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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331526/valerate-production-by-megasphaera-elsdenii-isolated-from-pig-feces
#1
Shota Yoshikawa, Ryosuke Araoka, Yu Kajihara, Toshiyuki Ito, Hirokuni Miyamoto, Hiroaki Kodama
Megasphaera elsdenii is able to produce several short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate. These SCFAs serve as an energy source for host animals and play an important role in gut health. In this study, M. elsdenii was isolated from pig feces that had been collected from two farms located in distinct areas of Japan. These M. elsdenii isolates were genotyped, and 7 representative strains were selected. When these 7 strains and M. elsdenii JCM 1772T were cultured with lactate for 24 h, all 7 strains produced valerate as a predominant SCFA...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312822/effect-of-dark-sweet-cherry-powder-consumption-on-the-gut-microbiota-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-biomarkers-of-gut-health-in-obese-db-db-mice
#2
Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Nara N Lage, Susanne Mertens-Talcott, Stephen Talcott, Boon Chew, Scot E Dowd, Jorge R Kawas, Giuliana D Noratto
Cherries are fruits containing fiber and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenolics) with the potential of helping patients with diabetes and weight disorders, a phenomenon likely related to changes in the complex host-microbiota milieu. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cherry supplementation on the gut bacterial composition, concentrations of caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and biomarkers of gut health using an in vivo model of obesity. Obese diabetic (db/db) mice received a supplemented diet with 10% cherry powder (supplemented mice, n = 12) for 12 weeks; obese (n = 10) and lean (n = 10) mice served as controls and received a standard diet without cherry...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291524/environmental-concentrations-of-antibiotics-impair-zebrafish-gut-health
#3
Li Zhou, Samwel Mchele Limbu, Meilin Shen, Wanying Zhai, Fang Qiao, Anyuan He, Zhen-Yu Du, Meiling Zhang
Antibiotics have been widely used in human and veterinary medicine to both treat and prevent disease. Due to their high water solubility and low bioavailability, many antibiotic residues have been found in aquatic environments. Fish are an indispensable link between the environmental pollution and human health. However, the chronic effects of environmental concentrations of antibiotics in fish have not been thoroughly investigated. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and oxytetracycline (OTC) are frequently detected in aquatic environments...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283050/antibiotics-associated-disorders-and-postbiotics-induced-rescue-in-gut-health
#4
Debarati Paul, Sounik Manna, Santi M Mandal
The gut microbiota plays significant roles in the human body during all spheres' of life and influences innate immunity, promotes granulocyte signaling and provides resistance during pathogenic colonization of the gut; crucial for a healthy life. Antibiotics directly affect the gut microbiota that consequently alter the basic biological processes, and imposes severe consequences in population falling under different age groups. In this article, we have assessed the differences in microbial colonization and immune function of the intestinal tract in infants, adults, and the aged people and also have examined the recent reports describing the impacts of antibiotics on infant microbiome assembly and functioning...
December 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250719/selenium-nanoparticles-in-poultry-feed-modify-gut-microbiota-and-increase-abundance-of-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii
#5
Sheeana Gangadoo, Ivan Dinev, James Chapman, Robert J Hughes, Thi Thu Hao Van, Robert J Moore, Dragana Stanley
The poultry industry aims to improve productivity while maintaining the health and welfare of flocks. Pathogen control has been achieved through biosecurity, vaccinations and the use of antibiotics. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistance, in animal and human pathogens, has prompted researchers and chicken growers alike to seek alternative approaches. The use of new and emerging approaches to combat pathogen activity including nanotechnology, in particular, silver nanoparticles (NPs), has been found to not only eradicate pathogenic bacteria but also include issues of toxicity and bioaccumulation effects...
December 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244718/prebiotic-dietary-fiber-and-gut-health-comparing-the-in-vitro-fermentations-of-beta-glucan-inulin-and-xylooligosaccharide
#6
Justin L Carlson, Jennifer M Erickson, Julie M Hess, Trevor J Gould, Joanne L Slavin
Prebiotic dietary fiber supplements are commonly consumed to help meet fiber recommendations and improve gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), molecules beneficial to host health. The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of five commonly consumed fibers using an in vitro fermentation system measuring changes in fecal microbiota, total gas production and formation of common SCFAs...
