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"gut health"

T N Hustoft, T Hausken, S O Ystad, J Valeur, K Brokstad, J G Hatlebakk, G A Lied
BACKGROUND: A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) is increasingly recommended for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to investigate the effects of a blinded low-FODMAP vs high-fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) diet on symptoms, immune activation, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). METHODS: Twenty patients with diarrhea-predominant or mixed IBS were instructed to follow a low-FODMAP diet (LFD) throughout a 9-week study period...
October 16, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
J J Castro, A Gomez, B A White, H J Mangian, J R Loften, J K Drackley
Digestive disorders are common during the first few weeks of life of newborn calves. Prebiotics are nondigestible but fermentable oligosaccharides that modulate growth and activity of beneficial microbial populations, which can result in enhanced gut health and function. Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) have demonstrated such prebiotic potential. In this study, the effect of GOS supplementation on intestinal bacterial community composition and fermentation profiles; intestinal health, development, and function; and growth was evaluated in dairy calves fed for high rates of growth...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Wenjun Liu, Jiachao Zhang, Chunyan Wu, Shunfeng Cai, Weiqiang Huang, Jing Chen, Xiaoxia Xi, Zebin Liang, Qiangchuan Hou, Bing Zhou, Nan Qin, Heping Zhang
The human gut microbiota varies considerably among world populations due to a variety of factors including genetic background, diet, cultural habits and socioeconomic status. Here we characterized 110 healthy Mongolian adults gut microbiota by shotgun metagenomic sequencing and compared the intestinal microbiome among Mongolians, the Hans and European cohorts. The results showed that the taxonomic profile of intestinal microbiome among cohorts revealed the Actinobaceria and Bifidobacterium were the key microbes contributing to the differences among Mongolians, the Hans and Europeans at the phylum level and genus level, respectively...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stephanie L Schnorr, Harriet A Bachner
Over the past decade, research has shown that diet and gut health affects symptoms expressed in stress related disorders, depression, and anxiety through changes in the gut microbiota. Psycho-behavioral function and somatic health interaction have often been ignored in health care with resulting deficits in treatment quality and outcomes. While mental health care requires the professional training in counseling, psychotherapy and psychiatry, complimentary therapeutic strategies, such as attention to a nutritional and diverse diet and supplementation of probiotic foods, may be integrated alongside psychotherapy treatment models...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Gordon J McDougall, J William Allwood, Gema Pereira-Caro, Emma M Brown, Nigel Ternan, Susan Verrall, Derek Stewart, Roger Lawther, Gloria O'Connor, Ian Rowland, Alan Crozier, Chris I R Gill
Ileostomy studies provide a unique insight into the digestion of foods, allowing identification of physiologically relevant dietary phytochemicals and their metabolites that are important to gut health. We previously reported an increase of components, including novel triterpenoids, in ileal fluids of 11 ileostomates following consumption of raspberries using nontargeted LC-MS(n) techniques in combination with data deconvolution software. The current study focused on components that consistently decreased postsupplementation...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Michael H Kogut, Ryan J Arsenault
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Julian Trachsel, Darrell O Bayles, Torey Looft, Uri Y Levine, Heather K Allen
: Studying the host-associated butyrate-producing bacterial community is important because butyrate is essential for colonic homeostasis and gut health. Previous research has identified the butyryl-CoA:acetate transferase ( as a gene of primary importance for butyrate production in intestinal ecosystems; however, this gene family (but) remains poorly defined. We developed tools for the analysis of butyrate-producing bacteria based on twelve putative but genes identified in the genomes of nine butyrate-producing bacteria obtained from the swine intestinal tract...
September 9, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Gordon J McDougall, J William Allwood, Gema Pereira-Caro, Emma M Brown, Susan Verrall, Derek Stewart, Cheryl Latimer, Geoff McMullan, Roger Lawther, Gloria O'Connor, Ian Rowland, Alan Crozier, Chris I R Gill
SCOPE: Ileostomy studies provide a unique insight into digestion of food, allowing identification of physiologically relevant dietary phytochemicals and their metabolites important to gut health. We previously reported the consistent increase of components in ileal fluids of ileostomates after consumption of raspberries with use of non-targeted LC-MS(n) techniques and data deconvolution software highlighting two major unknown components (m/z 355 and 679). METHODS AND RESULTS: In-depth LC-MS(n) analyses suggested that the ileal m/z 355 components were p-coumaroyl glucarates...
September 10, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Trond M Kortner, Michael H Penn, Ingemar Bjӧrkhem, Kjell Måsøval, Åshild Krogdahl
BACKGROUND: The present study was undertaken to gain knowledge on the role of bile components and lecithin on development of aberrations in digestive functions which seemingly have increased in Atlantic salmon in parallel with the increased use of plant ingredients in fish feed. Post smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 77 days one of three basal diets: a high fish meal diet (HFM), a low fishmeal diet (LFM), or a diet with high protein soybean meal (HPS). Five additional diets were made from the LFM diet by supplementing with: purified taurocholate (1...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Mannanthendil Kumaran Asha, Debnath Debraj, Shekhar Dethe, Anirban Bhaskar, Nithyanantham Muruganantham, Mundkinajeddu Deepak
Flavonoid-rich extract prepared from Glycyrrhiza glabra has been found to be beneficial in patients with functional dyspepsia and was reported to possess some gut health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities. In the present study, the flavonoid-rich extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was evaluated for its compatibility with probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Streptococcus thermophilus), commercial probiotic drinks, and digestive enzymes (pancreatic α-amylase, α-glucosidase, phytase, xylanase, and pancreatic lipase)...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
F Yan, J J Dibner, C D Knight, M Vazquez-Anon
An experiment was conducted to characterize a gut health challenge model consisting of a diet containing rye, wheat, and feather meal and a mild mixed-species Eimeria challenge, and to evaluate the effect of carbohydrase and protease on growth performance and gut health of young broilers. The study included 4 treatments: negative control, carbohydrase alone, protease alone, and combination of carbohydrase and protease. Each test diet was fed to 18 battery pens of broilers with 8 male birds per pen from 0 to 22 d of age...
