sd 1·2) g) during a 90-d trial (four replicates). Fish fed diets containing 0·17 and 0·42 % OBE were 5 % heavier (61·1 (sd 1·6) and 60·3 (sd 1·1) g, respectively) than those of the control group (57·0 (sd 0·7) g), although feed conversion ratio and specific feed intake did not vary...
March 1, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240164/effects-of-dietary-mycotoxins-on-gut-microbiome
#5
Kexin Du, C Wang, Ping Liu, Yuan Li, Xi Ma
The harmful effects of mycotoxins on intestinal health have received worldwide attention. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, and include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids. Insuring the absence or low levels of mycotoxins is critical for food and feed safety. Currently, the studies in this field have illuminated the adverse effects of mycotoxins on gut health including intestinal integrity and the gut-associated immune system...
February 22, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240162/effects-of-dietary-non-fiber-carbohydrates-on-composition-and-function-of-gut-microbiome-in-monogastrics-a-review
#6
Hailong Jiang, Dongsheng Che, Guixin Qin, Xiangjie Kong, Mohammed Hamdy Farouk
Non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) have a crucial function on the gut health of monogastrics. This paper aims to review the relevant published materials on the influence of NFC's on the gut's microbial population and composition in monogastrics, and points out the areas of the required research. Total bacteria count and Lactobacillus sp. were decreased with an increase in composition of dietary NFC intake, as well as accompanied by a decrease in the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels. Consequently, some metabolites were affected by the accumulation of the bile acids, including molecules which control different gene expression levels, as regulators involved in glucose (FXR and TGR5) and fat metabolism (cholesterol)...
February 23, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240160/dietary-additive-probiotics-modulation-of-the-intestinal-microbiota
#7
Shenglan Hu, Li Wang, Zongyong Jiang
The importance of the intestinal microbiota of animals is widely acknowledged because of its vital role in the health of animals. There are complex communities of microbiota, which colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal microbiota are conductive to animal health and the development of the host immune system. Probiotics are commonly used dietary additives where they provide the host with many beneficial functions, such as modulating intestinal homeostasis and promoting gut health. These beneficial effects of probiotics may accrue from the inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth of beneficial flora in the gastrointestinal tract...
February 23, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239979/beyond-sodium-phosphate-and-potassium-potential-dietary-interventions-in-kidney-disease
#8
EDITORIAL
Jaimon T Kelly, Megan Rossi, David W Johnson, Katrina L Campbell
People with kidney disease are advised to restrict individual nutrients, such as sodium, potassium, and phosphate, in line with current best practice guidelines. However, there is limited evidence to support the efficacy of single nutrient strategies, and compliance remains a challenge for clinicians to overcome. Many factors contribute to poor compliance with dietary prescriptions, including conflicting priorities for single nutrient restriction, the arduous self-monitoring required, and the health-related knock-on effects resulting from targeting these nutrients in isolation...
February 26, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215168/contributions-of-the-interaction-between-dietary-protein-and-gut-microbiota-to-intestinal-health
#9
Ning Ma, Yanan Tian, Yi Wu, Xi Ma
There is growing recognition that composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota can be modulated by the dietary proteins which in turn impact health. The amino acid composition and digestibility of proteins, which are influenced by its source and amount of intake, play a pivotal role in determining the microbiota. Reciprocally, it appears that the gut microbiota is also able to affect protein metabolism which give rise to the view that function between the microbiota and protein can proceed in both directions...
February 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192256/response-of-gut-health-and-microbiota-to-sulfide-exposure-in-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#10
Yantong Suo, Erchao Li, Tongyu Li, Yongyi Jia, Jian G Qin, Zhimin Gu, Liqiao Chen
Sulfide is a natural and widely distributed toxicant. It can be commonly found on the interface between water and sediment in the aquatic environment. The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei starts life in the benthic zone soon after the mysis stage, an early stage of post larvae. Therefore, L. vannamei is inevitably affected by exposure to sulfide released from pond sediment. This study explored the toxicant effect of different concentrations of sulfide on the intestinal health and microbiota of Pacific white shrimp by monitoring the change of expression of inflammatory, immune related cytokines, and the structure of the intestinal microbiota...
February 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191503/differences-in-gut-metabolites-and-microbial-composition-and-functions-between-egyptian-and-u-s-children-are-consistent-with-their-diets
#11
V Shankar, M Gouda, J Moncivaiz, A Gordon, N V Reo, L Hussein, O Paliy
Previous studies indicated that populations consuming a Mediterranean diet rich in fiber, vegetables, and fruits have a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than populations of industrialized societies consuming diets enriched in processed carbohydrates, animal proteins, and fats. To explore the potential contributions of gut microbiota to the observed diet-related metabolic effects, we conducted an integrative analysis of distal gut microbiota composition and functions and intestinal metabolites in Egyptian and U...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188477/probiotic-potential-of-a-lactobacillus-bacterium-of-canine-faecal-origin-and-its-impact-on-select-gut-health-indices-and-immune-response-of-dogs
#12
Sachin Kumar, Ashok Kumar Pattanaik, Shalini Sharma, Sunil Eknath Jadhav, Narayan Dutta, Avneesh Kumar
The objective of the present study was to develop a probiotic of canine-origin for its potential application in pet nutrition. Accordingly, 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from faeces of dogs, out of which 9 strains were short-listed for further in vitro testing based on the aggregation time and cell surface hydrophobicity. The results of acid-, bile- and phenol-tolerance tests indicated that out of the nine, isolate cPRO23 was having better resistance to these adverse conditions likely to be encountered in the gastrointestinal tract...