December 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235693/porcine-intestinal-yeast-species-kazachstania-slooffiae-a-new-potential-protein-source-with-favourable-amino-acid-composition-for-animals
#7
V Urubschurov, K Büsing, W-B Souffrant, N Schauer, A Zeyner
There is little information about Kazachstania slooffiae which dominates among other yeasts in the pigs' intestine. Therefore, the aims of this study were to characterise the yeast cell contents and to investigate which nitrogen sources, organic acids and alcohols may be utilised or produced by this species. The results showed that, K. slooffiae could use urea, ammonium sulphate, peptides and single amino acids and produce thereby ethanol and formic acid. However, this yeast did not metabolise amino acids, lactic, butyric, propionic and acetic acids as sole carbon source...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211897/effect-of-yeast-cell-wall-on-the-growth-performance-and-gut-health-of-broilers-challenged-with-aflatoxin-b1-and-necrotic-enteritis
#8
N Liu, J Q Wang, S C Jia, Y K Chen, J P Wang
This study aimed to investigate the effect of yeast cell walls (YCW) on the growth performance, visceral lesions, intestinal integrity, enterotoxicity, and bacteria of broilers challenged with aflatoxin B1 (AF) and necrotic enteritis (NE) from 1 to 21 d of age. A total of 576 one-day-old broilers were assigned to a 2 × 2 × 2 design for diets containing AFB1 (0 or 40 μg/kg), NE (challenged or unchallenged), or YCW (0 or 500 mg/kg). The main effect analysis showed that AF depressed (P < 0.01) average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily body weight gain (ADG), the mRNA profiles of polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), claudin-1, and occludin, but increased (P < 0...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205651/gut-microbiota-in-early-life-and-its-influence-on-health-and-disease-a-position-paper-by-the-malaysian-working-group-on-gastrointestinal-health
#9
Yeong Yeh Lee, Siti Asma Hassan, Intan Hakimah Ismail, Sze Yee Chong, Raja Affendi Raja Ali, Syafinaz Amin Nordin, Way Seah Lee, Noorizan Abdul Majid
The role of gut microbiota in early life and its impact on gut health and subsequent diseases remain unclear. There is a lack of research and awareness in this area, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, including Malaysia. This paper reports the position of a Malaysian Working Group on some key issues surrounding gut microbiota in early life and its role in gut health and diseases, as well as experts' stand on probiotics and prebiotics. The group reached a consensus that certain factors, including elective caesarean; premature deliveries; complementary feeding; use of antibiotics, prebiotics and/or probiotics; and exposure to the external environmental, have an impact on gut microbiota in early life...
December 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203935/viral-enteritis-in-calves
#10
REVIEW
Diego E Gomez, J Scott Weese
A complex community of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, and other microorganisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of calves and play important roles in gut health and disease. The viral component of the microbiome (the virome) is receiving increasing attention for its role in neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD). Rotavirus and coronavirus have for a long time been associated with NCD and commercial vaccines have been produced against these agents. Recently, several other viruses which may play a role in diarrhea have been discovered in calf fecal samples, mostly by sequence-based methods...
December 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192351/the-implication-of-probiotics-in-the-prevention-of-dental-caries
#11
REVIEW
Tzu-Hsing Lin, Chih-Hui Lin, Tzu-Ming Pan
The current oral health crisis, whose causes are varied and complex, necessitates timely oral evaluation and early detection and treatment of oral health problems. Dramatic changes in eating habits and lifestyles are associated with the recent decline in oral health. Probiotics are "good" bacteria that support digestion and a healthy immune system and offer various health benefits to the host. Traditionally, probiotics have been used to improve gut health; the most common uses have historically been as a treatment or prevention of gastrointestinal infections and disease...
November 30, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190927/dietary-apple-pectic-oligosaccharide-improves-gut-barrier-function-of-rotavirus-challenged-weaned-pigs-by-increasing-antioxidant-capacity-of-enterocytes
#12
Xiangbing Mao, Xiangjun Xiao, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Jun He, Hao Chen, Xuechun Xiao, Junqiu Luo, Yuheng Luo, Gang Tian, Jianping Wang
Rotavirus can lead to decreasing gut barrier function and diarrhea of children and young animals. Apple pectic oligosaccharide treatment reduced diarrhea in rotavirus-infected piglets. This study was conducted to explore whether apple pectic oligosaccharide administration could protect gut barrier function of piglets against rotavirus infection. A total of 28 crossbred weaned barrows were allotted into 2 treatments fed the diets supplementing 0 and 200 mg/kg apple pectic oligosaccharide. Half of pigs in each diet treatment were challenged by rotavirus on d 15...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183813/reduced-glutathione-supplementation-in-practical-diet-improves-the-growth-anti-oxidative-capacity-disease-resistance-and-gut-morphology-of-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#13
Xiaoxia Wang, Wei Xu, Huihui Zhou, Yanjiao Zhang, Weihua Gao, Wenbing Zhang, Kangsen Mai
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of reduced glutathione (GSH) supplementation in practical diet on growth performance, anti-oxidative response, disease resistance and intestine morphology of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Two control diets based on the commercial formulation were designed with high level (27%) and low level (22%) of fish meal, respectively. Based on the control diet with low level of fish meal, 75, 150 and 225 mg/kg of GSH were added, respectively, to make the other three experimental diets...
November 25, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182580/genes-and-gut-bacteria-involved-in-luminal-butyrate-reduction-caused-by-diet-and-loperamide
#14
Nakwon Hwang, Taekil Eom, Sachin K Gupta, Seong-Yeop Jeong, Do-Youn Jeong, Yong Sung Kim, Ji-Hoon Lee, Michael J Sadowsky, Tatsuya Unno
Unbalanced dietary habits and gut dysmotility are causative factors in metabolic and functional gut disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and constipation. Reduction in luminal butyrate synthesis is known to be associated with gut dysbioses, and studies have suggested that restoring butyrate formation in the colon may improve gut health. In contrast, shifts in different types of gut microbiota may inhibit luminal butyrate synthesis, requiring different treatments to restore colonic bacterial butyrate synthesis...