September 1, 2016: Poultry Science
Linghong Sun, Jiangyan Cao, Ying Liu, Junjie Wang, Panpan Guo, Zaigui Wang
A kind of bacteria secreting cellulase and showing probiotic attributes was isolated from the cecum of goose and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and named as B. amyloliquefaciens S1. In vitro assays, the enzymatic activity of the strain was determined by the reducing-sugar method, and the proper culture conditions of producing cellulase and some properties of the cellulase were investigated. The cultural mixture of the bacteria had a high cellulase activity of 1...
August 30, 2016: Animal Biotechnology
C Unterweger, A Kahler, G-F Gerlach, M Viehmann, A von Altrock, I Hennig-Pauka
A bacterial cocktail of living strains of Clostridium perfringens type A (CPA) without β2-toxin gene and non-pathogenic Escherichia coli was administered orally to newborn piglets before first colostrum intake and on 2 consecutive days on a farm with a high incidence of diarrhoea and antibiotic treatment in suckling piglets associated with E. coli and CPA. This clinical field study was driven by the hypothetic principle of competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria due to prior colonization of the gut mucosal surface by non-pathogenic strains of the same bacterial species with the aim of preventing disease...
August 30, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Mehrbod Estaki, Jason Pither, Peter Baumeister, Jonathan P Little, Sandeep K Gill, Sanjoy Ghosh, Zahra Ahmadi-Vand, Katelyn R Marsden, Deanna L Gibson
BACKGROUND: Reduced microbial diversity in human intestines has been implicated in various conditions such as diabetes, colorectal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. The role of physical fitness in the context of human intestinal microbiota is currently not known. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyze fecal microbiota of 39 healthy participants with similar age, BMI, and diets but with varying cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Fecal short-chain fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography...
2016: Microbiome
Karina Gajardo, Ana Rodiles, Trond M Kortner, Åshild Krogdahl, Anne Marie Bakke, Daniel L Merrifield, Henning Sørum
Gut health challenges, possibly related to alterations in gut microbiota, caused by plant ingredients in the diets, cause losses in Atlantic salmon production. To investigate the role of the microbiota for gut function and health, detailed characterization of the gut microbiota is needed. We present the first in-depth characterization of salmon gut microbiota based on high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene's V1-V2 region. Samples were taken from five intestinal compartments: digesta from proximal, mid and distal intestine and of mucosa from mid and distal intestine of 67...
2016: Scientific Reports
H Furbeyre, J van Milgen, T Mener, M Gloaguen, E Labussière
In pigs, digestive disorders associated with weaning lead to antibiotic use to maintain intestinal health. Microalgae have been studied in humans and rodents for their beneficial effects on health. The nutritional value of microalgae in animal diets has been assessed, but results were not conclusive. Dietary supplementation with microalgae as an alternative to antibiotic use was studied in two trials (72 piglets with initial BW=9.1±1.1 kg in trial 1 and 24 piglets with initial BW=9.1±0.9 kg in trial 2). All piglets were weaned at 28 days of age and then housed in individual cages...
July 25, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Mengfei Peng, Debabrata Biswas
As a major source of microbes and their numerous beneficial effects, the gut microflora/microbiome is intimately linked to human health and disease. The exclusion of enteric pathogens by these commensal microbes partially depends upon the production of bioactive compounds such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These key intestinal microbial byproducts are crucial to the maintenance of a healthy gut microbial community. Moreover, SCFAs and PUFAs play multiple critical roles in host defense and immunity, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidant activities, as well as out-competition of enteric bacterial pathogens...
July 20, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Anna Esparham, Randall G Evans, Leigh E Wagner, Jeanne A Drisko
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in children and is increasing in prevalence. There has also been a related increase in prescribing stimulant medication despite some controversy whether ADHD medication makes a lasting difference in school performance or achievement. Families who are apprehensive about side effects and with concerns for efficacy of medication pursue integrative medicine as an alternative or adjunct to pharmacologic and cognitive behavioral treatment approaches...
2014: Children
Ya-Ling Chen, Fang-Hsuean Liao, Shyh-Hsiang Lin, Yi-Wen Chien
We aimed to investigate the effect of enriched 3-prebiotic formula (including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides) on toddler gut health by measuring fecal microbiota. Our results revealed that the consumption of 3-prebiotic formula three times per day giving total intake of 1.8 g prebiotic ingredients significantly showed the increased number of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. colonies and the reduced populations of both C. perfringens and total anaerobic bacteria on the fecal bacterial flora in toddlers at 18~36 months...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Chao Ran, Lu Huang, Jun Hu, Philippe Tacon, Suxu He, Zhimin Li, Yibing Wang, Zhi Liu, Li Xu, Yalin Yang, Zhigang Zhou
In this study, the effects of baker's yeast as probiotics was evaluated in Nile tilapia reared at high density. Juvenile tilapia were distributed to tanks at high density (436 fish/m(3)) and fed with basal diet (CK) or diets supplemented with live (LY) or heat-inactivated yeast (HIY). Another group of fish reared at low density (218 fish/m(3)) and fed with basal diet was also included (LowCK). After 8 weeks of feeding, growth, feed utilization, gut microvilli morphology, digestive enzymes, and expressions of hsp70 and inflammation-related cytokines in the intestine were assessed...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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