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"gut health"

John-Peter Ganda Mall, Lina Östlund-Lagerström, Carl Mårten Lindqvist, Samal Algilani, Dara Rasoal, Dirk Repsilber, Robert J Brummer, Åsa V Keita, Ida Schoultz
BACKGROUND: Despite the substantial number of older adults suffering from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms little is known regarding the character of these complaints and whether they are associated with an altered intestinal barrier function and psychological distress. Our aim was to explore the relationship between self-reported gut health, intestinal permeability and psychological distress among older adults. METHODS: Three study populations were included: 1) older adults with GI symptoms (n = 24), 2) a group of older adults representing the general elderly population in Sweden (n = 22) and 3) senior orienteering athletes as a potential model of healthy ageing (n = 27)...
March 20, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Xiying Wu, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Yuheng Luo, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Jun He
OBJECTIVES: This study explored the effects of different fiber fractions on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal development in a porcine model. METHODS: Blood and tissue samples were collected from thirty-two weaned pigs fed with control diet (CON) or diet containing 5 % cellulose (CEL), xylan (XYL) or β-glucan (GLU). RESULTS: This reserch showed that GLU supplementation decreased the growth performance of pigs (P <0...
February 6, 2018: Nutrition
James Butcher, Sharon Unger, Jennifer Li, Nicole Bando, Guillaume Romain, Jane Francis, Walid Mottawea, David Mack, Alain Stintzi, Deborah L O'Connor
Background: Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; born weighing <1500 g) infant feeding with mother's own milk (mother's milk) is associated with numerous beneficial health outcomes. Several interventions, including the prophylactic use of probiotics, are being adopted to promote a gastrointestinal microbiota favorable to the gut health of VLBW infants. An improved understanding of the microbiota that results from mother's milk feeding would therefore facilitate progress in this field. Objective: A preplanned primary objective of this research was to characterize the development of the gut microbiota in exclusively mother's milk-fed VLBW infants and describe the reference taxonomic profile that results from mother's milk feeding...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Shenglin Fang, Zhao Zhuo, Xiaonan Yu, Haichao Wang, Jie Feng
The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of excess iron in a liquid iron preparation (especially on intestinal barrier function) and the possible etiology of side effects or diseases caused by the excess iron. In study 1, forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (4-5 wk old) were subjected to oral gavage with 1 ml vehicle (0.01 mol/L HCl) or 1 ml liquid iron preparation containing 8 mg, 16 mg or 24 mg of iron for 30 d. Iron status, oxidative stress, histology (H&E staining), ultrastructure (electron microscopy) and apoptosis (TUNEL assay) in the intestines and liver were assessed...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew, Sabran Mohd-Redzwan
The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis (diseases and death) in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins) toward gut health and gut microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yi Lyu, Lei Wu, Fang Wang, Xinchun Shen, Dingbo Lin
Dysbiosis, a broad spectrum of imbalance of the gut microbiota, may progress to microbiota dysfunction. Dysbiosis is linked to some human diseases, such as inflammation-related disorders and metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the pathogenesis of dysbiosis remain elusive. Recent findings suggest that the microbiome and gut immune responses, like immunoglobulin A production, play critical roles in the gut homeostasis and function, and the progression of dysbiosis. In the past two decades, much progress has been made in better understanding of production of immunoglobulin A and its association with commensal microbiota...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Joseph M Awika, Devin J Rose, Senay Simsek
Cereal grains and grain pulses are primary staples often consumed together, and contribute a major portion of daily human calorie and protein intake globally. Protective effects of consuming whole grain cereals and grain pulses against various inflammation-related chronic diseases are well documented. However, potential benefits of combined intake of whole cereals and pulses beyond their complementary amino acid nutrition is rarely considered in literature. There is ample evidence that key bioactive components of whole grain cereals and pulses are structurally different and thus may be optimized to provide synergistic/complementary health benefits...
March 13, 2018: Food & Function
Seungbum Kim, Ruby Goel, Ashok Kumar, Yanfei Qi, Gil Lobaton, Koji Hosaka, Mohammed Mohammed, Eileen M Handberg, Elaine M Richards, Carl J Pepine, Mohan K Raizada
Recent evidence indicates a link between gut pathology and microbiome with hypertension in animal models. However, whether this association exists in humans is unknown. Thus, our objectives in this study were to test the hypotheses that high blood pressure patients have distinct gut microbiomes and that gut epithelial barrier function markers and microbiome composition could predict systolic blood pressure. Fecal samples, analyzed by shotgun metagenomics, displayed taxonomic and functional changes, including altered butyrate production between patients with high blood pressure and reference subjects...