November 28, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152242/comparative-assessment-of-canine-origin-lactobacillus-johnsonii-cpn23-and-dairy-origin-lactobacillus-acidophillus-ncdc-15-for-nutrient-digestibility-faecal-fermentative-metabolites-and-selected-gut-health-indices-in-dogs
#15
Sachin Kumar, Ashok K Pattanaik, Shalini Sharma, Reema Gupta, Sunil E Jadhav, Narayan Dutta
The present experiment was undertaken to validate a probiotic of canine origin for its potential use in dogs. A total of fifteen adult female Labrador dogs were allocated to three equal groups and fed a basal diet without probiotic (control) or with probiotic of either canine (Lactobacillus johnsonii CPN23; cPRO) or dairy (L. acidophilus NCDC 15; dPRO) origin for 9 weeks. The digestibility of most macronutrients remained similar among the groups; however, fibre digestibility was improved (P = 0·034) in dogs receiving cPRO...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152240/nutrient-digestibility-hindgut-metabolites-and-antioxidant-status-of-dogs-supplemented-with-pomegranate-peel-extract
#16
Tony Jose, Ashok K Pattanaik, Sunil E Jadhav, Narayan Dutta, Shalini Sharma
The present study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of pomegranate peel (methanolic) extract (PPE) on the nutrient digestibility, faecal fermentative metabolites and antioxidant status of dogs. Six medium-sized dogs of mixed breeds were allocated to two groups in a replicated cross-over design and fed a basal diet with and without supplementation of PPE at 50 mg/kg body weight. Each of the experimental periods consisted of 30 d, with a 21 d washout period in between. Results indicated that PPE supplementation led to no significant changes in nutrient digestibility except a trend of improvement (P = 0·070) in crude fibre digestibility...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141637/molecules-produced-by-probiotics-prevent-enteric-colibacillosis-in-pigs
#17
Ricardo Nordeste, Akalate Tessema, Sapana Sharma, Zlatko Kovač, Chuan Wang, Rocio Morales, Mansel William Griffiths
BACKGROUND: With the advent of antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens, novel methods to combat infectious diseases are being sought. Among these, probiotics have been proposed as a means of promoting animal health but problems with their use has been reported. Research has demonstrated that bioactive molecules produced during the growth of certain probiotics interfere with bacterial cell-to-cell communication, which consequently results in an attenuation of virulence in a number of pathogens, including E...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125621/phenolic-composition-and-evaluation-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-free-and-bound-phenolic-fractions-from-a-peruvian-purple-corn-zea-mays-l-accession
#18
Lena Gálvez Ranilla, Ashish Christopher, Dipayan Sarkar, Kalidas Shetty, Rosana Chirinos, David Campos
Beneficial effects on overall gut health by phenolic bioactives-rich foods are potentially due to their modulation of probiotic gut bacteria and antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. Based on this rationale, the effect of the free and bound phenolic fractions from a Peruvian purple corn accession AREQ-084 on probiotic lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum and the gastric cancer-related pathogen Helicobacter pylori was evaluated. The free and bound phenolic composition was also determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120790/digestion-under-saliva-simulated-gastric-and-small-intestinal-conditions-and-fermentation-in-vitro-by-human-intestinal-microbiota-of-polysaccharides-from-fuzhuan-brick-tea
#19
Guijie Chen, Minhao Xie, Peng Wan, Dan Chen, Hong Ye, Ligen Chen, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Zhonghua Liu
The aim of present study was to examine whether the digestivesystem (saliva, simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions) could break down and large intestinal microbiota could utilize the polysaccharides from Fuzhuan brick tea (FBTPS). The results showed that there was no change in molecular weight, monosaccharide content and content of reducing sugars before and after saliva, simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion, indicating that FBTPS could pass through the digestive system without being broken down and reach the large intestine safely...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118977/mycotoxin-binder-improves-growth-rate-in-piglets-associated-with-reduction-of-toll-like-receptor-4-and-increase-of-tight-junction-protein-gene-expression-in-gut-mucosa
#20
Linghong Jin, Wei Wang, Jeroen Degroote, Noémie Van Noten, Honglin Yan, Maryam Majdeddin, Mario Van Poucke, Luc Peelman, Anne Goderis, Kurt Van De Mierop, Ronny Mombaerts, Stefaan De Smet, Joris Michiels
Background: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species in the field, commonly found in cereal grains, which negatively affects performances and health of animals. Mycotoxin binders are supposed to reduce the toxicity of mycotoxins. Method: The effect of a mycotoxin binder (containing acid-activated bentonite, clinoptilolite, yeast cell walls and organic acids) on growth performance and gut health was studied. Hundred and twenty weaning piglets were allocated to 4 treatments, with 5 pens of 6 piglets each, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design: control diet; control diet with 1 kg/t binder; control diet with DON; and control diet with DON and 1 kg/t binder...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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