February 10, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174959/dop085-tight-nadph-oxidase-regulation-is-a-prerequisite-for-gut-health
#13
G Aviello, E Conroy, B Bourke, U G Knaus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174718/the-paneth-cell-a-guardian-of-gut-health
#14
EDITORIAL
Mark Manary
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161736/dietary-fibres-modulate-the-composition-and-activity-of-butyrate-producing-bacteria-in-the-large-intestine-of-suckling-piglets
#15
Chunlong Mu, Lingli Zhang, Xiangyu He, Hauke Smidt, Weiyun Zhu
Dietary fibres have been shown to affect early-life microbiota colonization in the large intestine of suckling piglets, however, much less is known as to whether they also modulate the composition and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary fibres on the abundance, composition, and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria in suckling piglets. Piglets were fed a control diet or creep feeds containing alfalfa, wheat bran, or pure cellulose, respectively, from postnatal day 7 to 22...
February 4, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132653/a-cafeteria-diet-triggers-intestinal-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-obese-rats
#16
K Gil-Cardoso, I Ginés, M Pinent, A Ardévol, X Terra, M Blay
The gastrointestinal alterations associated with the consumption of an obesogenic diet, such as inflammation, permeability impairment and oxidative stress, have been poorly explored in both diet-induced obesity (DIO) and genetic obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of an obesogenic diet on the gut health status of DIO rats in comparison with the Zucker (fa/fa) rat leptin receptor-deficient model of genetic obesity over time. For this purpose, female Wistar rats (n 48) were administered a standard or a cafeteria diet (CAF diet) for 12, 14·5 or 17 weeks and were compared with fa/fa Zucker rats fed a standard diet for 10 weeks...
January 30, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120474/effect-of-black-cumin-seeds-on-growth-performance-nutrient-utilisation-immunity-gut-health-and-nitrogen-excretion-by-broiler-chickens
#17
Pawan Kumar, Amlan Kumar Patra, Guru Prasad Mandal, Indranil Samanta, Saktipada Pradhan
BACKGROUND: Use of antibiotic growth promoters (AB) as feed additives in broiler chickens poses risky due to cross-resistance amongst pathogens and residues in tissues. The study aims to evaluate the supplementation of black cumin seed (BCS) as a natural growth promoter on nutrient utilisation, intestinal microbiota and morphology, immunity, anti-oxidant status, protein deposition in muscles, and nitrogen excretion by chickens. RESULTS: Broiler chickens were fed BCS at 0, 5, 10 and 20 g kg(-1) diet...
January 25, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111483/environmental-and-physiological-factors-shape-the-gut-microbiota-of-atlantic-salmon-parr-salmo-salar-l
#18
Carola E Dehler, Christopher J Secombes, Samuel A M Martin
Gut microbes are key players in host immune system priming, protection and development, as well as providing nutrients to the host that would be otherwise unavailable. Due to this importance, studies investigating the link between host and microbe are being initiated in farmed fish. The establishment, maintenance and subsequent changes of the intestinal microbiota are central to define fish physiology and nutrition in the future. In fish, unlike mammals, acquiring intestinal microbes is believed to occur around the time of first feeding mainly from the water surrounding them and their microbial composition over time is shaped therefore by their habitat...
January 20, 2017: Aquaculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065757/fats-for-thoughts-an-update-on-brain-fatty-acid-metabolism
#19
Adele Romano, Justyna Barbara Koczwara, Cristina Anna Gallelli, Daniele Vergara, Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Silvana Gaetani, Anna Maria Giudetti
Brain fatty acid (FA) metabolism deserves a close attention not only for its energetic aspects but also because FAs and their metabolites/derivatives are able to influence many neural functions, contributing to brain pathologies or representing potential targets for pharmacological and/or nutritional interventions. Glucose is the preferred energy substrate for the brain, whereas the role of FAs is more marginal. In conditions of decreased glucose supply, ketone bodies, mainly formed by FA oxidation, are the alternative main energy source...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065211/faecal-parameters-as-biomarkers-of-the-equine-hindgut-microbial-ecosystem-under-dietary-change
#20
P Grimm, C Philippeau, V Julliand
Faeces could be used for evaluating the balance of the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem, which would offer a practical method for assessing gut health and how this relates to disease. However, previous studies concluded that faeces microbial ecosystem was not representative of the proximal hindgut (caecum and ventral colon). This study aimed to evaluate if variations of the faecal microbial ecosystem were similar to those observed in the proximal hindgut. Six horses, fistulated in the caecum and right ventral (RV) colon, were subjected to a gradual change of diet, from a 100% hay (high fibre) diet (2...
January 9, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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