March 5, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
L Calamari, P Morera, P Bani, A Minuti, L Basiricò, A Vitali, U Bernabucci
High temperature influences rumen and gut health, passage rate, and diet digestibility, with effects on fermentative processes. The main aim of the study was to investigate the effect of hot season on hindgut fermentation, the occurrence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores in bovine feces, and on their relationship with metabolic conditions in dairy cows producing milk used for Grana Padano cheese. The study was carried out on 7 dairy farms located in the Po Valley (Italy), involving 1,950 Italian Friesian dairy cows...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Sophia E Agapova, Kevin B Stephenson, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Background: Chronic malnutrition, as manifested by linear growth faltering, is pervasive among rural African children. Improvements in complementary feeding may decrease the burden of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and thus improve growth in children during the critical first 1000 d of development. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that systematically including common bean or cowpea into complementary feeding would reduce EED and growth faltering among children in rural Malawi...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Ricardo Mitsuo Hayashi, Mariana Camargo Lourenço, Antônio Leonardo Kraieski, Raquel Bighetti Araujo, Ricardo Gonzalez-Esquerra, Eduardo Leonardecz, Anderson Ferreira da Cunha, Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle, Paulo Sérgio Monzani, Elizabeth Santin
Salmonellosis is a poultry industry and public health concern worldwide. Recently, Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (SH) has been reported in broilers in Brazil. The effect of feeding a blend of three strains of Bacillus subtilis (PRO) was studied in broilers orally challenged (107 CFU/chick) or not with a SH isolated in south of Brazil (UFPR1 strain). Twelve male Cobb 500 broilers per pen were randomly assigned to six treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial experiment where PRO was added at 0, 250, or 500 g/ton of broiler feed and fed to either SH-challenged (SH Control, SH + PRO 250, and SH + PRO 500) or non-challenged birds (Control, PRO 250, and PRO 500)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Danielle Barnes, Katharine Ng, Sam Smits, Justin Sonnenburg, Zain Kassam, K T Park
In this prospective cohort study, we examine the feasibility of a protocol to optimize microbiota for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Donor stool metrics generally accepted as markers of gut health were used to select a stool donor based on superior microbial diversity, balanced constitution of Bacteroidetes versus Firmicutes and high concentration of fecal butyrate. Selected donor microbiota was then administered via FMT. A total of 10 patients with median age of 12 years with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) received the intervention...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Guangping Huang, Xiangqing Li, Dan Lu, Shen Liu, Xun Suo, Qiuyan Li, Ning Li
Diarrhea remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally, with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) constituting a major causative pathogen. The development of alternative treatments for diarrhea that do not involve chemotherapeutic drugs or result in antibiotic resistance is critical. Considering that lysozyme is a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide, in a previous study we developed a transgenic pig line that expresses recombinant human lysozyme (hLZ) in its milk. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of the consumption of this milk against ETEC infection in neonatal piglets...
February 20, 2018: Veterinary Research
Md Shamim Ahasan, Thomas B Waltzek, Roger Huerlimann, Ellen Ariel
Stranded green turtles (Chelonia mydas) are often cared for in rehabilitation centers until they recover. Although the specific causal agents of diseases in stranded turtles are difficult to diagnose, we know that gut microbiota of green turtles play a vital role in health as well as a wide range of diseases. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the gut bacterial communities between pre-hospitalization (PH) and post-rehabilitation (PR) stranded green turtles using high-throughput sequencing analysis targeting V1-V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Michael Radke, Jean-Charles Picaud, Andrea Loui, Gilles Cambonie, Dirk Faas, Harry N Lafeber, Nanda de Groot, Sophie S Pecquet, Philippe G Steenhout, Jean-Michel Hascoet
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/pr.2016.270.
January 2018: Pediatric Research
Natalie G Exum, Gwenyth O Lee, Maribel Paredes Olórtegui, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Mery Siguas Salas, Dixner Rengifo Trigoso, Josh Colston, Kellogg J Schwab, Benjamin J J McCormick, Margaret N Kosek
Poor child gut health, resulting from a lack of access to an improved toilet or clean water, has been proposed as a biological mechanism underlying child stunting and oral vaccine failure. Characteristics related to household sanitation, water use, and hygiene were measured among a birth cohort of 270 children from peri-urban Iquitos Peru. These children had monthly stool samples and urine samples at four time points and serum samples at (2-4) time points analyzed for biomarkers related to intestinal inflammation and permeability...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Simon Valès, Melissa Touvron, Laurianne Van Landeghem
Glial cells of the enteric nervous system correspond to a unique glial lineage distinct from other central and peripheral glia, and form a vast and abundant network spreading throughout all the layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Research over the last two decades has demonstrated that enteric glia regulates all major gastrointestinal functions via multiple bi-directional crosstalk with enteric neurons and other neighboring cell types. Recent studies propose that enteric glia represents a heterogeneous population associated with distinct localization within the gut wall, phenotype and activity...
February 7, 2018: Brain Research
Ligen Chen, Wei Xu, Dan Chen, Guijie Chen, Junwei Liu, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Rong Shao, Hongjun Zhu
Sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae exhibit various bioactivities with potential benefits for human health and well-being. In this study, the in vitro digestibility and fermentability of polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (AnPs) were examined, and the effects of AnPs on gut microbiota were determined using high-throughput sequencing technology. Salivary amylase, artificial gastric juice, and intestinal juice had no effect on AnPs, but the molecular weight of AnPs and reducing sugar decreased significantly after fermentation by gut microbiota...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Christopher C L Chase
In this article, key concepts important for enteric immunity are discussed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest immune organ of the body. The mucosal barrier, the tight junctions and the "kill zone," along with the gut mucosa and maintaining an "anti-inflammatory" state are essential for "good gut health." The microbiome, the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract, which has more cells then the entire animal's body, is essential for immune development, immune response, and maximizing ruminant productivity...
March 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Yuanyuan Wu, Yujing Shao, Bochen Song, Wenrui Zhen, Zhong Wang, Yuming Guo, Muhammad Suhaib Shahid, Wei Nie
Background: The poultry industry is in need of effective antibiotic alternatives to control outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens. Methods: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding Bacillus coagulans on the growth performance and gut health of broiler chickens with C. perfringens-induced NE. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two dietary B...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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